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Today: 20 October 2020, Tuesday.

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#1

 

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Ozioma Egemasi says Nigerian police slapped, whipped and struck him with the butt of a pistol when he refused to pay them a bribe. Then he heard them discuss whether to kill him.

#Social & Corporation affairs
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 20 October 2020

#2

 

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As more and more people work from home and at times have no control over jarring sounds in the background, Microsoft is set to release a new Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based noise suppression tool in its video conferencing app Teams.

#Artificial Intelligence
Field # Artificial Intelligence
Updated 20 October 2020

#3

 

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IBM CEO lays out transformation plan fueled by ramping investments in hybrid cloud amid divestiture from GTS consulting business

#Social & Corporation affairs
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 20 October 2020

#4

 

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This focus review describes the status quo of synthetic routes to cyclic compounds and cyclic polymers via spontaneous cyclization processes using (1) rotaxane chemistry and (2) dynamic covalent chemistry. Systems with rotaxane-based structures undergo spontaneous and selective cyclization of two self-complementary molecules and a macromolecular rotaxane switch, where the relative position of each component can be controlled, which results in a topology change from linear to cyclic. Systems based on dynamic covalent chemistry use exchange reactions of bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)disulfide (BiTEMPS) units that behave as stable linkages at r.t. and exchange disulfide bonds upon heating. Controlling the dynamic nature of BiTEMPS-based low-molecular-weight compounds and polymers thus provides cyclic topologies via spontaneous and selective cyclization processes. This focus review describes the synthetic routes to cyclic compounds and cyclic polymers via spontaneously occurring cyclization processes using (1) rotaxane chemistry and (2) dynamic covalent chemistry. Systems with rotaxane-based structures proceed via the spontaneous and selective cyclization of two self-complementary molecules and a macromolecular rotaxane switch, which results in a topology change from linear to cyclic. Systems based on dynamic covalent chemistry use exchange reactions of bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)disulfide (BiTEMPS) units. Controlling the dynamic nature of BiTEMPS-based molecules provides cyclic topologies via spontaneously and selectively occurring cyclization processes.

#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 19 October 2020

#5

 

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The Hainan gibbon faces high extinction rates, and conservationists want to reverse the trend.

#Construction
Field # Construction
Updated 19 October 2020

#6

 

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Thouless charge pumping protocols provide a route for one-dimensional systems to realize topological transport. Here, using arrays of evanescently coupled optical waveguides, we experimentally demonstrate bulk Thouless pumping in the presence of disorder. The degree of pumping is quite tolerant to significant deviations from adiabaticity as well as the addition of system disorder until the disorder is sufficiently strong to reduce the bulk mobility gap of the system to be on the scale of the modulation frequency of the system. Moreover, we show that this approach realizes near-full-unit-cell transport per pump cycle for a physically relevant class of localized initial system excitations. Thus, temporally pumped systems can potentially be used as a design principle for a new class of modulated slow-light devices that are resistant to system disorder. Research into the effect of temporally-modulated pumping in coupled optical waveguides may aid the design of future on-chip slow light devices. The result could be designs which are more robust against disorder and fabrication imperfections. Alexander Cerjan and coworkers from Pennsylvania State University and the University of Pittsburgh in the USA studied adiabatic pumping, also known as Thouless pumping, in a one-dimensional array of laser-written evanescently-coupled waveguides in borosilicate glass. Nearly quantized topological transport of light was observed, even in the presence of disorder which was introduced by a variation in the spacing between neighboring waveguides. The adiabatic pumping was achieved by dynamically modulating the refractive index of the waveguide array (where temporal modulation was mapped to spatial variations). Future research will explore the connection between Thouless pumping and dynamical quantum ratchets.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 October 2020

#7

 

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The plug-and-play Marseille mClassic works with other game consoles as well.

#Hardware & Devices;#Entertainments
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#8

 

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The Hofstadter model, well known for its fractal butterfly spectrum, describes two-dimensional electrons under a perpendicular magnetic field, which gives rise to the integer quantum Hall effect. Inspired by the real-space building blocks of non-Abelian gauge fields from a recent experiment, we introduce and theoretically study two non-Abelian generalizations of the Hofstadter model. Each model describes two pairs of Hofstadter butterflies that are spin–orbit coupled. In contrast to the original Hofstadter model that can be equivalently studied in the Landau and symmetric gauges, the corresponding non-Abelian generalizations exhibit distinct spectra due to the non-commutativity of the gauge fields. We derive the genuine (necessary and sufficient) non-Abelian condition for the two models from the commutativity of their arbitrary loop operators. At zero energy, the models are gapless and host Weyl and Dirac points protected by internal and crystalline symmetries. Double (8-fold), triple (12-fold), and quadrupole (16-fold) Dirac points also emerge, especially under equal hopping phases of the non-Abelian potentials. At other fillings, the gapped phases of the models give rise to topological insulators. We conclude by discussing possible schemes for experimental realization of the models on photonic platforms. Modeling the spectral properties of spin-orbit coupled crystals in a magnetic field could lead to new topological phases in matter and lay the foundations for new photonic systems. Synthetic non-Abelian gauge fields have emerged as a new way for studying the topological phases of matter, providing new insights in optics and photonics. However, synthesizing non-Abelian gauge fields has proved very challenging. Now, Yi Yang and colleagues at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in collaboration with a researcher from the University of Pennsylvania, have studied two non-Abelian generalisations of the Hofstadter model, which describes the behaviour of two-dimensional non-interacting electrons in a non-Abelian magnetic field. They proved the genuine non-Abelian conditions and analyze the topological properties of the models. The work could lead to a new way of manipulating light in photonic devices.

#Astronautics
Field # Astronautics
Updated 19 October 2020

#9

 

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The new iPhones will come with a contactless system for charging and other uses.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#10

 

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Google said that it had managed to “absorbed a 2.5 Tbps DDoS in September 2017”. This attack was part of a six-month campaign that used multiple methods.

#Social & Corporation affairs
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 19 October 2020

#11

 

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Pointy-eared kitty sprawls for 121 feet across a hillside in the Nazca desert.

#Archaeology & History
Field # Archaeology & History
Updated 19 October 2020

#12

 

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Today’s quiz comprises seven questions that a participant must answer correctly to become eligible for the prizes.

#Entertainments
Field # Entertainments
Updated 19 October 2020

#13

 

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Get books delivered to your doorstep to keep your kids occupied and off screens.

#Social & Corporation affairs;#Education
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 19 October 2020

#14

 

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If you go to Settings of any new Android phone from a known brand and just type ‘Facebook’ in the search box under Settings, three apps will pop out: Facebook Services, Facebook App Manager and Facebook App Installer.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#15

 

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Remember the NotPetya wiper that caused billions in losses or Ukraine power grid attacks?

#Social & Corporation affairs
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 19 October 2020

#16

 

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Amazon quiz starts daily at 8am and continues till 12pm.

#Entertainments
Field # Entertainments
Updated 19 October 2020

#17

 

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Plus more on the system's massive chassis, liquid gallium thermal solution.

#Entertainments;#Games
Field # Entertainments
Updated 19 October 2020

#18

 

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With its next smartwatch, Xiaomi is set to introduce a new feature that will allow users to track and measure blood oxygen levels, according to a report by GizmoChina. As per the report, Xiaomi has revealed that its next smartwatch is also going to offer the SpO2 sensor. The report claims that a teaser poster for the next Xiaomi watch was shared by the Xiaomi Smart Life Weibo account.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#19

 

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TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 October 2020

#20

 

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TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#21

 

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Records suggest that bacterial pneumonia along with influenza killed most victims and indicate that governments ought to stock up on antibiotics

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#22

 

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TBD

#Astronautics
Field # Astronautics
Updated 19 October 2020

#23

 

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A decontamination robot funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and designed by several local universities was recently tested in Richmond Va. The robot—initially designed for shipboard firefighting and maintenance ...

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#24

 

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TBD

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#25

 

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Facebook on Monday unveiled software based on machine learning which the company said was the first to be able to translate from any of 100 languages without relying on English.

#Artificial Intelligence
Field # Artificial Intelligence
Updated 19 October 2020

#26

 

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The Royal Meteorological Society has announced the winners of 2020's Weather Photographer of the Year, providing some beautifully stunning images of nature.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 October 2020

#27

 

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Fake reviews on Amazon.com Inc. during the pandemic have reached levels typically seen during the holiday shopping season.

#Social & Corporation affairs
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 19 October 2020

#28

 

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Twitter on Sunday removed a ‘misleading’ tweet by US President Donald Trump’s adviser, Dr. Scott Atlas, saying that it violated its misleading information policy on COVID-19, which targets statements that have been confirmed to be false or misleading by subject-matter experts.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#29

 

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Huawei has reportedly slipped into second position in August with 16 percent market share, a significant decline from April when it enjoyed a market share of 21 percent. Xiaomi is seeing a steady increase and it has 11 percent of the global smartphone market share as of August 2020.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#30

 

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(Inside Science) -- When Samuel Acheampong was young, he helped his mother on their family farm in the Ashanti Region of southern Ghana. They cultivated cassava, yams, plantains, tomatoes, peppers and other crops. These days, Acheampong works mostly in a science lab, but his interest in farming remains strong. Sam 2020.JPG Image coutesy of Samuel Acheampong He’s currently

#Genetic engineering
Field # Genetic engineering
Updated 19 October 2020

#31

 

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Samsung Galaxy S21 (not the official name) series has been in the news for some time now and it looks like renders of the Galaxy S21 and the Galaxy S21 Ultra have been leaked. While Samsung has not confirmed the names for its upcoming flagship line-up, it is believed that there will be a vanilla Galaxy S21, a ‘Plus’ model, and an ‘Ultra’ model.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#32

 

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Blendid uses robotics, AI, and machine vision to make food and smoothies.

#Robotics & Manufacturing
Field # Robotics & Manufacturing
Updated 19 October 2020

#33

 

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As per Xiaomi, the 80W Mi wireless charging Technology is capable of filling a 4,000 mAh battery to 10 per cent in 1 minute.

#Energy
Field # Energy
Updated 19 October 2020

#34

 

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Minister of electronics and IT spoke about the importance of unbiased AI that can be used by local citizens, securely and privately.

#Hardware & Devices;#Gadgets
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#35

 

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The Russian military hackers stand accused of unleashing the damaging NotPetya and Olympic Destroyer malware (among others) on the world.

#Social & Corporation affairs
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 19 October 2020

#36

 

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Along with providing massive discounts on products, Amazon and Flipkart are also offering 10 percent instant cashback for SBI and HDFC credit and debit cardholders.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#37

 

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Vivo V20 is a slim design-focused smartphone that gets a triple camera setup and is powered by a Snapdragon 720G SoC. It also sports 8GB of RAM and has a 44-megapixel selfie shooter

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#38

 

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Imagine you’ve decided to launch a website. You’ve come up with a killer brand name, and you’re all ready to…...

#Social & Corporation affairs
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 19 October 2020

#39

 

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Many of us believe we are masters of own destiny, but new research is revealing the extent to which our behaviour is influenced by our genes.

#Sport & Camping
Field # Sport & Camping
Updated 19 October 2020

#40

 

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TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 October 2020

#41

 

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Trump's Covid treatment: Can ordinary patients get access to the same drugs for coronavirus?

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#42

 

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Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty are well established treatment options for end-stage osteoarthritis, UKA still remains infrequently used if you take all knee arthroplasties into account. An important factor following knee arthroplasty is pain control in the perioperative experience, as high postoperative pain level is associated with persistent postsurgical pain. There is little literature which describes pain values and the need for pain medication following UKA and/or TKA. So far, no significant difference in pain has been found between UKA and TKA. The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in the postoperative course in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty vs. total knee arthroplasty regarding the need for pain medication and patient-reported outcomes including pain scores and side effects. We hypothesized that unicompartmental knee arthroplasty is superior to total knee arthroplasty in terms of postoperative pain values and the need of pain medication. In this project, we evaluated 2117 patients who had unicompartmental knee arthroplasty and 3798 who had total knee arthroplasty performed, from 2015 to 2018. A total of 4144 patients could be compared after performing the matched pair analysis. A professional team was used for data collection and short patient interviews to achieve high data quality on the first postoperative day. Parameters were compared after performing a 1:1 matched pair analysis, multicenter-wide in 14 orthopedic departments. Pain scores were significantly lower for the UKA group than those of the TKA group (p < 0.001 respectively for activity pain, minimum and maximum pain). In the recovery unit, there was less need for pain medication in patients with UKA (p = 0.004 for non-opioids). The opiate consumption was similarly lower for the UKA group, but not statistically significant (p = 0.15). In the ward, the UKA group needed less opioids (p < 0.001). Patient subjective parameters were significantly better for UKA. After implantation of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty, patients showed lower pain scores, a reduced need for pain medication and better patient subjective parameters in the early postoperative course in this study.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#43

 

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The distribution, characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of Phanerochaete chrysosporium under Pb2+ stress and the influence on Pb removal were investigated. Polysaccharides was found to be the main composition in both soluble EPS (SEPS) and bounded EPS (BEPS). More polysaccharides and protein in BEPS were detected with the increased Pb2+ concentration. The ratio of Pb amount distributed in BEPS to the total Pb removed by the fungal biomass gradually decreased from 91.66 to 61.27% in group with 50 mg/L of initial Pb2+, but kept at about 35% or 25% in groups with higher Pb2+. It implies that BEPS played a certain role in the lead removal process, and the role of BEPS was relatively more important in the removal of lower concentration of Pb2+ and in the initial period of Pb removal. With FTIR analysis and Pb2+ adsorption experiment, more effective functional groups and better Pb2+ adsorption capacity was demonstrated in BEPS than in SEPS. SEM–EDS analysis demonstrated that part of Pb immobilized in BEPS was in the form of Pb precipitation. The increased molecular weight in SEPS and more polysaccharides in BEPS were probably beneficial for the adhesion of Pb precipitation.

#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 19 October 2020

#44

 

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Lymphocyte apoptosis appears to play an important role in immunodysfunction in sepsis. We investigated the role of miR-223 in cell proliferation and apoptosis to identify potential target downstream proteins in sepsis. We recruited 143 patients with sepsis and 44 healthy controls from the Chinese PLA General Hospital. Flow cytometry was used to sort monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils from fresh peripheral blood. A miR-223 mimic and inhibitor were used for transient transfection of Jurkat T cells. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to assess expression of the miRNAs in cells. Western blot analysis was performed to measure protein expression. We evaluated the cell cycle and apoptosis by using flow cytometry (FCM) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Expression of miR-223 was significantly higher in the survivor group than in the nonsurvivor group. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that SOFA scores correlated negatively with miR-223 and monocyte counts, with β coefficients (95% CI) of − 0.048 (− 0.077, − 0.019) and − 47.707 (− 83.871, − 11.543), respectively. miR-223 expression also correlated negatively with the percentage of apoptosis in lymphocytes. The rate of apoptosis in the miR-223 mimic group was significantly lower than that of the negative control, with an adverse outcome observed in the miR-223 inhibitor group. We also found that miR-223 enhanced the proliferation of Jurkat T cells and that inhibiting miR-223 had an inhibitory effect on the G1/S transition. We conclude that miR-223 can serve as a protective factor in sepsis by reducing apoptosis and enhancing cell proliferation in lymphocytes by interacting with FOXO1. Potential downstream molecules are HSP60, HSP70, and HTRA.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#45

 

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This prospective randomized comparative trial study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic outcomes of radical nephroureterectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) used in combination in high risk upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) patients with cardiovascular comorbidity. Based on the inclusion criteria of high-risk UTUC in EAU guidelines (updated in 2014), all eligible patients treated in our hospital from January 2014 to March 2018 were included, and cases with late disease, renal dysfunction, severe cardiopulmonary disease or other malignant tumors were excluded. The cases were randomized into two groups based on treatment regimen. Multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the influencing factors of survival outcome in the enrolled patients. The Cox proportional-hazards model and the Kaplan–Meier method were employed to assess progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and cancer specific survival (CSS). In addition, the potential adverse effects of chemotherapy were actively monitored. A total of 176 high-risk UTUC individuals with cardiovascular comorbidity were enrolled and evaluated in this study. Median follow-up durations were 30 months (range 6–54) in the RNU (n = 82) group and 36 months (range 6–54) in the RNU + ACT (n = 94) group. Multivariable analysis indicated that peri-operative cardiovascular events risk grade was independent prognostic factor for OS. Tumor size was independent prognostic factor for PFS and CSS. BMI and lymphovacular invasion were significant predictors of PFS. Clinical stage, lymph node involvement, and tumor grade were significant predictors of PFS, OS and CSS in these patients. Especially, chemotherapy was helpful in improving PFS [P < 0.001, HR = 6.327 (5.115–7.793)], OS [P = 0.013, HR = 2.336 (1.956–2.883)] and CSS [P = 0.008, HR = 3.073 (2.533–3.738)]. Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated that the oncologic outcomes of RNU treated high-risk UTUC patients were improved much significantly by ACT, including PFS [P = 0.0033, HR = 3.78 (3.13–4.55)], OS [P = 0.0397, HR = 1.39 (1.01–1.75)] and CSS [P = 0.0255, HR = 1.26 (1.07–1.45)]. Further analysis of the lymph node positive subgroup showed that the median time of oncologic events was enhanced in RNU + ACT treated individuals in comparison with the RNU group, including PFS (11.4 months vs. 31.9 months, P = 0.0018), OS (26.8 months vs. 36.3 months, P = 0.0255) and CSS (28.2 months vs. 39.3 months, P = 0.0197). In the T3/4 cohort, significantly increased median PFS (13.9 months vs. 36.3 months, P = 0.0217), OS (20.6 months vs. 32.2 months, P = 0.0183) and CSS (21.9 months vs. 38.4 months, P = 0.0226) were obtained in the combination group. Additionally, no severe adverse events (over grade 4) associated with chemotherapy were detected in the RNU + ACT group. In conclusion, ACT after radical surgery has statistically significant therapeutic effects on PFS, OS and CSS in high-risk UTUC patients with cardiovascular comorbidity.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#46

 

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Pulmonary artery sling (PA sling) often presents as a life-threatening condition requiring urgent surgical correction. We reported 32 cases of PA sling in children who were followed up postoperatively in the past 6 years. All patients with PA slings who were admitted to the hospital from January 2012 to December 2017 and underwent surgery were retrospectively analyzed. The mean age of the 32 patients at repair was 16.97 months (range, 15 days to 128 months). Six patients required ventilator assistance for respiratory failure. All children underwent left pulmonary artery (LPA) reimplantation (n = 32), and 3 patients needed reimplantation slide tracheoplasty (n = 3) due to ventilation weaning failure. Four patients died, 27 patients survived until discharge, and 18 patients were followed up. Pulmonary computed tomography imaging and echocardiography were performed in 18 patients who were followed up. After LPA reimplantation, the tracheal carina area was significantly enlarged compared to that preoperation (p = 0.0002). In this follow-up cohort study, 75% of the patients who underwent LPA reimplantation survived until discharge. The survivors had subsequently well-developed pulmonary arteries and tracheas.

#Medicine & Human body;#Hardware & Devices
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#47

 

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Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the third most common types of infection in human medicine worldwide. There is increasing appreciation for the pathogenic role of Gram-positive cocci (GPC) in UTIs, as they have a plethora of virulence factors, maintaining their pathogenicity and high affinity for the epithelial cells of the urinary tract. The study was carried out using microbiological data collected corresponding to the period between 2008 and 2017. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method and E-tests. The age range of patients affected from the outpatient and inpatient groups differed significantly (43 [range 0.7–99] vs. 68 [range 0.4–99] years; p = 0.008). 3962 GPCs were obtained from inpatient and 4358 from outpatient samples, corresponding to 20.5 ± 2.8% (range 17.5–26.8%) and 20.6 ± 2.6% (range 17.8–26.0%) of all positive urine samples (p > 0.05); in both groups, Enterococcus spp. were the most prevalent (outpatients: 79.6%; inpatients: 88.5%). High-level aminoglycoside resistance in enterococci was noted in 31.0–46.6% of cases. A pronounced increase in the number of MRSA was seen in the second half of the study period (0.6–1.9% vs. 9.8–11.6%; p = 0.038). The ratio of VRE isolates was 0.16%, no VISA/VRSA isolates were detected.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#48

 

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Prior studies indicate the protective role of Ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation in human health, mediated by vitamin D synthesis. In this observational study, we empirically outline a negative association of UVB radiation as measured by ultraviolet index (UVI) with the number of COVID-19 deaths. We apply a fixed-effect log-linear regression model to a panel dataset of 152 countries over 108 days (n = 6524). We use the cumulative number of COVID-19 deaths and case-fatality rate (CFR) as the main dependent variables and isolate the UVI effect from potential confounding factors. After controlling for time-constant and time-varying factors, we find that a permanent unit increase in UVI is associated with a 1.2 percentage points decline in daily growth rates of cumulative COVID-19 deaths [p < 0.01] and a 1.0 percentage points decline in the CFR daily growth rate [p < 0.05]. These results represent a significant percentage reduction in terms of daily growth rates of cumulative COVID-19 deaths (− 12%) and CFR (− 38%). We find a significant negative association between UVI and COVID-19 deaths, indicating evidence of the protective role of UVB in mitigating COVID-19 deaths. If confirmed via clinical studies, then the possibility of mitigating COVID-19 deaths via sensible sunlight exposure or vitamin D intervention would be very attractive.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#49

 

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Biofluid-based metabolomics has the potential to provide highly accurate, minimally invasive diagnostics. Metabolomics studies using mass spectrometry typically reduce the high-dimensional data to only a small number of statistically significant features, that are often chemically identified—where each feature corresponds to a mass-to-charge ratio, retention time, and intensity. This practice may remove a substantial amount of predictive signal. To test the utility of the complete feature set, we train machine learning models for health state-prediction in 35 human metabolomics studies, representing 148 individual data sets. Models trained with all features outperform those using only significant features and frequently provide high predictive performance across nine health state categories, despite disparate experimental and disease contexts. Using only non-significant features it is still often possible to train models and achieve high predictive performance, suggesting useful predictive signal. This work highlights the potential for health state diagnostics using all metabolomics features with data-driven analysis.

#Artificial Intelligence
Field # Artificial Intelligence
Updated 19 October 2020

#50

 

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The objective of this study was to investigate associations between education in early life and cognitive impairment in later life in Colombia. Participants were community-dwelling adults aged 60 years or older from the National Study of Health, Wellbeing and Ageing. Trained interviewers administered a shorter version of the mini-mental state examination. Cognitive impairment was defined as the lowest tertile in the main analysis and as a score of 12 or less out of 19 in the sensitivity analysis. Logistic regression models were adjusted for education, other early life characteristics, and later life characteristics. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 17.93% in the main analysis (n = 16,505). Compared with participants with no education, the fully adjusted odds ratio for cognitive impairment was 0.57 (95% confidence interval: 0.52, 0.63) in those with some primary education and 0.29 (95% confidence interval: 0.25, 0.34) in those with some secondary education or more. The population attributable fraction for education suggests that at least 10% of cases of cognitive impairment would be eliminated if all children received an education. Similar results were observed in the sensitivity analysis (n = 20,174). This study suggests that education in early life markedly reduces the probability of cognitive impairment in late life in Colombia.

#Medicine & Human body;#Software
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#51

 

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Mammalian pheromones often linger in the environment and thus are particularly susceptible to interceptive eavesdropping, commonly understood as a one-way dyadic interaction, where prey sense and respond to the scent of a predator. Here, we tested the “counterespionage” hypothesis that predator and prey co-opt each other’s pheromone as a cue to locate prey or evade predation. We worked with wild brown rats (predator of mice) and wild house mice (prey of brown rats) as model species, testing their responses to pheromone-baited traps at infested field sites. The treatment trap in each of two trap pairs per replicate received sex attractant pheromone components (including testosterone) of male mice or male rats, whereas corresponding control traps received only testosterone, a pheromone component shared between mouse and rat males. Trap pairs disseminating male rat pheromone components captured 3.05 times fewer mice than trap pairs disseminating male mouse pheromone components, and no female mice were captured in rat pheromone-baited traps, indicating predator aversion. Indiscriminate captures of rats in trap pairs disseminating male rat or male mouse pheromone components, and fewer captures of rats in male mouse pheromone traps than in (testosterone-only) control traps indicate that rats do eavesdrop on the male mouse sex pheromone but do not exploit the information for mouse prey location. The counterespionage hypothesis is supported by trap catch data of both mice and rats but only the mice data are in keeping with our predictions for motive of the counterespionage.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 October 2020

#52

 

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The aim of this study was to conduct a nationwide survey of the use of emergency ophthalmology services using a sub-dataset of one million beneficiaries sampled from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) for the years 2008 through 2012. By analyzing this population dataset, the study illustrates the disease landscape of emergency eye care services. The five-year, one-million-person NHIRD sub-dataset for 2008 through 2012 was used to explore emergency visits and ophthalmology specialty visits and to analyze the associated demographics and diagnosis codes based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). Diagnoses were categorized into three groups: urgent, non-urgent, and intermediate. A total of 2454 emergency eye care visits were identified. The mean age of the patients who made these visits was 34.6 years old, and their sex ratio was 1.36 men to women. The percentages of urgent, non-urgent, and intermediate eye care visits in this study were 48.2%, 30.9%, and 20.9%, respectively. The leading diagnoses in the urgent category were corneal abrasions, foreign bodies in the eyes, eye burns, and blunt eye injuries. The leading diagnoses for the non-urgent visits were conjunctivitis, subconjunctival hemorrhages, trichiasis, and dry eye disease. Those for the intermediate category were superficial punctate keratitis, corneal opacity and degeneration, and lid, orbital, and lacrimal drainage infections. The urgent visit category accounted for nearly half of all the visits identified in this study. Compared to outpatient department visitors, the emergency ophthalmology service patients were younger and more predominantly male. These results were consistent with those of previous reports. Low copays have made emergency ophthalmology services highly accessible in Taiwan. However, future policies can be designed to more effectively allocate resources to urgent cases.

#Social & Corporation affairs
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 19 October 2020

#53

 

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Pharmacological ascorbate (P-AscH−, high-dose, intravenous vitamin C) is cytotoxic to tumor cells in doses achievable in humans. Phase I studies in pancreatic cancer (PDAC) utilizing P-AscH− have demonstrated increases in progression free survival, suggesting a reduction in metastatic disease burden. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of P-AscH− on metastatic PDAC. Several in vitro and in vivo mechanisms involved in PDAC metastases were investigated following treatment with P-AscH−. Serum from PDAC patients in clinical trials with P-AscH− were tested for the presence and quantity of circulating tumor cell-derived nucleases. P-AscH− inhibited invasion, basement membrane degradation, decreased matrix metalloproteinase expression, as well as clonogenic survival and viability during exposure to fluid shear stress. In vivo, P-AscH− significantly decreased formation of ascites, tumor burden over time, circulating tumor cells, and hepatic metastases. Both in vitro and in vivo findings were reversed with the addition of catalase suggesting that the effect of P-AscH− on metastatic disease is mediated by hydrogen peroxide. Finally, P-AscH− decreased CTC-derived nucleases in subjects with stage IV PDAC in a phase I clinical trial. We conclude that P-AscH− attenuates the metastatic potential of PDAC and may prove to be effective for treating advanced disease.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#54

 

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Mitochondria are playing key roles in setting the thermal limits of fish, but how these organelles participate in selection mechanisms during extreme thermal events associated with climate warming in natural populations is unclear. Here, we investigated the thermal effects on mitochondrial metabolism, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial gene expression in cardiac tissues of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) collected from an artificially heated ecosystem, the “Biotest enclosure”, and an adjacent reference area in the Baltic sea with normal temperatures (~ 23 °C and ~ 16 °C, respectively, at the time of capture in summer). Fish were sampled one month after a heat wave that caused the Biotest temperatures to peak at ~ 31.5 °C, causing significant mortality. When assayed at 23 °C, Biotest perch maintained high mitochondrial capacities, while reference perch displayed depressed mitochondrial functions relative to measurements at 16 °C. Moreover, mitochondrial gene expression of nd4 (mitochondrial subunit of complex I) was higher in Biotest fish, likely explaining the increased respiration rates observed in this population. Nonetheless, cardiac tissue from Biotest perch displayed higher levels of oxidative damage, which may have resulted from their chronically warm habitat, as well as the extreme temperatures encountered during the preceding summer heat wave. We conclude that eurythermal fish such as perch are able to adjust and maintain mitochondrial capacities of highly aerobic organs such as the heart when exposed to a warming environment as predicted with climate change. However, this might come at the expense of exacerbated oxidative stress, potentially threatening performance in nature.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#55

 

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Ceramide is a major actor in the sphingolipid signaling pathway elicited by various kinds of cell stress. Under those conditions ceramide (Cer) is produced in the plasma membrane as a product of sphingomyelin (SM) hydrolysis, and this may lead to apoptosis. Thus, SM and Cer coexist in the membrane for some time, and they are known to separate laterally from the (more abundant) glycerolipids, giving rise to highly rigid domains or platforms. The properties of these domains/platforms are rather well understood, but the underlying SM:Cer molecular interactions have not been explored in detail. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique that provides information on all the chemical groupings in a molecule, and that can be applied to membranes and lipid bilayers in aqueous media. IR spectra can be conveniently retrieved as a function of temperature, thus revealing the thermotropic transitions of SM and its mixtures with Cer. Four regions of the IR spectrum of these sphingolipids have been examined, two of them dominated by the hydrophobic regions in the molecules, namely the C–H stretching vibrations (2800–3000 cm−1), and the CH2 scissoring vibrations (1455–1485 cm−1), and two others arising from chemical groups at the lipid-water interface, the sphingolipid amide I band (1600–1680 cm−1), and the phosphate vibrations in the 1000–1110 cm−1 region. The latter two regions have been rarely studied in the past. The IR data from the hydrophobic components show a gel (or ripple)-fluid transition of SM at 40 °C, that is shifted up to about 70 °C when Cer is added to the bilayers, in agreement with previous studies using a variety of techniques. IR information concerning the polar parts is more interesting. The amide I (carbonyl) band of pure SM exhibits a maximum at 1638 cm−1 at room temperature, and its position is shifted by about 10 cm−1 in the presence of Cer. Cer causes also a change in the overall band shape, but no signs of band splitting are seen, suggesting that SM and Cer carbonyl groups are interacting tightly, presumably through H-bonds. The 1086 cm−1 band, corresponding to PO2− vibrations, appears more stable in SM than in DPPC, and it is further stabilized by Cer, again suggesting an important role of H-bonds in the formation of SM:Cer clusters. Thus, SM and Cer can interact through their polar headgroups, in a way that is not accessible to other lipid classes.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 October 2020

#56

 

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Altered resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of the amygdala (AMY) has been demonstrated to be implicated in schizophrenia (SZ) and attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS). Specifically, no prior work has investigated FC in individuals with APS using subregions of the AMY as seed regions of interest. The present study examined AMY subregion-based FC in individuals with APS and first-episode schizophrenia (FES) and healthy controls (HCs). The resting state FC maps of the three AMY subregions were computed and compared across the three groups. Correlation analysis was also performed to examine the relationship between the Z-values of regions showing significant group differences and symptom rating scores. Individuals with APS showed hyperconnectivity between the right centromedial AMY (CMA) and left frontal pole cortex (FPC) and between the laterobasal AMY and brain stem and right inferior lateral occipital cortex compared to HCs. Patients with FES showed hyperconnectivity between the right superficial AMY and left occipital pole cortex and between the left CMA and left thalamus compared to the APS and HCs respectively. A negative relationship was observed between the connectivity strength of the CMA with the FPC and negative-others score of the Brief Core Schema Scales in the APS group. We observed different altered FC with subregions of the AMY in individuals with APS and FES compared to HCs. These results shed light on the pathogenetic mechanisms underpinning the development of APS and SZ.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#57

 

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Cancer causes muscle mass loss, which is associated with a poor prognosis. Chemotherapy may also reduce muscle mass. We investigated skeletal muscle mass change during palliative chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer (AGC) and its association with treatment outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed 111 consecutive AGC patients who underwent first-line palliative chemotherapy. Skeletal muscle area was measured before and after chemotherapy at the third lumbar vertebra level using computed tomography scans. We compared skeletal muscle index (SMI), body mass index (BMI), and body weight changes to chemotherapy response and survival. The 80 male and 31 female patients’ median age was 65 (range 31–87) years, and 46.8% had sarcopenia at baseline. Median pre-chemotherapy to post-chemotherapy SMI, BMI, and body weight decreases were − 4.5 cm2/m2 (− 11.3%) (P < 0.001); − 0.7 kg/m2 (− 3.2%) (P < 0.001); and − 2.0 kg (− 3.5%) (P < 0.001), respectively. Median SMI decreases for patients with objective response, stable disease, and disease progression were − 4.0 cm2/m2 (range − 20.1 ~ 9.5); − 4.5 cm2/m2 (range − 19.8 ~ 0.8); and − 3.8 cm2/m2 (range: − 17.6 ~ 0.1), respectively. Response to chemotherapy was not associated with SMI decrease (P = 0.463). In multivariable analysis, sarcopenia at baseline (HR 1.681; 95% CI 1.083–2.609, P = 0.021), decreased SMI (HR 1.620; 95% CI 1.041–2.520; P = 0.032) were significant poor prognostic factors for survival. Skeletal muscle mass decreased significantly during chemotherapy in AGC patients, but was not associated with chemotherapy response. Decreased SMI was a poor prognostic factor in AGC patients during first-line palliative chemotherapy.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#58

 

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Rainbow trout has a male heterogametic (XY) sex determination system controlled by a major sex-determining gene, sdY. Unexpectedly, a few phenotypically masculinised fish are regularly observed in all-female farmed trout stocks. To better understand the genetic determinism underlying spontaneous maleness in XX-rainbow trout, we recorded the phenotypic sex of 20,210 XX-rainbow trout from a French farm population at 10 and 15 months post-hatching. The overall masculinisation rate was 1.45%. We performed two genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on a subsample of 1139 individuals classified as females, intersex or males using either medium-throughput genotyping (31,811 SNPs) or whole-genome sequencing (WGS, 8.7 million SNPs). The genomic heritability of maleness ranged between 0.48 and 0.62 depending on the method and the number of SNPs used for the estimation. At the 31K SNPs level, we detected four QTL on three chromosomes (Omy1, Omy12 and Omy20). Using WGS information, we narrowed down the positions of the two QTL detected on Omy1 to 96 kb and 347 kb respectively, with the second QTL explaining up to 14% of the total genetic variance of maleness. Within this QTL, we detected three putative candidate genes, fgfa8, cyp17a1 and an uncharacterised protein (LOC110527930), which might be involved in spontaneous maleness of XX-female rainbow trout.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#59

 

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Three hundred and sixty 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 4 treatments of 6 replicates to evaluate the effects of cLFchimera, a recombinant antimicrobial peptide (AMP), on gut health attributes of broiler chickens under necrotic enteritis (NE) challenge. Treatments were as follows: (T1) unchallenged group fed with corn-soybean meal (CSM) without NE challenge and additives (NC); (T2) group fed with CSM and challenged with NE without any additives (PC); (T3) PC group supplemented with 20 mg cLFchimera/kg diet (AMP); (T4) PC group supplemented with 45 mg antibiotic (bacitracin methylene disalicylate)/kg diet (antibiotic). Birds were sampled for villi morphology, ileal microbiota, and jejunal gene expression of cytokines, tight junctions proteins, and mucin. Results showed that AMP ameliorated NE-related intestinal lesions, reduced mortality, and rehabilitated jejunal villi morphology in NE challenged birds. While the antibiotic non-selectively reduced the count of bacteria, AMP restored microflora balance in the ileum of challenged birds. cLFchimera regulated the expression of cytokines, junctional proteins, and mucin transcripts in the jejunum of NE challenged birds. In conclusion, cLFchimera can be a reliable candidate to substitute growth promoter antibiotics, while more research is required to unveil the exact mode of action of this synthetic peptide.

#Medicine & Human body;#Theoretical sciences
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#60

 

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Birdshot retinochoroidopathy occurs exclusively in individuals who are HLA-A29 positive. The mechanism to account for this association is unknown. The gut microbiome has been causally implicated in many immune-mediated diseases. We hypothesized that HLA-A29 would affect the composition of the gut microbiome, leading to a dysbiosis and immune-mediated eye disease. Fecal and intestinal biopsy samples were obtained from 107 healthy individuals from Portland, Oregon environs, 10 of whom were HLA-A29 positive, undergoing routine colonoscopy. Bacterial profiling was achieved via 16S rRNA metabarcoding. Publicly available whole meta-genome sequencing data from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP), consisting of 298 healthy controls mostly of US origin, were also interrogated. PERMANOVA and sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis (sPLSDA) demonstrated that subjects who were HLA-A29 positive differed in bacterial species composition (beta diversity) compared to HLA-A29 negative subjects in both the Portland (p = 0.019) and HMP cohorts (p = 0.0002). The Portland and HMP cohorts evidenced different subsets of bacterial species associated with HLA-A29 status, likely due to differences in the metagenomic techniques employed. The functional composition of the HMP cohort did not differ overall (p = 0.14) between HLA-A29 positive and negative subjects, although some distinct pathways such as heparan sulfate biosynthesis showed differences. As we and others have shown for various HLA alleles, the HLA allotype impacts the composition of the microbiome. We hypothesize that HLA-A29 may predispose chorioretinitis via an altered gut microbiome.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#61

 

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A new slim modiolar electrode (CI532/632) has been reported to ensure better modiolar proximity than conventional electrodes. Better modiolar proximity has been proposed to yield better electrode discrimination capability and potentially better speech outcomes, necessitating its efficient measurement. Currently, intracochlear positional index (ICPI), the most reliable indicator for evaluating modiolar proximity, has been measured exclusively through ‘metal artifact-less’ cone beam CT. However, popular use of this index is precluded due to lack of cone beam CT in many institutions. Thus, eyes are now on elucidation of easy-to-measure indicators of modiolar proximity derived from conventional CT, which is accessible in all centers. We observed that enhanced tomographic resolution significantly reduces partial volume artifacts, providing better visualization of modiolus-electrode distance. Aided by ultra-high kernel specification with high-resolution index, we developed a novel and easy-to-measure, conventional CT-specific indicator, “modified ICPI”, for evaluation of modiolar proximity. Further, we showed that it closely correlates with the previously proposed parameter of modiolar proximity, the spiral diameter, measured from post-insertion radiograph, reiterating the value of X-ray-based spiral diameter. Through this study, we have taken a step toward the stage of immediate visual feedback regarding modiolar proximity and changes in insertion technique intraoperatively, ensuring optimal modiolar proximity.

#Medicine & Human body;#Hardware & Devices
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#62

 

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Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is the most important oilseed crop for animal industry due to its high protein concentration and high relative abundance of essential and non-essential amino acids (AAs). However, the selection for high-yielding genotypes has reduced seed protein concentration over time, and little is known about its impact on AAs. The aim of this research was to determine the genetic shifts of seed composition for 18 AAs in 13 soybean genotypes released between 1980 and 2014. Additionally, we tested the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilization on protein and AAs trends. Soybean genotypes were grown in field conditions during two seasons under a control (0 N) and a N-fertilized treatment receiving 670 kg N ha−1. Seed yield increased 50% and protein decreased 1.2% comparing the oldest and newest genotypes. The application of N fertilizer did not significantly affect protein and AAs concentrations. Leucine, proline, cysteine, and tryptophan concentrations were not influenced by genotype. The other AAs concentrations showed linear rates of decrease over time ranging from − 0.021 to − 0.001 g kg−1 year−1. The shifts of 11 AAs (some essentials such as lysine, tryptophan, and threonine) displayed a relative-to-protein increasing concentration. These results provide a quantitative assessment of the trade-off between yield improvement and seed AAs concentrations and will enable future genetic yield gain without overlooking seed nutritional value.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#63

 

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Considerable numbers of pregnant women do not understand the correct way to use seatbelts; thus, they are inappropriately restrained when wearing seatbelts. To improve appropriate seatbelt wearing by pregnant women vehicle passengers, we examined their use by pregnant women drivers and the independent factors influencing appropriate use. We undertook a cross-sectional survey of 1,000 pregnant women in Shiga Prefecture, Japan. Among 774 returned questionnaires, we analysed those of 680 pregnant women who always wore a seatbelt. The mean participant age was 31.4 ± 5.0 years and mean gestational age 26.2 ± 8.2 weeks; 97.7% of subjects always wore a seatbelt; 86.9% wore a seatbelt correctly and 13.1% incorrectly. Multivariate analysis indicated that receiving information about correct seatbelt use (odds ratio, 2.25; P < 0.005) and gestational age (odds ratio, 1.06; P < 0.001) were significant independent factors for correct seatbelt use. Providing information about correct seatbelt use during the early term is required for pregnant women to protect both the mother and fetus.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#64

 

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Nature reserves play an extraordinarily important role in conserving animal populations and their habitats. However, landscape change and unreasonable zoning designations often render these protected areas inadequate. Therefore, regular evaluation of the efficacy of protected lands is critical for maintaining and improving management strategies. Using species distribution models and GAP analysis, we assessed the changes in suitable habitat for the Brown Eared-pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) in two Chinese nature reserves between 1995 and 2013. Our results showed that the habitat suitability of Brown Eared-pheasant has changed dramatically during this period, and fragmentation analyses showed an increase in concentration area and decrease in patch area. In particular, our findings show that the national nature reserves need to adjust their ranges to ensure the conservation of this flagship species. Our study further provides a new viewpoint for evaluating the efficacy of protected lands, particularly in highly urbanized regions where conservation goals must be balanced with changing landscapes.

#Medicine & Human body;#Psychology
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#65

 

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Genes are organized in functional modules (or pathways), thus their action and their dysregulation in diseases may be better understood by the identification of the modules most affected by the disease (aka disease modules, or active subnetworks). We describe how an algorithm based on the Core&Peel method is used to detect disease modules in co-expression networks of genes. We first validate Core&Peel for the general task of functional module detection by comparison with 42 methods participating in the Disease Module Identification DREAM challenge. Next, we use four specific disease test cases (colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis), four state-of-the-art algorithms (ModuleDiscoverer, Degas, KeyPathwayMiner, and ClustEx), and several pathway databases to validate the proposed algorithm. Core&Peel is the only method able to find significant associations of the predicted disease module with known validated relevant pathways for all four diseases. Moreover, for the two cancer datasets, Core&Peel detects further eight relevant pathways not discovered by the other methods used in the comparative analysis. Finally, we apply Core&Peel and other methods to explore the transcriptional response of human cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection, finding supporting evidence for drug repositioning efforts at a pre-clinical level.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#66

 

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The roles played by several inflammatory factors in screening for prostate cancer (PCa) among gray area patients, namely those with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels between 4 and 10 ng/ml, have not been completely identified, and few effective diagnostic nomograms have been developed exclusively for these patients. We aimed to investigate new independent predictors of positive biopsy (PB) results and develop a novel diagnostic nomogram for this group of patients. The independent predictors of PB results were identified, and a nomogram was constructed using multivariate logistic regression analysis based on a cohort comprising 401 Gy area patients diagnosed at Xijing Hospital (Xi’an, China) between January 2016 and December 2019. The predictive accuracy of the nomogram was assessed using the receiver operating characteristic curve, and the nomogram was calibrated by comparing the prediction with the observation. The performance of the nomogram was further validated using an independent cohort. Finally, lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) > 4.11 and red blood cell distribution width (RDW)-standard deviation (SD) > 42.9 fl were identified as independent protective predictors of PB results, whereas PSA density (PSAD) > 0.141 was identified as an independent risk predictor. The nomogram established using PSAD, LMR, and RDW-SD was perfectly calibrated, and its predictive accuracy was superior to that of PSAD in both internal and external validations (0.827 vs 0.769 and 0.765 vs 0.713, respectively). This study is the first to report the importance of LMR and RDW-SD in screening for PCa among gray area patients and to construct an exclusive nomogram to predict the individual risk of positive 13-core biopsy results in this group of patients. With superior performance over PSAD, our nomogram will help increase the accuracy of PCa screening, thereby avoiding unnecessary biopsy.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#67

 

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Maternal malnutrition plays a critical role in the developmental programming of later metabolic diseases susceptibility in the offspring, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because the liver is the major organ that produces and supplies blood glucose, we aimed at defining the potential role of liver glycogen autophagy in the programming of glucose metabolism disturbances. To this end, newborns were obtained from pregnant Wistar rats fed ad libitum with a standard diet or 65% food-restricted during the last week of gestation. We found that newborns from undernourished mothers showed markedly high basal insulin levels whereas those of glucagon were decreased. This unbalance led to activation of the mTORC1 pathway and inhibition of hepatic autophagy compromising the adequate handling of glycogen in the very early hours of extrauterine life. Restoration of autophagy with rapamycin but not with glucagon, indicated no defect in autophagy machinery per se, but in signals triggered by glucagon. Taken together, these results support the notion that hyperinsulinemia is an important mechanism by which mobilization of liver glycogen by autophagy is defective in food-restricted animals. This early alteration in the hormonal control of liver glycogen autophagy may influence the risk of developing metabolic diseases later in life.

#Medicine & Human body;#Theoretical sciences
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#68

 

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The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of endplate junction failure in a smaller cohort of Danish patients with lumbar disk herniation and compare this to the previously published data from India. Consecutive patients seen in a large regional hospital spine-care unit, with a clinical presentation suggesting a lumbar disk herniation with concomitant radiculopathy and confirmatory recent MRI were included. Additional imaging by CT was performed as part of the study and these were analyzed with specific attention to endplate junction failures. For ethical reasons, the number of participants was kept to a minimum and a total of 26 patients were included. The prevalence (n = 5) of endplate junction failure was found to be statistically significantly lower than that previously reported. Our findings do not echo those previously reported in an Indian population: Endplate junction failure was indeed observed, but at a significantly lower rate. We discuss potential reasons for the difference in findings with due attention to the weaknesses of the current study.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#69

 

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Accurate and continuous monitoring of critically ill patients is frequently achieved using invasive catheters, which is technically complex. Our purpose was to evaluate the validity and accuracy of a photoplethysmography (PPG)-based remote monitoring device compared to invasive methods of arterial line (AL) and Swan-Ganz (SG) catheters in a swine model of controlled hemorrhagic shock. Following a baseline phase, hemorrhagic shock was induced in 11 pigs by bleeding 35% of their blood volume, followed by a post-bleeding follow-up phase. Animals were monitored concomitantly by the PPG device, an AL and a SG catheter, for a median period of 447 min. Heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively), and cardiac output (CO) were recorded continuously. The complete data set consisted of 1312 paired observations. Correlations between the PPG-based technique and the invasive methods were significant (p < 0.001) during baseline, bleeding and follow-up phases for HR (r = 0.90–0.98), SBP (r = 0.90–0.94), DBP (r = 0.89–0.93), and CO (r = 0.76–0.90). Intraclass correlations for all phases combined were 0.96, 0.92, 0.93 and 0.87 for HR, SBP, DBP and CO, respectively. Correlations for changes in CO, SBP and DBP were significant (p < 0.001) and strong (r > 0.88), with concordance rates (determined by quadrant plots) of 86%, 66% and 68%, respectively. The novel PPG-based device was accurate and valid compared to existing invasive techniques and might be used for continuous monitoring in several clinical settings following further studies.

#Food
Field # Food
Updated 19 October 2020

#70

 

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Although cells of mushroom-producing fungi typically contain paired haploid nuclei (n + n), most Armillaria gallica vegetative cells are uninucleate. As vegetative nuclei are produced by fusions of paired haploid nuclei, they are thought to be diploid (2n). Here we report finding haploid vegetative nuclei in A. gallica at multiple sites in southeastern Massachusetts, USA. Sequencing multiple clones of a single-copy gene isolated from single hyphal filaments revealed nuclear heterogeneity both among and within hyphae. Cytoplasmic bridges connected hyphae in field-collected and cultured samples, and we propose nuclear migration through bridges maintains this nuclear heterogeneity. Growth studies demonstrate among- and within-hypha phenotypic variation for growth in response to gallic acid, a plant-produced antifungal compound. The existence of both genetic and phenotypic variation within vegetative hyphae suggests that fungal individuals have the potential to evolve within a single generation in response to environmental variation over time and space.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 October 2020

#71

 

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Psoriasis is mainly caused because of inappropriate immune responses in the epidermis. Rice (Oryza sativa L.: SRNC05053-6-2) consists of anthocyanin, which exhibits strong antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the role of this black-coloured rice crude extract in alleviating the symptoms of psoriasis using human psoriatic artificial skin and an imiquimod-induced rat psoriasis model. Psoriasis-related genes, cytokines and chemokines were examined; in addition, the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties and the immunohistopathological features of this condition were studied. The results showed that the rice extract reduced the severity of psoriasis by (1) decreasing the epidermal thickness, acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, epidermal inflammation and degree of apoptosis induction via caspase-3, (2) increasing the expression levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β), (3) reducing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-20, IL-22 and TNF-α), chemokines (CCL-20) and anti-microbial peptides (psoriasin and β-defensin), (4) enhancing the antioxidative property (Nrf-2), (5) downregulating the levels of psoriasis-associated genes (psoriasin, β-defensin, koebnerisin 15L and koebnerisin 15S) and (6) upregulating the levels of psoriasis-improving genes (caspase-14, involucrin and filaggrin). Thus, the extract appears to exert therapeutic effects on psoriasis through its antioxidative and immunomodulatory properties.

#Food
Field # Food
Updated 19 October 2020

#72

 

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Current understanding of heat shock response has been complicated by the fact that heat stress is inevitably accompanied by changes in specific growth rates and growth stages. In this study, a chemostat culture was successfully performed to avoid the physico-chemical and biological changes that accompany heatshock, which provided a unique opportunity to investigate the full range of cellular responses to thermal stress, ranging from temporary adjustment to phenotypic adaptation at multi-omics levels. Heat-responsive and time-resolved changes in the transcriptome and metabolome of a widely used E. coli strain BL21(DE3) were explored in which the temperature was upshifted from 37 to 42 °C. Omics profiles were categorized into early (2 and 10 min), middle (0.5, 1, and 2 h), and late (4, 8, and 40 h) stages of heat stress, each of which reflected the initiation, adaptation, and phenotypic plasticity steps of the stress response. The continued heat stress modulated global gene expression by controlling the expression levels of sigma factors in different time frames, including unexpected downregulation of the second heatshock sigma factor gene (rpoE) upon the heat stress. Trehalose, cadaverine, and enterobactin showed increased production to deal with the heat-induced oxidative stress. Genes highly expressed at the late stage were experimentally validated to provide thermotolerance. Intriguingly, a cryptic capsular gene cluster showed considerably high expression level only at the late stage, and its expression was essential for cell growth at high temperature. Granule-forming and elongated cells were observed at the late stage, which was morphological plasticity occurred as a result of acclimation to the continued heat stress. Whole process of thermal adaptation along with the genetic and metabolic changes at fine temporal resolution will contribute to far-reaching comprehension of the heat shock response. Further, the identified thermotolerant genes will be useful to rationally engineer thermotolerant microorganisms.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 October 2020

#73

 

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Different types of carbon materials are biocompatible with neural cells and can promote maturation. The mechanism of this effect is not clear. Here we have tested the capacity of a carbon material composed of amorphous sp3 carbon backbone, embedded with a percolating network of sp2 carbon domains to sustain neuronal cultures. We found that cortical neurons survive and develop faster on this novel carbon material. After 3 days in culture, there is a precocious increase in the frequency of neuronal activity and in the expression of maturation marker KCC2 on carbon films as compared to a commonly used glass surface. Accelerated development is accompanied by a dramatic increase in neuronal dendrite arborization. The mechanism for the precocious maturation involves the activation of intracellular calcium oscillations by the carbon material already after 1 day in culture. Carbon-induced oscillations are independent of network activity and reflect intrinsic spontaneous activation of developing neurons. Thus, these results reveal a novel mechanism for carbon material-induced neuronal survival and maturation.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#74

 

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Various neurovascular bundle-sparing techniques have been introduced to maximize recovery of erectile function after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). The clipless intrafascial neurovascular bundle-sparing technique aims to preserve periprostatic structures and neurovascular bundles as much as possible by avoiding clipping of the vascular pedicles. This study reports 1-year functional and oncologic outcomes and postoperative complications in 105 patients with intact preoperative erectile function who underwent a modified clipless intrafascial neurovascular bundle-sparing RARP. Intact erectile function was defined as score ≥ 21 on the Sexual Health Inventory for Men questionnaire or ability to have sexual intercourse. Median follow-up was 26.5 months (IQR 15.25–48). Postoperative erectile function recovery rates were 71.4%, 81.9%, 88.6%, 92.4%, and 94.3% at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, respectively. The rate of positive surgical margins was 16.2% overall and 11.8% in patients with stage pT2 disease. The biochemical recurrence rate was 6.7% overall. The modified clipless intrafascial neurovascular bundle-sparing technique is safe and feasible and can achieve excellent recovery of erectile function after RARP. Further large-scale prospective comparative studies are warranted.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#75

 

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Uterine rupture is a serious public health concern that causes high maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Few of the studies conducted in Ethiopia show a high discrepancy in the prevalence of uterine rupture, which ranges between 1.6 and 16.7%. There also lacks a national study on this issue in Ethiopia. This systematic and meta-analysis, therefore, was conducted to assess the prevalence and determinants of uterine rupture in Ethiopia. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for systematic review and meta-analysis of studies. All observational published studies were retrieved using relevant search terms in Google scholar, African Journals Online, CINHAL, HINARI, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and PubMed (Medline) databases. Newcastle–Ottawa assessment checklist for observational studies was used for critical appraisal of the included articles. The meta-analysis was done with STATA version 14 software. The I2 test statistics were used to assess heterogeneity among included studies, and publication bias was assessed using Begg's and Egger's tests. Odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was presented using forest plots. A total of twelve studies were included in this study. The pooled prevalence of uterine rupture was 3.98% (95% CI 3.02, 4.95). The highest (7.82%) and lowest (1.53%) prevalence were identified in Amhara and Southern Nations, Nationality and Peoples Region (SNNPR), respectively. Determinants of uterine rupture were urban residence (OR = 0.15 (95% CI 0.09, 0.23)), primipara (OR = 0.12 (95% CI 0.06, 0.27)), previous cesarean section (OR = 3.23 (95% CI 2.12, 4.92)), obstructed labor(OR = 12.21 (95% CI 6.01, 24.82)), and partograph utilization (OR = 0.12 (95% CI 0.09, 0.17)). Almost one in twenty-five mothers had uterine rupture in Ethiopia. Urban residence, primiparity, previous cesarean section, obstructed labor and partograph utilization were significantly associated with uterine rupture. Therefore, intervention programs should address the identified factors to reduce the prevalence of uterine rupture.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 October 2020

#76

 

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Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have 2–3 times increased healthcare utilization and annual costs once diagnosed, but little is known about their utilization patterns early in life. Quantifying their early health system utilization could uncover condition-specific health trajectories to facilitate earlier detection and intervention. Patients born 10/1/2006–10/1/2016 with ≥ 2 well-child visits within the Duke University Health System before age 1 were grouped as ASD, ADHD, ASD + ADHD, or No Diagnosis using retrospective billing codes. An additional comparison group was defined by later upper respiratory infection diagnosis. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for hospital admissions, procedures, emergency department (ED) visits, and outpatient clinic encounters before age 1 were compared between groups via logistic regression models. Length of hospital encounters were compared between groups via Mann–Whitney U test. In total, 29,929 patients met study criteria (ASD N = 343; ADHD N = 1175; ASD + ADHD N = 140). ASD was associated with increased procedures (AOR = 1.5, p < 0.001), including intubation and ventilation (AOR = 2.4, p < 0.001); and outpatient specialty care, including physical therapy (AOR = 3.5, p < 0.001) and ophthalmology (AOR = 3.1, p < 0.001). ADHD was associated with increased procedures (AOR = 1.41, p < 0.001), including blood transfusion (AOR = 4.7, p < 0.001); hospital admission (AOR = 1.60, p < 0.001); and ED visits (AOR = 1.58, p < 0.001). Median length of stay was increased after birth in ASD (+ 6.5 h, p < 0.001) and ADHD (+ 3.8 h, p < 0.001), and after non-birth admission in ADHD (+ 1.1 d, p < 0.001) and ASD + ADHD (+ 2.4 d, p = 0.003). Each condition was associated with increased health system utilization and distinctive patterns of utilization before age 1. Recognizing these patterns may contribute to earlier detection and intervention.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#77

 

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Invertebrates such as Drosophila melanogaster have proven to be a valuable model organism for studies of the nervous system. In order to control neuronal activity, optogenetics has evolved as a powerful technique enabling non-invasive stimulation using light. This requires light sources that can deliver patterns of light with high temporal and spatial precision. Currently employed light sources for stimulation of small invertebrates, however, are either limited in spatial resolution or require sophisticated and bulky equipment. In this work, we used smartphone displays for optogenetic control of Drosophila melanogaster. We developed an open-source smartphone app that allows time-dependent display of light patterns and used this to activate and inhibit different neuronal populations in both larvae and adult flies. Characteristic behavioural responses were observed depending on the displayed colour and brightness and in agreement with the activation spectra and light sensitivity of the used channelrhodopsins. By displaying patterns of light, we constrained larval movement and were able to guide larvae on the display. Our method serves as a low-cost high-resolution testbench for optogenetic experiments using small invertebrate species and is particularly appealing to application in neuroscience teaching labs.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#78

 

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In freshwater ecosystems, habitat alteration contributes directly to biodiversity loss. Dragonflies are sentinel species that are key invertebrate predators in both aquatic (as larvae) and terrestrial ecosystems (as adults). Understanding the habitat factors affecting dragonfly emergence can inform management practices to conserve habitats supporting these species and the functions they perform. Transitioning from larvae to adults, dragonflies leave behind larval exoskeletons (exuviae), which reveal information about the emergent population without the need for sacrificing living organisms. Capitalizing on Atlantic Canada’s largest freshwater wetland, the Grand Lake Meadows (GLM) and the associated Saint John/Wolastoq River (SJWR), we studied the spatial (i.e., across the mainstem, tributary, and wetland sites) and temporal (across 3 years) variation in assemblages of emergent dragonflies (Anisoptera) and assessed the relative contribution of aquatic and terrestrial factors structuring these assemblages. The GLM complex, including the lotic SJWR and its tributaries and associated lentic wetlands, provided a range of riparian and aquatic habitat variability ideal for studying dragonfly emergence patterns across a relatively homogenous climatic region. Emergent dragonfly responses were associated with spatial, but not temporal, variation. Additionally, dragonfly communities were associated with both aquatic and terrestrial factors, while diversity was primarily associated with terrestrial factors. Specific terrestrial factors associated with the emergence of the dragonfly community included canopy cover and slope, while aquatic factors included water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and baseflow. Our results indicate that management of river habitats for dragonfly conservation should incorporate riparian habitat protection while maintaining aquatic habitat and habitat quality.

#Sport & Camping
Field # Sport & Camping
Updated 19 October 2020

#79

 

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A majority of experimental disciplines face the challenge of exploring large and high-dimensional parameter spaces in search of new scientific discoveries. Materials science is no exception; the wide variety of synthesis, processing, and environmental conditions that influence material properties gives rise to particularly vast parameter spaces. Recent advances have led to an increase in the efficiency of materials discovery by increasingly automating the exploration processes. Methods for autonomous experimentation have become more sophisticated recently, allowing for multi-dimensional parameter spaces to be explored efficiently and with minimal human intervention, thereby liberating the scientists to focus on interpretations and big-picture decisions. Gaussian process regression (GPR) techniques have emerged as the method of choice for steering many classes of experiments. We have recently demonstrated the positive impact of GPR-driven decision-making algorithms on autonomously-steered experiments at a synchrotron beamline. However, due to the complexity of the experiments, GPR often cannot be used in its most basic form, but rather has to be tuned to account for the special requirements of the experiments. Two requirements seem to be of particular importance, namely inhomogeneous measurement noise (input-dependent or non-i.i.d.) and anisotropic kernel functions, which are the two concepts that we tackle in this paper. Our synthetic and experimental tests demonstrate the importance of both concepts for experiments in materials science and the benefits that result from including them in the autonomous decision-making process.

#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 19 October 2020

#80

 

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Partial migration, whereby some individuals migrate and some do not, is relatively common and widespread among animals. Switching between migration tactics (from migratory to resident or vice versa) occurs at individual and population levels. Here, we describe for the first time the movement ecology of the largest wintering population of Egyptian Vultures (Neophron percnopterus) in south-west Europe. We combined field surveys and GPS tracking data from December to February during four wintering seasons (2014–2018). The wintering population consisted on average of 85 individuals (range 58–121; 76% adults and 24% subadults). Individuals were counted at five different roosting sites located near farms, unauthorized carcass deposition sites and authorized carcass deposition sites. Our results show that vultures tend to remain close to the roosting site. Moreover, we observed that females exhibited smaller home range sizes than males, which suggests a possible differential use of food sources. Overall, birds relied more on farms than other available food resources, particularly subadult individuals which exploited more intensively these sites. Our results showed that Egyptian Vultures congregate in significant numbers at specific sites throughout the winter period in south-west Spain and that these roosting and feeding sites should be given some level of legal protection and regular monitoring. Furthermore, predictable food sources might be driving the apparent increase in the non-migratory population of Egyptian Vultures, as observed in other avian species which are also changing their migratory behavior.

#Medicine & Human body;#Psychology
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#81

 

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Drought is an important environmental stress that has negative effects on plant growth leading to a reduction in yield. In this study, the positive role of nanoparticles of SiO2, Se, and Se/SiO2 (SiO2-NPs, Se-NPs and Se/SiO2-NPs) has been investigated in modulating negative effects of drought on the growth and yield of strawberry plants. Spraying of solutions containing nanoparticles of SiO2, Se, and Se/SiO2 (50 and 100 mg L−1) improved the growth and yield parameters of strawberry plants grown under normal and drought stress conditions (30, 60, and 100%FC). Plants treated with Se/SiO2 (100 mg L−1) preserved more of their photosynthetic pigments compared with other treated plants and presented higher levels of key osmolytes such as carbohydrate and proline. This treatment also increased relative water content (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI) and water use efficiency (WUE). In addition, exogenous spraying of Se/SiO2 increased drought tolerance through increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as decreasing lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content. Increase in biochemical parameters of fruits such as anthocyanin, total phenolic compounds (TPC), vitamin C and antioxidant activity (DPPH) in strawberry plants treated with Se/SiO2 under drought stress revealed the positive effects of these nanoparticles in improving fruit quality and nutritional value. In general, our results supported the positive effect of the application of selenium and silicon nanoparticles, especially the absolute role of Se/SiO2 (100 mg L−1), on the management of harmful effects of soil drought stress not only in strawberry plants, but also in other agricultural crops.

#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 19 October 2020

#82

 

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Identification of a suitable nonhuman primate (NHP) model of COVID-19 remains challenging. Here, we characterized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in three NHP species: Old World monkeys Macaca mulatta (M. mulatta) and Macaca fascicularis (M. fascicularis) and New World monkey Callithrix jacchus (C. jacchus). Infected M. mulatta and M. fascicularis showed abnormal chest radiographs, an increased body temperature and a decreased body weight. Viral genomes were detected in swab and blood samples from all animals. Viral load was detected in the pulmonary tissues of M. mulatta and M. fascicularis but not C. jacchus. Furthermore, among the three animal species, M. mulatta showed the strongest response to SARS-CoV-2, including increased inflammatory cytokine expression and pathological changes in the pulmonary tissues. Collectively, these data revealed the different susceptibilities of Old World and New World monkeys to SARS-CoV-2 and identified M. mulatta as the most suitable for modeling COVID-19.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 October 2020

#83

 

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A split-cube-resonator-based metamaterial structure that can act as a polarization- and direction-selective perfect absorber for the infrared region is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated. The structure, fabricated by direct laser writing and electroless silver plating, is comprised of four layers of conductively-coupled split-cube magnetic resonators, appropriately rotated to each other to bestow the desired electromagnetic properties. We show narrowband polarization-selective perfect absorption when the structure is illuminated from one side; the situation is reversed when illuminating from the other side, with the orthogonal linear polarization being absorbed. The absorption peak can be tuned in a wide frequency range by a sparser or denser arrangement of the split cube resonators, allowing to cover the entire atmospheric transparency window. The proposed metamaterial structure can find applications in polarization-selective thermal emission at the IR atmospheric transparency window for radiative cooling, in cost-effective infrared sensing devices, and in narrowband filters and linear polarizers in reflection mode.

#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 19 October 2020

#84

 

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The purpose was to review the incidence of in situ carcinoma in Iceland after initiating population-based mammography screening in 1987 and to compare management of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) between Iceland and the Uppsala–Örebro region (UÖR) in Central Sweden. The Icelandic Cancer Registry provided data on in situ breast carcinomas for women between 1957 and 2017. Clinical data for women with DCIS between 2008 and 2014 was extracted from hospital records and compared to women diagnosed in UÖR. In Iceland, in situ carcinoma incidence increased from 7 to 30 per 100 000 women per year, following the introduction of organised mammography screening. The proportion of in situ carcinoma of all breast carcinomas increased from 4 to 12%. More than one third (35%) of women diagnosed with DCIS in Iceland were older than 70 years versus 18% in UÖR. In Iceland, 49% of all DCIS women underwent mastectomy compared to 40% in UÖR. The incidence of in situ carcinoma in Iceland increased four-fold after the uptake of population-based mammography screening causing considerable risk of overtreatment. Differences in treatment of DCIS were seen between Iceland and UÖR, revealing the importance of quality registration for monitoring patterns of management.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#85

 

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Cryo electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a key method for structure determination involves imaging purified material embedded in vitreous ice. Images are then computationally processed to obtain three-dimensional structures approaching atomic resolution. There is increasing interest in extending structural studies by cryo-EM into the cell, where biological structures and processes may be imaged in context. The limited penetrating power of electrons prevents imaging of thick specimens (> 500 nm) however. Cryo-sectioning methods employed to overcome this are technically challenging, subject to artefacts or involve specialised and costly equipment. Here we describe the first structure of herpesvirus capsids determined by sub-tomogram averaging from nuclei of eukaryotic cells, achieved by cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) of re-vitrified cell sections prepared using the Tokuyasu method. Our reconstructions confirm that the capsid associated tegument complex is present on capsids prior to nuclear egress. We demonstrate that this method is suited to both 3D structure determination and correlative light/electron microscopy, thus expanding the scope of cryogenic cellular imaging.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#86

 

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Objective was to analyse bacterial composition and abundance of Clostridioides difficile in gut microbiome of patients with C. difficile infection (CDI) in association with clinical characteristics. Whole metagenome sequencing of gut microbiome of 26 CDI patients was performed, and the relative abundance of C. difficile and its toxin genes was measured. Clinical characteristics of the patients were obtained through medical records. A strong correlation between the abundance of C. difficile and tcdB genes in CDI patients was found. The relative abundance of C. difficile in the gut microbiome ranged from undetectable to 2.8% (median 0.089). Patients with fever exhibited low abundance of C. difficile in their gut, and patients with fewer C. difficile organisms required long-term anti-CDI treatment. Abundance of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides negatively correlated with that of C. difficile at the genus level. CDI patients were clustered using the bacterial composition of the gut: one with high population of Enterococcus (cluster 1, n = 12) and another of Bacteroides or Lactobacillus (cluster 2, n = 14). Cluster1 showed significantly lower bacterial diversity and clinical cure at the end of treatment. Additionally, patients with CDI exhibited increased ARGs; notably, blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M were enriched. C. difficile existed in variable proportion of the gut microbiome in CDI patients. CDI patients with Enterococcus-rich microbiome in the gut had lower bacterial diversity and poorer clinical cure.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#87

 

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COVID-19 has been widely spreading. We aimed to examine adaptive immune cells in non-severe patients with persistent SARS-CoV-2 shedding. 37 non-severe patients with persistent SARS-CoV-2 presence that were transferred to Zhongnan hospital of Wuhan University were retrospectively recruited to the PP (persistently positive) group, which was further allocated to PPP group (n = 19) and PPN group (n = 18), according to their testing results after 7 days (N = negative). Epidemiological, demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected and analyzed. Data from age- and sex-matched non-severe patients at disease onset (PA [positive on admission] patients, n = 37), and lymphocyte subpopulation measurements from matched 54 healthy subjects were extracted for comparison (HC). Compared with PA patients, PP patients had much improved laboratory findings. The absolute numbers of CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, and NK cells were significantly higher in PP group than that in PA group, and were comparable to that in healthy controls. PPP subgroup had markedly reduced B cells and T cells compared to PPN group and healthy subjects. Finally, paired results of these lymphocyte subpopulations from 10 PPN patients demonstrated that the number of T cells and B cells significantly increased when the SARS-CoV-2 tests turned negative. Persistent SARS-CoV-2 presence in non-severe COVID-19 patients is associated with reduced numbers of adaptive immune cells. Monitoring lymphocyte subpopulations could be clinically meaningful in identifying fully recovered COVID-19 patients.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#88

 

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Trajectory optimization with musculoskeletal models can be used to reconstruct measured movements and to predict changes in movements in response to environmental changes. It enables an exhaustive analysis of joint angles, joint moments, ground reaction forces, and muscle forces, among others. However, its application is still limited to simplified problems in two dimensional space or straight motions. The simulation of movements with directional changes, e.g. curved running, requires detailed three dimensional models which lead to a high-dimensional solution space. We extended a full-body three dimensional musculoskeletal model to be specialized for running with directional changes. Model dynamics were implemented implicitly and trajectory optimization problems were solved with direct collocation to enable efficient computation. Standing, straight running, and curved running were simulated starting from a random initial guess to confirm the capabilities of our model and approach: efficacy, tracking and predictive power. Altogether the simulations required 1 h 17 min and corresponded well to the reference data. The prediction of curved running using straight running as tracking data revealed the necessity of avoiding interpenetration of body segments. In summary, the proposed formulation is able to efficiently predict a new motion task while preserving dynamic consistency. Hence, labor-intensive and thus costly experimental studies could be replaced by simulations for movement analysis and virtual product design.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 October 2020

#89

 

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Nucleophosmin is commonly both over-expressed and mutated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). NPM1 mutations are always heterozygous. In addition, NPM1 has a number of different splice variants with the major variant encoded by exons 1–9 and 11–12 (NPM1.1). Further variants include NPM1.2 which lacks exons 8 and 10 and NPM1.3 which comprises exons 1–10 (and so lacks the region of sequence mutated in AML). In this study we quantified the expression of these three variants in 108 AML patient samples with and without NPM1 mutations and also assessed the level of expression from the wild-type and mutant alleles in variants NPM1.1 and NPM1.2. The results show that NPM1.1 is the most commonly expressed variant, however transcripts from wild-type and mutated alleles do not occur at equal levels, with a significant bias toward the mutated allele. Considering the involvement of mutant nucleophosmin in the progression and maintenance of AML, a bias towards mutated transcripts could have a significant impact on disease maintenance.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 October 2020

#90

 

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Eight advanced durum-breeding lines were treated with 5-methyl-azacytidine to test the feasibility of generating sources of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance. Of the 800 treated seeds, 415 germinated and were advanced up to four (M4) generations by selfing. Thirty-two of the resulting 415 M4 lines were selected following preliminary screening and were further tested for FHB resistance for three years at two field locations, and in the greenhouse. Five of the 32 M4 lines showed less than 30% disease severity, as compared to the parental lines and susceptible checks. Fusarium-damaged kernels and deoxynivalenol analyses supported the findings of the field and greenhouse disease assessments. Two of the most resistant M4 lines were crossed to a susceptible parent, advanced to third generation (BC1:F3) and were tested for stability and inheritance of the resistance. About, one third of the BC1:F3 lines showed FHB resistance similar to their M4 parents. The overall methylation levels (%) were compared using FASTmC method, which did not show a significant difference between M4 and parental lines. However, transcriptome analysis of one M4 line revealed significant number of differentially expressed genes related to biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, MAPK signaling, photosynthesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction and plant-pathogen interaction pathways, which may have helped in improved FHB resistance.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#91

 

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Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) imitate observed behavior less than age-matched and typically developing peers, resulting in deterred learning ability and social interaction. However, this deficit lacks preclinical assessment tools. A previous study has shown that mice exhibit contagious itch behavior while viewing a scratching demonstrator mouse, as opposed to an ambulating demonstrator mouse, but whether autism mouse models imitate observed scratching behavior remains unknown. Here, we investigated contagious itch behavior in the mouse model of fragile X syndrome (FXS), a common form of inherited intellectual disabilities with a high risk for ASDs. We found that the mouse model of FXS shows deficits in contagious itch behavior. Our findings can be used as a new preclinical assessment tool for measuring imitative deficits in the study of neurodevelopmental disorders including FXS.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#92

 

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Here, we describe a novel approach that allows pathologists to three-dimensionally analyse malignant tissues, including the tumour-host tissue interface. Our visualization technique utilizes a combination of ultrafast chemical tissue clearing and light-sheet microscopy to obtain virtual slices and 3D reconstructions of up to multiple centimetre sized tumour resectates. For the clearing of tumours we propose a preparation technique comprising three steps: (a) Fixation and enhancement of tissue autofluorescence with formalin/5-sulfosalicylic acid. (b) Ultrafast active chemical dehydration with 2,2-dimethoxypropane and (c) refractive index matching with dibenzyl ether at up to 56 °C. After clearing, the tumour resectates are imaged. The images are computationally post-processed for contrast enhancement and artefact removal and then 3D reconstructed. Importantly, the sequence a–c is fully reversible, allowing the morphological correlation of one and the same histological structures, once visualized with our novel technique and once visualized by standard H&E- and IHC-staining. After reverting the clearing procedure followed by standard H&E processing, the hallmarks of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) found in the cleared samples could be successfully correlated with the corresponding structures present in H&E and IHC staining. Since the imaging of several thousands of optical sections is a fast process, it is possible to analyse a larger part of the tumour than by mechanical slicing. As this also adds further information about the 3D structure of malignancies, we expect that our technology will become a valuable addition for histological diagnosis in clinical pathology.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#93

 

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16p11.2 and 22q11.2 Copy Number Variants (CNVs) confer high risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), schizophrenia (SZ), and Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD), but their impact on functional connectivity (FC) remains unclear. Here we report an analysis of resting-state FC using magnetic resonance imaging data from 101 CNV carriers, 755 individuals with idiopathic ASD, SZ, or ADHD and 1,072 controls. We characterize CNV FC-signatures and use them to identify dimensions contributing to complex idiopathic conditions. CNVs have large mirror effects on FC at the global and regional level. Thalamus, somatomotor, and posterior insula regions play a critical role in dysconnectivity shared across deletions, duplications, idiopathic ASD, SZ but not ADHD. Individuals with higher similarity to deletion FC-signatures exhibit worse cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Deletion similarities identified at the connectivity level could be related to the redundant associations observed genome-wide between gene expression spatial patterns and FC-signatures. Results may explain why many CNVs affect a similar range of neuropsychiatric symptoms. The impact of neurodevelopmental mutations on functional brain connectivity is poorly understood. Here the authors identify thalamo-sensorimotor dysconnectivity dimensions shared across 16p11.2 and 22q11.2 copy number variants, autism and schizophrenia, but not ADHD.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#94

 

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#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#95

 

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Polymorphs, crystals with different structure and properties but the same molecular composition, arise from the subtle interplay between thermodynamics and kinetics during crystallisation. In this opinion piece, the authors review the latest developments in the field of polymorphism and discuss standing open questions.

#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 19 October 2020

#96

 

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The modern energy economy and environmental infrastructure rely on the flow of fluids through fractures in rock. Yet this flow cannot be imaged directly because rocks are opaque to most probes. Here we apply chattering dust, or chemically reactive grains of sucrose containing pockets of pressurized carbon dioxide, to study rock fractures. As a dust grain dissolves, the pockets burst and emit acoustic signals that are detected by distributed sets of external ultrasonic sensors that track the dust movement through fracture systems. The dust particles travel through locally varying fracture apertures with varying speeds and provide information about internal fracture geometry, flow paths and bottlenecks. Chattering dust particles have an advantage over chemical sensors because they do not need to be collected, and over passive tracers because the chattering dust delineates the transport path. The current laboratory work has potential to scale up to near-borehole applications in the field. Chattering dust, or chemically reactive grains of sucrose containing pockets of pressurized carbon dioxide, are used in this experimental approach to study rock fractures. The chattering dust emits acoustic shocks that can be monitored and illuminates fracture geometry.

#Software
Field # Software
Updated 19 October 2020

#97

 

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Xiaomi has announced an 80W Mi Wireless Charging technology today. As per the company, this technology is said to charge a 4000mAh battery by 10% in a minute and by 50% in 8 minutes and by 100% in 19 minutes.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#98

 

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The White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) said Friday that federal agencies will use artificial intelligence to eliminate outdated, obsolete, and inconsistent requirements across tens of pages of government regulations.

#Artificial intelligence
Field # Artificial intelligence
Updated 19 October 2020

#99

 

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Uber on Monday said the riders who have been tagged for not wearing mask on a previous trip will have to take a selfie showing them wearing a mask, in order to book their next trip.

#Social & Corporation affairs;#Vehicles & Special machines
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 19 October 2020

#100

 

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The cyber security technology, called quantum key distribution (QKD), leverages the nature of quantum physics to provide two remote parties with cryptographic keys that are immune to cyberattacks driven by quantum computers.

#Hardware & Devices
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#101

 

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The announcement, Samsung says, is aimed at reducing usage of printed brochures, thus contributing to the environment. It will also provide a safe and enhanced buying experience for the customers.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#102

 

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Samsung is gearing up for the launch of its next-generation S-series smartphone. The company is working on its next flagship smartphone, rumoured to be called Samsung Galaxy S21. As reported by Android Central, the smartphone has entered mass production and could launch in January next year.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#103

 

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Payment solution provider Paytm has launched a new product for the Indian financial market. The company has launched its new credit cards in association with various card issuers. The company has announced that it plans to issue nearly 2 million co-branded cards in the next 12 to 18 months.

#Social & Corporation affairs;#Economy;#Finance
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 19 October 2020

#104

 

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LG Display is expected to return to the black in the third quarter of the year, analysts said on Monday, on the back of a price increase in LCD panels and solid demand for displays used in IT gadgets amid the pandemic-driven stay-at-home economy.

#Hardware & Devices
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#105

 

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The European Union needs to come up with a strategy to counter disinformation about 5G technology or risk false claims derailing its economic recovery and digital goals, a group of 15 countries including Poland and Sweden said.

#Social & Corporation affairs
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 19 October 2020

#106

 

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Taiwanese carriers have forecast that Apples latest iPhone 12 series will have stronger sales than the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#107

 

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Description
TBD

#Astronautics
Field # Astronautics
Updated 19 October 2020

#108

 

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Description
TBD

#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 19 October 2020

#109

 

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Description
TBD

#Astronautics
Field # Astronautics
Updated 19 October 2020

#110

 

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Description
TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#111

 

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Description
TBD

#Entertainments
Field # Entertainments
Updated 19 October 2020

#113

 

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Dutch firm Philips said Monday its third quarter net profit rose sharply as its health arm got a boost from demand driven by the coronavirus pandemic.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#114

 

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A Russian goes on trial in Paris Monday accused of having defrauded nearly 200 victims across the world of 135 million euros using ransomware.

#Software;#Security
Field # Software
Updated 19 October 2020

#115

 

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The covid-19 pandemic has shown us that rapid change to both systems and behaviours are possible – now we must harness what we have learned as we rebuild our economies

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 October 2020

#116

 

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Planning regular two-week lockdowns could be better than reacting to changing covid-19 case numbers, some scientists argue - but the UK may have left it too late for this strategy

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#117

 

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TBD

#Astronautics
Field # Astronautics
Updated 19 October 2020

#118

 

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Name
Description
A smartphone-powered robot is at your fingertips.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#119

 

View it
Name
Description
A leaker claims Samsung's new flagships are coming in January, and he's got renders.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#120

 

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Name
Description
In his quest to bring ever-faster cameras to the world, Caltech's Lihong Wang has developed technology that can reach blistering speeds of 70 trillion frames per second, fast enough to see light travel. Just like the camera in your cell phone, though, it can only produce flat images. Now, Wang's la

#Entertainments;#Films
Field # Entertainments
Updated 19 October 2020

#121

 

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Name
Description
Hair loss seems like a minor problem to many. You got bald, so what? Some people prefer this look. However, for many men going bald is a terrible experience and they would pay good money to avoid it. Now scientists at the University of Helsinki have identified a mechanism that is likely to prevent h

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#122

 

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Name
Description
Our understanding of quantum physics has involved the creation of a wide range of “quasiparticles.” These notional constructs describe emergent phenomena that appear to have the properties of multiple other particles mixed together. An exciton, for example, is a quasiparticle that acts like an el

#Hardware & Devices
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#123

 

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Name
Description
Machine learning algorithms have the potential to provide huge benefits in health care, potentially providing more reliable diagnoses than human doctors in some cases. Yet, many of us are reluctant to entrust our health to an algorithm – especially when even its designers can’t explain exactly how i

#Artificial intelligence
Field # Artificial intelligence
Updated 19 October 2020

#124

 

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Name
Description
The fossilised remains of ancient deep-sea corals may act as time machines providing new insights into the effect the ocean has on rising CO2 levels, according to new research carried out by the Universities of Bristol, St Andrews and Nanjing and published in Science Advances. Rising CO2 leve

#Archaeology & History
Field # Archaeology & History
Updated 19 October 2020

#125

 

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Name
Description
Breathing in iron sounds like a bad idea and yet millions of chinese people are forced to do that. How does iron appear in the air? Industrial and vehicle pollution produce enough acidic gases to dissolve insoluble iron particles in East China’s major cities. Scientists at the University of Birm

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 October 2020

#126

 

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Name
Description
A new system developed by chemical engineers at MIT could provide a way of continuously removing carbon dioxide from a stream of waste gases, or even from the air. The key component is an electrochemically assisted membrane whose permeability to gas can be switched on and off at will, using no movin

#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 19 October 2020

#127

 

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Name
Description
Vi (Vodafone Idea) has introduced a weekend data rollover system for its prepaid customers which allows them to carry forward their daily unused data to the weekend. Till now, whatever data is unused on a daily basis is wasted, but with the new weekend rollover scheme, customers will be able to make use of all or a larger chunk of data that their plan includes, on the weekend.

#Telecommunications
Field # Telecommunications
Updated 19 October 2020

#128

 

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Name
Description
Toshiba is aiming to generate $3 billion in revenue from its advanced cryptographic technology for data protection by 2030, as the Japanese sprawling conglomerate scrambles to find future growth drivers.

#Hardware & Devices
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#129

 

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Name
Description
The European Union needs to come up with a strategy to counter disinformation about 5G technology or risk false claims derailing its economic recovery and digital goals, a group of 15 countries including Poland and Sweden said.

#Social & Corporation affairs
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 19 October 2020

#130

 

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Name
Description
Xiaomi has announced 80W fast wireless charging technology through a post on Chinese micro-blogging website, Weibo. The company claims that this technology can charge a 4,000mAh battery in just 19 minutes.

#Energy
Field # Energy
Updated 19 October 2020

#131

 

View it
Name
Description
Oppo F17 Pro Diwali Edition is priced in India at Rs. 23,990. The phone is up for pre-order from today and the sale will begin on October 23. The new model is called Matte Gold and this new variant comes in a Diwali box that includes a power bank and a cover case.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#132

 

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Name
Description
OnePlus 8T has got a new update that brings some system, camera, and network improvements. The update comes with version 11.0.1.2 for Oxygen OS 11. Surprisingly, this update also brings a new Amazon shopping app, for a &ldquo;better shopping experience.&rdquo;

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#133

 

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Name
Description
LG has announced that it recorded Rs. 350 crores revenue from the sale of the LG G8X ThinQ, in less than 12 hours of opening Flipkart sale. LG has introduced a massive price cut on the phone for the festive sale, alongside bank cashback and no-cost EMI options.

#Hardware & Devices;#Gadgets
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#134

 

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Name
Description
Apple has listed how much it will cost to get a screen on the iPhone 12 or the 12 Pro repaired. It will set you back by $279 (roughly Rs. 21,000) in the US, according to repair prices listed on Apple&rsquo;s website.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#135

 

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Name
Description
HTC Desire 20+ has been launched in Taiwan and it joins the Desire 20 Pro that was launched in the country in June. These is no vanilla HTC Desire 20 in the series yet. The Desire 20+ boats of a quad rear camera setup, a notched selfie camera, and an octa-core processor under the hood.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#136

 

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Name
Description
The OnePlus 8T debuts the company&rsquo;s brand new version of OxygenOS. Based on Android 11, here are some of the cool new features to try out in OxygenOS 11.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#137

 

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Name
Description
Apple is hosting a series of free virtual sessions in India under &lsquo;Today at Apple.&rsquo; The workshops began on October 17, and will continue till November 29. A month after the Apple Store online launched in India, the tech giant will be commemorating the occasion by offering free virtual workshops related to creative fields.

#Entertainments;#Music
Field # Entertainments
Updated 19 October 2020

#138

 

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Name
Description
This feature will request Uber riders, specifically those who have been called out for not wearing a mask in their previous trip, to take a selfie that shows them wearing a mask. This selfie will be mandatory for these riders, in order to book their next trip.

#Entertainments
Field # Entertainments
Updated 19 October 2020

#139

 

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Name
Description
For some users, Microsoft was installing Office PWAs into the new Edge and registering them with Windows 10 without permission. While these can be uninstalled, users were not even informed about the apps being installed.

#Hardware & Devices
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#140

 

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Name
Description
Google Assistant driving mode on Maps seems to have started rolling out to Android devices, as per a report. It is unclear if the Google Assistant driving mode is being tested or will be rolling out for all devices soon. The feature was first unveiled by Google at its I/O developers conference last year.

#Hardware & Devices
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#141

 

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Name
Description
Burst Mode in a smartphone can be used to capture a better photo of any moving subject like a flying bird or a kid playing with a ball.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#142

 

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Name
Description
Vi prepaid users can now collect unused data over the week and use it on the weekends for streaming or downloading.

#Social & Corporation affairs;#Environment & Nature
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 19 October 2020

#143

 

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Name
Description
the first OxygenOS update for the OnePlus 8T adds to the phone the new Canvas AOD feature and other optimisations.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#144

 

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Name
Description
Dr Kat Arney explains exactly what cancer is, what causes it and the exciting future of treatment.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#145

 

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Name
Description
Scientists in Japan have used a boron-based reaction to create synthetic oil at room temperature, paving the way for greener oil production.

#Energy
Field # Energy
Updated 19 October 2020

#146

 

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Name
Description
TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 October 2020

#147

 

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Name
Description
TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#148

 

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Name
Description
Democrat Merav Ben-David wants to “put science in the Senate”

#Social & Corporation affairs
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 19 October 2020

#149

 

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Name
Description
Astronomers expect Betelgeuse will go supernova in the next 100,000 years, and it turns out this star might be much ...

#Astronautics
Field # Astronautics
Updated 19 October 2020

#150

 

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Name
Description
TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#151

 

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Name
Description
The PlayStation 5 cooling system will be improved through online updates, as Sony says it will collect data from games to tweak the console's fans.

#Entertainments;#Games
Field # Entertainments
Updated 19 October 2020

#152

 

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Name
Description
TBD

#Entertainments;#Games
Field # Entertainments
Updated 19 October 2020

#153

 

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Name
Description
With the announcement of the HomePod mini, you might wonder how it stacks against the Nest Audio. Here is a side-by-side comparison of the two smart speakers.

#Hardware & Devices;#Artificial intelligence
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#154

 

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Name
Description
The iRobot Roomba 675, which typically sells for $280, is now on sale for $249 at Amazon.

#Household appliances
Field # Household appliances
Updated 19 October 2020

#155

 

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Name
Description
A NASA spacecraft this week will attempt to descend to the treacherous, boulder-packed surface and snatch a handful of rubble.

#Astronautics
Field # Astronautics
Updated 19 October 2020

#156

 

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Name
Description
By jumping 930 years into the future, Discovery frees itself from the constraints of previous Star Trek series, making it a far more entertaining and unpredictable show.

#Entertainments
Field # Entertainments
Updated 19 October 2020

#157

 

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Name
Description
The MacBook Air is still at its Prime Day price, too.

#Hardware & Devices;#Entertainments;#Games
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#158

 

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Name
Description
Your Nest Hub screen is about to change up its look.

#Hardware & Devices
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#159

 

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Name
Description
Apple Music TV is pretty much what MTV used to be, according to Variety.

#Entertainments;#Music
Field # Entertainments
Updated 19 October 2020

#160

 

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Name
Description
The app would let loved ones ping your location if they were worried about you.

#Software
Field # Software
Updated 19 October 2020

#161

 

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Name
Description
Remember when MTV played music videos?

#Entertainments
Field # Entertainments
Updated 19 October 2020

#162

 

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Name
Description
Don't miss a gallery of breathtaking images showing the rocket recovery process.

#Astronautics
Field # Astronautics
Updated 19 October 2020

#163

 

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Name
Description
Oliver Webb set the record on a closed stretch of highway in Nevada on October 10.

#Software
Field # Software
Updated 19 October 2020

#164

 

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Name
Description
38 inches of OLED screen stretch out in front of the driver.

#Vehicles & Special machines
Field # Vehicles & Special machines
Updated 19 October 2020

#165

 

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Name
Description
Conspiracy theorists, hate-filled groups have trouble staying online.

#Software;#Security
Field # Software
Updated 19 October 2020

#166

 

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Name
Description
Finding the right balance between collaboration and privacy is suddenly critical.

#Social & Corporation affairs;#Economy
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 19 October 2020

#167

 

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Name
Description
Mitochondrial DNA damage, metabolic disruption and aging have all been associated with cancer. These three threads are now woven together to show that aging-associated somatic mutations to mitochondrial DNA alter mitochondrial serine metabolism to support cell transformation and colon-cancer development.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#168

 

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Name
Description
Feeding infants with formula requires heating water and bottles for sterilization and formula preparation. Plastic infant feeding bottles are commonly used, and now their potential to release microplastics has been explored at a global scale.

#Food
Field # Food
Updated 19 October 2020

#169

 

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Name
Description
The Zero Childhood Cancer Program’s multi-platform sequencing approach identified molecular alterations in 94% of a cohort of 247 pediatric patients with high-risk cancers, which has enabled more-precise diagnoses and alternative therapeutic recommendations.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#170

 

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Name
Description
An open question in aggressive cancers such as melanoma is how malignant cells can shift the immune system to pro-tumorigenic functions. Here we identify midkine (MDK) as a melanoma-secreted driver of an inflamed, but immune evasive, microenvironment that defines poor patient prognosis and resistance to immune checkpoint blockade. Mechanistically, MDK was found to control the transcriptome of melanoma cells, allowing for coordinated activation of nuclear factor-κB and downregulation of interferon-associated pathways. The resulting MDK-modulated secretome educated macrophages towards tolerant phenotypes that promoted CD8+ T cell dysfunction. In contrast, genetic targeting of MDK sensitized melanoma cells to anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 treatment. Emphasizing the translational relevance of these findings, the expression profile of MDK-depleted tumors was enriched in key indicators of a good response to immune checkpoint blockers in independent patient cohorts. Together, these data reveal that MDK acts as an internal modulator of autocrine and paracrine signals that maintain immune suppression in aggressive melanomas. Tumor-secreted midkine modulates immune tolerance in the melanoma tumor microenvironment and determines resistance to immune checkpoint blockade.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 October 2020

#171

 

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Name
Description
The tetracycline antibiotic doxycycline is shown to not only have direct antimicrobial effects but also promote disease tolerance mechanisms, including tissue repair and metabolic reprogramming.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#172

 

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Description
Summer research programmes are renowned for encouraging underrepresented minorities (URMs) to pursue STEM careers, but COVID-19 left many students in the United States unable to participate. We created the National Summer Undergraduate Research Project to matchmake students with mentors, enabling 250 URM students to do summer research.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 October 2020

#173

 

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Description
Sepsis is the most common cause of death for patients in intensive care worldwide due to a dysregulated host response to infection. Here, we investigate the role of sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1/p62), an autophagy receptor that functions as a regulator of innate immunity, in sepsis. We find that lipopolysaccharide elicits gasdermin D-dependent pyroptosis to enable passive SQSTM1 release from macrophages and monocytes, whereas transmembrane protein 173-dependent TANK-binding kinase 1 activation results in the phosphorylation of SQSTM1 at Ser403 and subsequent SQSTM1 secretion from macrophages and monocytes. Moreover, extracellular SQSTM1 binds to insulin receptor, which in turn activates a nuclear factor kappa B-dependent metabolic pathway, leading to aerobic glycolysis and polarization of macrophages. Intraperitoneal injection of anti-SQSTM1-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies or conditional depletion of Insr in myeloid cells using the Cre–loxP system protects mice from lethal sepsis (caecal ligation and puncture or infection by Escherichia coli or Streptococcus pneumoniae) and endotoxaemia. We also report that circulating SQSTM1 and the messenger RNA expression levels of SQSTM1 and INSR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells are related to the severity of sepsis in 40 patients. Thus, extracellular SQSTM1 has a pathological role in sepsis and could be targeted to develop therapies for sepsis. Extracellular SQSTM1 has a role in immunometabolism and could be targeted to develop therapeutics to treat sepsis.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#175

 

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Description
Addressing the problems caused by AI applications in society with ethics frameworks is futile until we confront the political structure of such applications.

#Hardware & Devices
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#176

 

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Name
Description
Customized Cu3(PO4)2 and CuO nanosheets and commercial CuO nanoparticles were investigated for micronutrient delivery and suppression of soybean sudden death syndrome. An ab initio thermodynamics approach modelled how material morphology and matrix effects control the nutrient release. Infection reduced the biomass and photosynthesis by 70.3 and 60%, respectively; the foliar application of nanoscale Cu reversed this damage. Disease-induced changes in the antioxidant enzyme activity and fatty acid profile were also alleviated by Cu amendment. The transcription of two dozen defence- and health-related genes correlates a nanoscale Cu-enhanced innate disease response to reduced pathogenicity and increased growth. Cu-based nanosheets exhibited a greater disease suppression than that of CuO nanoparticles due to a greater leaf surface affinity and Cu dissolution, as determined computationally and experimentally. The findings highlight the importance and tunability of nanomaterial properties, such as morphology, composition and dissolution. The early seedling foliar application of nanoscale Cu to modulate nutrition and enhance immunity offers a great potential for sustainable agriculture. Foliar application of different forms of nanoscale copper to plant seedlings induces material-specific biochemical and molecular changes in root tissue that stimulate plant defence against soybean sudden death syndrome.

#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 19 October 2020

#177

 

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Description
Music is characterized by acoustic forms that are predictive of its behavioural functions. For example, adult listeners accurately identify unfamiliar lullabies as infant-directed on the basis of their musical features alone. This property could reflect a function of listeners’ experiences, the basic design of the human mind, or both. Here, we show that US infants (N = 144) relax in response to eight unfamiliar foreign lullabies, relative to matched non-lullaby songs from other foreign societies, as indexed by heart rate, pupillometry and electrodermal activity. They do so consistently throughout the first year of life, suggesting that the response is not a function of their musical experiences, which are limited relative to those of adults. The infants’ parents overwhelmingly chose lullabies as the songs that they would use to calm their fussy infant, despite their unfamiliarity. Together, these findings suggest that infants may be predisposed to respond to common features of lullabies found in different cultures. Infants listened to lullabies and other songs recorded in cultures and languages that were unfamiliar to them. They relaxed more in response to the lullabies. This suggests that infants may be predisposed to respond to common features of lullabies.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 October 2020

#178

 

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Description
Labelling proteins at internal sites holds promise for generating novel protein conjugates in a programmable fashion. Now, a chemoenzymatic approach, dubbed LACE, enables the site-specific modification of recombinant proteins that contain a short genetically encoded tag.

#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 19 October 2020

#179

 

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Description
Ferroelectric field-effect transistors could play a key role in the development of data-centric computing hardware.

#Hardware & Devices
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#180

 

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Description


#Hardware & Devices
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#181

 

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Description
A cleaning–healing–cleaning method can effectively eliminate ionic defects at the surface of perovskite films, resulting in reliable and high-performance perovskite transistors.

#Hardware & Devices
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#182

 

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Description
High-resolution, multiplexed experiments are a staple in cellular imaging. Analogous experiments in animals are challenging, however, due to substantial scattering and autofluorescence in tissue at visible (350–700 nm) and near-infrared (700–1,000 nm) wavelengths. Here, we enable real-time, non-invasive multicolour imaging experiments in animals through the design of optical contrast agents for the shortwave infrared (SWIR, 1,000–2,000 nm) region and complementary advances in imaging technologies. We developed tunable, SWIR-emissive flavylium polymethine dyes and established relationships between structure and photophysical properties for this class of bright SWIR contrast agents. In parallel, we designed an imaging system with variable near-infrared/SWIR excitation and single-channel detection, facilitating video-rate multicolour SWIR imaging for optically guided surgery and imaging of awake and moving mice with multiplexed detection. Optimized dyes matched to 980 nm and 1,064 nm lasers, combined with the clinically approved indocyanine green, enabled real-time, three-colour imaging with high temporal and spatial resolutions. Conducting high-resolution, multiplexed imaging in living mammals is challenging because of considerable scattering and autofluorescence in tissue at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Now, real-time, non-invasive multicolour imaging experiments in live animals have been achieved through the design of optical contrast agents for the shortwave infrared (SWIR, 1,000–2,000 nm) region and the introduction of excitation multiplexing with single-channel SWIR detection.

#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 19 October 2020

#183

 

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Description
The Milky Way galaxy is surrounded by a circumgalactic medium1 that may play a key role in galaxy evolution as the source of gas for star formation and a repository of metals and energy produced by star formation and nuclear activity2. The circumgalactic medium may also be a repository for baryons seen in the early universe, but undetected locally3. The circumgalactic medium has an ionized component at temperatures near 2 × 106 K studied primarily in the soft-X-ray band4,5. Here we report a survey of the southern Galactic sky with a soft-X-ray spectrometer optimized to study diffuse soft-X-ray emission6. The X-ray emission is best fitted with a disk-like model based on the radial profile of the surface density of molecular hydrogen, a tracer of star formation, suggesting that the X-ray emission is predominantly from hot plasma produced via stellar feedback. Strong variations in the X-ray emission on angular scales of ~10° indicate that the circumgalactic medium is clumpy. Addition of an extended, and possibly massive, halo component is needed to match the halo density inferred from other observations7–9. Soft X-ray observations of the southern Galactic sky with the HaloSat CubeSat indicate that the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of the Milky Way has a disk-like profile, with an extended spherical halo. Clumps in the CGM correlate with star-formation activity.

#Astronautics
Field # Astronautics
Updated 19 October 2020

#184

 

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Description
Redmi General Manager Lu Weibing confirmed in a Weibo post that the Redmi may consider launching a mini Redmi smartphone like the iPhone 12 Mini. For those unaware, the iPhone 12 Mini comes with a 5.4-inch touchscreen.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#185

 

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Description
Telecom operator Vi (Vodafone Idea) has launched a new feature — called Weekend Rollover of data — for its prepaid customers in India. The company in a press statement announced that the prepaid users of the telecom service provider will be able to use more data during the weekends by carrying forward the unutilised data from the daily quota during the week.

#Social & Corporation affairs;#Environment & Nature
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 19 October 2020

#186

 

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Name
Description
Hackers imitated Microsoft the most to lure people into giving up their personal data or payment credentials in the third quarter of this year, a new report by researchers at cybersecurity firm Check Point said on Monday.

#Software;#Social & Corporation affairs
Field # Software
Updated 19 October 2020

#187

 

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Name
Description
The iPhone 12 is said to be powered by a 2,815mAh battery while the battery capacity of the iPhone 12 Mini is claimed to be 2,227mAh.

#Energy
Field # Energy
Updated 19 October 2020

#188

 

View it
Name
Description
TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 October 2020

#189

 

View it
Name
Description
TBD

#Astronautics
Field # Astronautics
Updated 19 October 2020

#190

 

View it
Name
Description
TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#191

 

View it
Name
Description
TBD

#Astronautics
Field # Astronautics
Updated 19 October 2020

#192

 

View it
Name
Description
TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#193

 

View it
Name
Description
TBD

#Archaeology & History
Field # Archaeology & History
Updated 19 October 2020

#194

 

View it
Name
Description
TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#195

 

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Name
Description
Month-on-month, year-on-year, the world continues to experience record high temperatures. In response to this and exacerbated by a growing global population, it is expected that air-conditioning demand will continue to rise. ...

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 October 2020

#196

 

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Description
To gain a better understanding of human behavior and cognition, as well as their neural underpinnings, researchers often study other mammals with similar characteristics. One of the most common species examined in these studies ...

#Artificial Intelligence
Field # Artificial Intelligence
Updated 19 October 2020

#197

 

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Name
Description
German reinsurance giant Munich Re said Monday that it anticipates a boom in cyber-risk insurance in the wake of the coronavirus pandemic.

#Software;#Security
Field # Software
Updated 19 October 2020

#198

 

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Name
Description
Power electronics regulate and modify electric power. They are in computers, power steering systems, solar cells, and many other technologies. Researchers are seeking to enhance power electronics by using silicon carbide ...

#Energy
Field # Energy
Updated 19 October 2020

#199

 

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Description
Researchers from the Image Processing Laboratory (IPL) of the University of Valencia and the Department of Information and Communication Technologies (DTIC) of the Pompeu Fabra University (UPF) have shown that convolutional ...

#Artificial Intelligence
Field # Artificial Intelligence
Updated 19 October 2020

#200

 

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Name
Description
The financial arm of Chinese e-commerce titan Alibaba received Monday a green light from Chinese regulators to list in Hong Kong, according to data published online, another step towards the biggest IPO in history.

#Social & Corporation affairs
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 19 October 2020

#201

 

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Name
Description
Facebook has developed an AI that can translate directly between any pair of 100 languages without having to go through an English translation first, as many existing systems do

#Artificial intelligence
Field # Artificial intelligence
Updated 19 October 2020

#202

 

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Name
Description
The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#203

 

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Name
Description
We can now precisely count how many cancer-related DNA mutations accumulate in smokers’ organs over time

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#204

 

View it
Name
Description
TBD

#Entertainments;#Games
Field # Entertainments
Updated 19 October 2020

#205

 

View it
Name
Description
TBD

#Archaeology & History
Field # Archaeology & History
Updated 19 October 2020

#206

 

View it
Name
Description
TBD

#Astronautics
Field # Astronautics
Updated 19 October 2020

#207

 

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Name
Description
We’ve spotted a huge deal on the earbuds, and it could save you 47% on the mid-range maestros.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#208

 

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Name
Description
TBD

#Software;#Social & Corporation affairs
Field # Software
Updated 19 October 2020

#209

 

View it
Name
Description
TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 October 2020

#210

 

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Name
Description
Xiaomi's next-gen wireless charging technology can get a smartphone fully charged in 19 minutes.

#Energy
Field # Energy
Updated 19 October 2020

#211

 

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Description
A team led by scientists in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania has produced a detailed picture of fuel and nutrient use by the human heart. The study, published in Science, was the first of its kind, involving the simultaneous sampling of blood from different parts of

#Energy
Field # Energy
Updated 19 October 2020

#212

 

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Description
Multidrug resistance (MDR) – a process in which tumours become resistant to multiple medicines –– is the main cause of failure of cancer chemotherapy. Tumour cells often acquire MDR by boosting their production of proteins that pump drugs out of the cell, rendering the chemotherapies ineffective.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#213

 

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Description
Nokia has been selected by NASA to build the first cellular network on the moon, the Finnish company said on Monday, as the US space agency plans for a future where humans return there and establish lunar settlements.

#Astronautics
Field # Astronautics
Updated 19 October 2020

#214

 

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Name
Description
The latest One UI 2.5 update for Samsung Galaxy S9 and Samsung Galaxy S9+ users is rolling out in Germany whereas the same update for Samsung Galaxy A51 users is rolling out in Russia for now. Samsung Galaxy A51 units with the model number SM-A515F are getting the One UI 2.5 update with the firmware version A515FXXU4CTJ1.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#215

 

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Xiaomi General Manager Lu Weibing posted on Weibo confirming that Redmi has also considered the possibility of producing a &lsquo;mini&rsquo; smartphone. However, the company will have to compromise on the battery capacity a lot. He suggests that reducing the form factor of a smartphone will directly mean that the battery integrated inside will be smaller and so the battery life will be compromised significantly.

#Energy
Field # Energy
Updated 19 October 2020

#216

 

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Analyst Ming-Chi Kuo estimates that pre-orders of just the iPhone 12 and the 12 Pro &ndash; that began in the UK, US, China and a few other countries on October 16 &ndash; may have matched the launch performance of the entire iPhone 11 lineup in 2019.

#Gadgets
Field # Gadgets
Updated 19 October 2020

#217

 

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Raspberry Pi Compute Module 4 has been launched. It 4 will be offered in 32 variants and starts at $25 (roughly Rs. 1,833). Raspberry Pi 4 was introduced more than a year ago.

#Food
Field # Food
Updated 19 October 2020

#218

 

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Amazon has said that the Great Indian Festival, on till October 21, has registered its biggest ever opening this year. The top sold categories have been smartphones, large appliances, and consumer electronics, with Apple, Samsung, OnePlus, and Xiaomi selling products in record numbers.

#Entertainments
Field # Entertainments
Updated 19 October 2020

#219

 

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You can add an extra layer of security other than your password by enabling 2-step verification for your Google account by following the given steps.

#Social & Corporation affairs
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 19 October 2020

#220

 

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The new Fujifilm GFX camera could arrive in the first half of 2021 with the same image sensor that is there in the existing Fujifilm GFX100 model.

#Hardware & Devices
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#221

 

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Do. Your. Part. #BeCyberSmart What’s scarier than a haunted house and more expensive than a giant Halloween party? Cyberattacks –…...

#Social & Corporation affairs
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 19 October 2020

#222

 

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There is increasing interest in utilizing in vitro cultures as patient avatars to develop personalized treatment for cancer. Typical cultures utilize Matrigel-coated plates and media to promote the proliferation of cancer cells as spheroids or tumor explants. However, standard culture conditions operate in large volumes and require a high concentration of cancer cells to initiate this process. Other limitations include variability in the ability to successfully establish a stable line and inconsistency in the dimensions of these microcancers for in vivo drug response measurements. This paper explored the utility of microfluidics in the cultivation of cancer cell spheroids. Six patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumors of high-grade serous ovarian cancer were used as the source material to demonstrate that viability and epithelial marker expression in the microfluidic cultures was superior to that of Matrigel or large volume 3D cultures. To further demonstrate the potential for miniaturization and multiplexing, we fabricated multichamber microfluidic devices with integrated microvalves to enable serial seeding of several chambers followed by parallel testing of several drug concentrations. These valve-enabled microfluidic devices permitted the formation of spheroids and testing of seven drug concentrations with as few as 100,000 cancer cells per device. Overall, we demonstrate the feasibility of maintaining difficul-to-culture primary cancer cells and testing drugs in a microfluidic device. This microfluidic platform may be ideal for drug testing and personalized therapy when tumor material is limited, such as following the acquisition of biopsy specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration. Researchers in the United States have developed a microfluidic system for culturing ovarian cancer organoids. The use of microfluidics makes it possible to create cultures starting from a smaller number of cells than existing approaches. The team compared the new approach to standard techniques and found that the resulting cultures were superior in terms of viability, proliferation, and phenotype expression. Building on this framework, the researchers developed an 8-chamber microfluidic device which could be seeded serially and then used for parallel testing of different drug concentrations. The device required with fewer than 100,000 cells, which is insufficient to test multiple conditions using existing approaches. The ability to work reliably with small cells numbers makes this microfluidic platform well-suited for personalized drug testing when the sample material is limited.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#223

 

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The present research describes the design of robust electrochemical sensors based on electro-responsive molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (e-MIPs). The e-MIPs, tagged with a redox probe, combine both recognition and reporting functions. This system replaces enzyme-mediator pairs used in traditional biosensors. The analyte recognition process relies on the generic actuation phenomenon when the polymer conformation of e-MIPs is changing in response to the presence of the template analyte. The analyte concentration is measured using voltammetric methods. In an exemplification of this technology, electrochemical sensors were developed for the determination of concentrations of trypsin, glucose, paracetamol, C4-homoserine lactone, and THC. The present technology allows for the possibility of producing generic, inexpensive, and robust disposable sensors for clinical, environmental, and forensic applications. Robust generic electrochemical sensors have been designed based on electroactive molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (e-MIPs), in which molecular imprinting (creating template-shaped recognition sites in polymers) is applied to nanoparticles. Commercial biosensor technology has made remarkable advances over the past decade, but glucose biosensors still account for the overwhelming majority of the world biosensor market. However, a team headed by Alvaro Garcia-Cruz and Sergey Piletsky at the University of Leicester, United Kingdom has succeeded in designing electrochemical sensors employing e-MIPs. The e-MIPs combine both recognition and reporting functions in a system that replaces the enzyme-mediator pairs used with conventional biosensors. Ease of production and cost efficiency are major technological advantages of this technology over traditional sensors. The authors believe that their system has considerable potential for producing generic, inexpensive, and robust disposable sensors for clinical, environmental, and forensic applications.

#Hardware & Devices
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#224

 

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Convened by the MIT Schwarzman College of Computing, the AI Policy Forum is a global collaboration to move AI principles to practice.

#Artificial Intelligence
Field # Artificial Intelligence
Updated 19 October 2020

#225

 

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Transition-metal–carbonyl complexes are common organometallic reagents that feature metal–CO bonds. These complexes have proven to be powerful catalysts for various applications. By contrast, silicon–carbonyl complexes, organosilicon reagents poised to be eco-friendly alternatives for transition-metal carbonyls, have remained largely elusive. They have mostly been explored theoretically and/or through low-temperature matrix isolation studies, but their instability had typically precluded isolation under ambient conditions. Here we present the synthesis, isolation and full characterization of stable silyl-substituted silicon–carbonyl complexes, along with bonding analysis. Initial reactivity investigations showed examples of CO liberation, which could be induced either thermally or photochemically, as well as substitution and functionalization of the CO moiety. Importantly, the complexes exhibit strong Si–CO bonding, with CO→Si σ-donation and Si→CO π-backbonding, which is reminiscent of transition-metal carbonyls. This similarity between the abundant semi-metal silicon and rare transition metals may provide new opportunities for the development of silicon-based catalysis. Silyl-substituted silicon–carbonyl complexes that are stable at room temperature have been prepared by exposure of highly reactive bis(silyl)silylenes to carbon monoxide. The compounds show structural features and reactivity that are reminiscent of their ubiquitous transition-metal–carbonyl counterparts, including π-backbonding and ligand liberation as well as substitution and functionalization reactions.

#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 19 October 2020

#226

 

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Intel is introducing new FPGA-based SmartNIC technologies for cloud data centers and 5G networks as Nvidia plots a takeover with its new family of DPU products.

#Hardware & Devices
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#227

 

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We present a new and versatile implementation of rapid and localized immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) comprises a sequence of specific biochemical reactions and allows the detection of specific proteins in tissue sections. For the rapid implementation of IHC, we fabricated horizontally oriented microfluidic probes (MFPs) with functionally designed apertures to enable square and circular footprints, which we employ to locally expose a tissue to time-optimized sequences of different biochemicals. We show that the two main incubation steps of IHC protocols can be performed on MDAMB468-1510A cell block sections in less than 30 min, compared to incubation times of an hour or more in standard protocols. IHC analysis on the timescale of tens of minutes could potentially be applied during surgery, enabling clinicians to react in more dynamically and efficiently. Furthermore, this rapid IHC implementation along with conservative tissue usage has strong potential for the implementation of multiplexed assays, allowing the exploration of optimal assay conditions with a small amount of tissue to ensure high-quality staining results for the remainder of the sample. A new microfluidic device enables immunohistochemistry analysis of tissue within minutes. Immunohistochemistry is a quantitative approach for the analysis of antigens in tissue sections, such as for the detection of cancer. Antibodies are introduced to the tissue that bind to specific antigens, enabling their detection. However, speeding up the diagnosis process, or detecting multiple antigens at one time, is challenging due to the complexity of antibody reactions with antigens. Here, a team from IBM Research Europe report an improved microfluidic process for immunohistochemistry. By using a horizontally oriented microfluidic probe they are able to speed-up reaction rates for the assay and switch between different processing liquids. This allows them to reduce the main incubation step time from an hour to less than 30 minutes.

#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 19 October 2020

#228

 

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A deal for Intel to sell its NAND memory business for roughly $10 billion to SK Hynix could be reached as soon as Monday, according to a new report.

#Hardware & Devices
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#229

 

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This study proposed a method for fabricating 3D microstructures of ice without a supporting material. The inkjet printing process was performed in a low humidity environment to precisely control the growth direction of the ice crystals. In the printing process, water droplets (volume = hundreds of picoliters) were deposited onto the previously formed ice structure, after which they immediately froze. Different 3D structures (maximum height = 2000 µm) could be formed by controlling the substrate temperature, ejection frequency and droplet size. The growth direction was dependent on the landing point of the droplet on the previously formed ice structure; thus, 3D structures could be created with high degrees of freedom. Using inkjet printing technology, a method has been developed for fabricating 3-D ice microstructures, where the ice patterns possess geometries with a resolution of tens of micrometers. Recently, inkjet technology has gained attention for use in micromanufacturing, with different deposition processes being utilized to apply a material onto a substrate. Through the phase transition of water to ice, water offers many advantages as a material in this regard, though existing technologies demand expensive equipment and a supporting layer. A team headed by Zhihong Li at Peking University, China has succeeded in developing a method where inkjet printing is used to precisely control the growth of ice crystals in the fabrication process without needing a supporting layer. The authors believe their system offers considerable potential for application with biomicrofluidic devices, such as drug delivery systems.

#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 19 October 2020

#230

 

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Google Cloud unveils Lending DocAI, an artificial intelligence solution that leverages its machine learning-powered Document AI technology to help speed up mortgage loan processing

#Social & Corporation affairs
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 19 October 2020

#231

 

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The rapid development of display technologies has raised interest in arrays of self-emitting, individually controlled light sources atthe microscale. Gallium nitride (GaN) micro-light-emitting diode (LED) technology meets this demand. However, the current technology is not suitable for the fabrication of arrays of submicron light sources that can be controlled individually. Our approach is based on nanoLED arrays that can directly address each array element and a self-pitch with dimensions below the wavelength of light. The design and fabrication processes are explained in detail and possess two geometries: a 6 × 6 array with 400 nm LEDs and a 2 × 32 line array with 200 nm LEDs. These nanoLEDs are developed as core elements of a novel on-chip super-resolution microscope. GaN technology, based on its physical properties, is an ideal platform for such nanoLEDs. Arrays of nanoscale light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offer an energy-efficient means for achieving microscopic imaging with resolution below the diffraction limit. Microscale LEDs are already poised to have a transformative impact on display technology, but it remains challenging to construct arrays of individually controllable LEDs at the nanometer scale. Daria Bezshlyakh of the Technische Universität Braunschweig in Germany and colleagues have developed a fabrication approach that enabled them to manufacture a compact super-resolution imaging system based on such arrays. Their device employs gallium nitride nano-LEDs that generate precisely structured patterns of illumination, which make it possible to image specimens at spatial resolutions smaller than the wavelength of light. Based on the performance and stability of this initial prototype, the authors conclude that similar devices could offer a promising platform for future molecular imaging applications.

#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 19 October 2020

#232

 

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Google Cloud continues to strengthen its vertical market focus with the hiring of former Accenture exec Suchitra Bose for its newly created director of process manufacturing role for the Americas

#Robotics & Manufacturing
Field # Robotics & Manufacturing
Updated 19 October 2020

#233

 

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The ability to precisely deliver molecules into single cells while maintaining good cell viability is of great importance to applications in therapeutics, diagnostics, and drug delivery as it is an advancement toward the promise of personalized medicine. This paper reports a single-cell individualized electroporation method with real-time impedance monitoring to improve cell perforation efficiency and cell viability using a microelectrode array chip. The microchip contains a plurality of sextupole-electrode units patterned in an array, which are used to perform in situ electroporation and real-time impedance monitoring on single cells. The dynamic recovery processes of single cells under electroporation are tracked in real time via impedance measurement, which provide detailed transient cell states and facilitate understanding the whole recovery process at the level of single cells. We define single-cell impedance indicators to characterize cell perforation efficiency and cell viability, which are used to optimize electroporation. By applying the proposed electroporation method to different cell lines, including human cancer cell lines and normal human cell lines individually, optimum stimuli are determined for these cells, by which high transfection levels of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) plasmid into cells are achieved. The results validate the effectiveness of the proposed single-cell individualized electroporation/transfection method and demonstrate promising potential in applications of cell reprogramming, induced pluripotent stem cells, adoptive cell therapy, and intracellular drug delivery technology. Electroporation involves applying an electrical field to cells to facilitate molecule delivery in therapeutics or diagnostics for personalized medicine, and a novel technique allows single-cell individualized electroporation with real-time monitoring using a microelectrode chip. Electroporation employs electrical stimulation to increase the permeability of cell membranes, but achieving high perforation efficiency while maintaining good cell viability remains a great challenge. A team headed by Rong Zhu at Tsinghua University, Beijing, China succeeded in developing an electroporation method at the single-cell level, offering improved cell perforation efficiency and cell viability by means of a microelectrode array chip. The technique allowed real-time monitoring of single-cell electroporation. The authors believe their system has considerable potential in various applications related to cell reprogramming, induced pluripotent stem cells, adoptive cell therapy, and intracellular drug delivery.

#Hardware & Devices
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#234

 

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Here's a look at the blockbuster Comcast secure work from home deal won by Aruba and World Wide Technology (WWT).

#Social & Corporation affairs;#Economy
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 19 October 2020

#235

 

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Soon, the surface of the moon might even have better cell service than your living room. ...

#Astronautics
Field # Astronautics
Updated 19 October 2020

#236

 

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Description
TBD

#Hardware & Devices;#Gadgets
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#237

 

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Description
TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#238

 

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US prosecutors have charged six Russian intelligence officers for being involved in several major cyberattacks, including disrupting the 2018 Olympic Games.

#Software;#Security
Field # Software
Updated 19 October 2020

#239

 

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If you’re in the market for a new Apple laptop, let us make things just a little easier for you. We hunted down the best MacBook deals available right now.

#Hardware & Devices
Field # Hardware & Devices
Updated 19 October 2020

#240

 

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Description
TBD

#Entertainments;#Games
Field # Entertainments
Updated 19 October 2020

#241

 

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Name
Description
TBD

#Entertainments;#Games
Field # Entertainments
Updated 19 October 2020

#242

 

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Name
Description
TBD

#Entertainments;#Games
Field # Entertainments
Updated 19 October 2020

#243

 

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Description
TBD

#Entertainments;#Games
Field # Entertainments
Updated 19 October 2020

#244

 

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Description
Even if Apple had simply sliced the price of the BeatsX in half, we'd be happy, but the Flex's bigger battery, great sound, and auto-pause option seal the deal.

#Energy
Field # Energy
Updated 19 October 2020

#245

 

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An urgent medical need to develop novel treatment strategies for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exists. However, despite various efforts in the histopathological and molecular subtyping of PDAC, novel targeted or specific therapies have not been established. Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) with ubiquitin-like proteins, including small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs), mediate numerous processes that can contribute to the fitness and survival of cancer cells. The contribution of SUMOylation to transcriptional control, DNA repair pathways, mitotic progression, and oncogenic signalling has been described. Here we review functions of the SUMO pathway in PDAC, with a special focus on its connection to an aggressive subtype of the disease characterised by high MYC activity, and discuss SUMOylation inhibitors under development for precise PDAC therapies.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#246

 

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Most cancer cells employ the Warburg effect to support anabolic growth and tumorigenesis. Here, we discovered a key link between Warburg effect and aberrantly activated Wnt/β-catenin signalling, especially by pathologically significant APC loss, in CRC. Proteomic analyses were performed to evaluate the global effects of KYA1797K, Wnt/β-catenin signalling inhibitor, on cellular proteins in CRC. The effects of APC-loss or Wnt ligand on the identified enzymes, PKM2 and LDHA, as well as Warburg effects were investigated. A linkage between activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling and cancer metabolism was analysed in tumour of Apcmin/+ mice and CRC patients. The roles of PKM2 in cancer metabolism, which depends on Wnt/β-catenin signalling, were assessed in xenograft-tumours. By proteomic analysis, PKM2 and LDHA were identified as key molecules regulated by Wnt/β-catenin signalling. APC-loss caused the increased expression of metabolic genes including PKM2 and LDHA, and increased glucose consumption and lactate secretion. Pathological significance of this linkage was indicated by increased expression of glycolytic genes with Wnt target genes in tumour of Apcmin/+ mice and CRC patients. Warburg effect and growth of xenografted tumours-induced by APC-mutated-CRC cells were suppressed by PKM2-depletion. The β-catenin-PKM2 regulatory axis induced by APC loss activates the Warburg effect in CRC.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#247

 

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There is no consensus on the effect of sorafenib dosing on efficacy and toxicity in elderly patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Older patients are often empirically started on low-dose therapy with the aim to avoid toxicities while maximising clinical efficacy. We aimed to verify whether age impacts on overall survival (OS) and whether a reduced starting dose impacts on OS or toxicity experienced by the elderly. In an international, multicentre cohort study, outcomes for those aged <75 or ≥75 years were determined while accounting for common prognostic factors and demographic characteristics in univariable and multivariable models. Five thousand five hundred and ninety-eight patients were recruited; 792 (14.1%) were aged ≥75 years. The elderly were more likely to have larger tumours (>7 cm) (39 vs 33%, p < 0.01) with preserved liver function (67 vs 57.7%) (p < 0.01). No difference in the median OS of those aged ≥75 years and <75 was noted (7.3 months vs 7.2 months; HR 1.00 (95% CI 0.93–1.08), p = 0.97). There was no relationship between starting dose of sorafenib 800 mg vs 400 mg/200 mg and OS between those <75 and ≥75 years. The elderly experienced a similar overall incidence of grade 2–4 sorafenib-related toxicity compared to <75 years (63.5 vs 56.7%, p = 0.11). However, the elderly were more likely to discontinue sorafenib due to toxicity (27.0 vs 21.6%, p < 0.01). This did not vary between different starting doses of sorafenib. Clinical outcomes in the elderly is equivalent to patients aged <75 years, independent of dose of sorafenib prescribed.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 October 2020

#248

 

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The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of four final irrigation protocols in smear layer removal and bacterial inhibition in root canal systems. Thirty roots inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis were prepared with ProTaper Universal files. The teeth were disinfected by conventional needle irrigation, sonic agitation using the EndoActivator device, passive ultrasonic irrigation, or an M3 Max file. Teeth with no root canal preparation served as blank controls for the establishment of the infection baseline. Teeth with preparation but no final irrigation served as a post-instrumentation baseline. After the final irrigation, the teeth were sectioned in half. One half of each tooth was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to assess smear layer removal using a five-point scale. The other half was examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) using the LIVE/DEAD BackLight bacterial viability kit to evaluate the depth of bacterial survival in dentinal tubules. SEM analysis revealed no significant difference in smear layer removal throughout the whole canal among the EA, PUI, and M3 Max groups (P > 0.05). CLSM revealed that PUI achieved the greatest bacterial inhibition depth in the coronal ((174.27 ± 31.63) μm), middle ((160.94 ± 37.77) μm), and apical ((119.53 ± 28.49) μm) thirds of the canal (all P < 0.05 vs. other groups). According to this comprehensive SEM and CLSM evaluation, PUI appears to have the best infection control ability in root canal systems.

#Software
Field # Software
Updated 19 October 2020

#249

 

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As its 5G network rolls out, Verizon aims to expand its Kentucky territory.

#Social & Corporation affairs
Field # Social & Corporation affairs
Updated 19 October 2020