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Today: 20 October 2020, Tuesday.

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#1

 

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Description Polymorphs, crystals with different structure and properties but the same molecular composition, arise from the subtle interplay between thermodynamics and kinetics during crystallisation. In this opinion piece, the authors review the latest developments in the field of polymorphism and discuss standing open questions.

#Chemicals
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Updated 19 October 2020

#2

 

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Description A new system developed by chemical engineers at MIT could provide a way of continuously removing carbon dioxide from a stream of waste gases, or even from the air. The key component is an electrochemically assisted membrane whose permeability to gas can be switched on and off at will, using no movin

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Updated 19 October 2020

#3

 

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Description Labelling proteins at internal sites holds promise for generating novel protein conjugates in a programmable fashion. Now, a chemoenzymatic approach, dubbed LACE, enables the site-specific modification of recombinant proteins that contain a short genetically encoded tag.

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Updated 19 October 2020

#4

 

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Description High-resolution, multiplexed experiments are a staple in cellular imaging. Analogous experiments in animals are challenging, however, due to substantial scattering and autofluorescence in tissue at visible (350–700 nm) and near-infrared (700–1,000 nm) wavelengths. Here, we enable real-time, non-invasive multicolour imaging experiments in animals through the design of optical contrast agents for the shortwave infrared (SWIR, 1,000–2,000 nm) region and complementary advances in imaging technologies. We developed tunable, SWIR-emissive flavylium polymethine dyes and established relationships between structure and photophysical properties for this class of bright SWIR contrast agents. In parallel, we designed an imaging system with variable near-infrared/SWIR excitation and single-channel detection, facilitating video-rate multicolour SWIR imaging for optically guided surgery and imaging of awake and moving mice with multiplexed detection. Optimized dyes matched to 980 nm and 1,064 nm lasers, combined with the clinically approved indocyanine green, enabled real-time, three-colour imaging with high temporal and spatial resolutions. Conducting high-resolution, multiplexed imaging in living mammals is challenging because of considerable scattering and autofluorescence in tissue at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Now, real-time, non-invasive multicolour imaging experiments in live animals have been achieved through the design of optical contrast agents for the shortwave infrared (SWIR, 1,000–2,000 nm) region and the introduction of excitation multiplexing with single-channel SWIR detection.

#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 19 October 2020

#5

 

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Description Transition-metal–carbonyl complexes are common organometallic reagents that feature metal–CO bonds. These complexes have proven to be powerful catalysts for various applications. By contrast, silicon–carbonyl complexes, organosilicon reagents poised to be eco-friendly alternatives for transition-metal carbonyls, have remained largely elusive. They have mostly been explored theoretically and/or through low-temperature matrix isolation studies, but their instability had typically precluded isolation under ambient conditions. Here we present the synthesis, isolation and full characterization of stable silyl-substituted silicon–carbonyl complexes, along with bonding analysis. Initial reactivity investigations showed examples of CO liberation, which could be induced either thermally or photochemically, as well as substitution and functionalization of the CO moiety. Importantly, the complexes exhibit strong Si–CO bonding, with CO→Si σ-donation and Si→CO π-backbonding, which is reminiscent of transition-metal carbonyls. This similarity between the abundant semi-metal silicon and rare transition metals may provide new opportunities for the development of silicon-based catalysis. Silyl-substituted silicon–carbonyl complexes that are stable at room temperature have been prepared by exposure of highly reactive bis(silyl)silylenes to carbon monoxide. The compounds show structural features and reactivity that are reminiscent of their ubiquitous transition-metal–carbonyl counterparts, including π-backbonding and ligand liberation as well as substitution and functionalization reactions.

#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 19 October 2020

#6

 

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Description We present a new and versatile implementation of rapid and localized immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) comprises a sequence of specific biochemical reactions and allows the detection of specific proteins in tissue sections. For the rapid implementation of IHC, we fabricated horizontally oriented microfluidic probes (MFPs) with functionally designed apertures to enable square and circular footprints, which we employ to locally expose a tissue to time-optimized sequences of different biochemicals. We show that the two main incubation steps of IHC protocols can be performed on MDAMB468-1510A cell block sections in less than 30 min, compared to incubation times of an hour or more in standard protocols. IHC analysis on the timescale of tens of minutes could potentially be applied during surgery, enabling clinicians to react in more dynamically and efficiently. Furthermore, this rapid IHC implementation along with conservative tissue usage has strong potential for the implementation of multiplexed assays, allowing the exploration of optimal assay conditions with a small amount of tissue to ensure high-quality staining results for the remainder of the sample. A new microfluidic device enables immunohistochemistry analysis of tissue within minutes. Immunohistochemistry is a quantitative approach for the analysis of antigens in tissue sections, such as for the detection of cancer. Antibodies are introduced to the tissue that bind to specific antigens, enabling their detection. However, speeding up the diagnosis process, or detecting multiple antigens at one time, is challenging due to the complexity of antibody reactions with antigens. Here, a team from IBM Research Europe report an improved microfluidic process for immunohistochemistry. By using a horizontally oriented microfluidic probe they are able to speed-up reaction rates for the assay and switch between different processing liquids. This allows them to reduce the main incubation step time from an hour to less than 30 minutes.

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Field # Chemicals
Updated 19 October 2020

#7

 

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Description Carbonate formation is the primary source of energy and carbon losses in low-temperature carbon dioxide electrolysis. Realigning research priorities to address the carbonate problem is essential if this technology is to become a viable option for renewable chemical and fuel production. Low-temperature carbon dioxide electrolysis is an attractive process for sustainable fuel synthesis, but current systems suffer from low efficiency. In this comment, authors discuss the limitations arising from the reaction between carbon dioxide and hydroxide, highlighting the need for new research to address this fundamental problem.

#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 16 October 2020

#8

 

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Description Stony Brook University professor could be first female Ph.D. chemist elected to House of Representatives

#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 16 October 2020

#9

 

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Description Targeted small-molecule inhibition of BRAFV600E faces seemingly insurmountable obstacles in the clinic, such as rapid emergence of drug resistance. A recent study illustrates the potential of an alternative therapeutic strategy via PROTAC-mediated degradation of the oncogenic BRAF.

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Field # Chemicals
Updated 16 October 2020

#10

 

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Updated 16 October 2020

#11

 

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Updated 16 October 2020

#12

 

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Description Transfer of ubiquitin onto target proteins requires controlled interplay between E2 conjugating enzymes and E3 ligases. The structure of a trapped E2~Ub/RCR E3 transfer intermediate provides novel insight into the diversity of mechanisms used to fine tune this relay.

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Field # Chemicals
Updated 16 October 2020

#13

 

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Updated 16 October 2020

#14

 

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Description TBD

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Updated 16 October 2020

#15

 

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Description TBD

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Updated 15 October 2020

#16

 

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Description TBD

#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 14 October 2020

#17

 

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Description This paper reports the oxidation of Remazol black B dye by employing iron ions catalyst based gas diffusion cathodes, (GDCs). A GDC was synthesized by using a layer of carbon black and iron ions catalyst for oxygen reduction to hydrogen peroxide. The results demonstrated around 97% decolorization of Remazol black-B dye for 50 min by iron ions catalyst based GDC. The degradation study was performed under electrogenerated hydrogen peroxide at a constant voltage of − 0.6 V vs Hg/HgSO4 in which the rate of degradation was correlated with hydrogen peroxide production. Overall, the GDC’s found to be effective method to degrade the dyes via electro-Fenton.

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Field # Chemicals
Updated 14 October 2020

#18

 

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Description Lab-on-Chip technology comprises one of the most promising technologies enabling the widespread adoption of Point-of-Care testing in routine clinical practice. However, until now advances in Lab-on-Chip have not been translated to the anticipated degree to commercialized tools, with integrated device mass manufacturing cost still not at a competitive level for several key clinical applications. Lab-on-PCB is currently considered as a candidate technology addressing this issue, owing to its intuitive compatibility with electronics, seamless integration of electrochemical biosensors and the extensive experience regarding industrial manufacturing processes. Inkjet-printing in particular is a compatible fabrication method, widening the range of electronic materials available and thus enabling seamlessly integrated ultrasensitive electronic detection. To this end, in this work stable pseudo-reference electrodes are fabricated for the first time by means of commercial inkjet-printing on a PCB-integrated electrochemical biosensing platform. SEM and XPS analysis are employed to characterize the electrodes’ structure and composition and identify any special characteristics, compared to published work on alternative substrates. Additionally, this paper analyzes integrated reference electrodes from a new perspective, focusing mainly on their characteristics in real-life operation: chemical sintering as opposed to high budget thermal one, stability under continuous flow, pH dependency and bias stress effects on electrode instability, a parameter often overlooked in electrochemical biosensors.

#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 13 October 2020

#19

 

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Description The search for plant extracts with highly antimicrobial activity has been increased nowadays. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Pulicaria crispa (Forsk.) Oliv., and Pulicaria undulata (L.) C.A.Mey., which have been used traditionally in Sudan as insect replants. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against six pathogenic microorganisms, four bacteria (two Gram-positive; Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, two Gram-negative; Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and two fungi (Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) using disc diffusion method. The extraction of the crude extracts was done by maceration. The essential oils were extracted by hydro-distillation. Phytochemical screening was done using reference method. Essential oils were analyzed using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. The results indicated that all used the microorganisms were sensitive to the plants extracts. Results of the preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of saponins, comarins, tannins, sterols, and triterpenes, and absence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, and flavonoids. Twenty-eight and forty-five constituents were identified in P. crispa and P. undulata, essential oils, respectively. The main constituents in the essential oil of P. crispa were 1,4-ditert butylbenzene (22.81%), caryophyllene (13.19%), carvone (11.80%), and neryl(s)-2-methylbutanoate (10.33%), and for P. undulata were camphor (44.48%), and thymyl acetate (10.31%). Data from this study could be used for developing of natural bioactive agents to improve human health.

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Field # Chemicals
Updated 13 October 2020

#20

 

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Description Adopting black phosphorus (BP) as a material in electronic and optoelectronic device manufacturing requires the development and understanding of a large-scale synthesis technique. To that end, high-energy planetary ball milling is demonstrated as a scalable synthesis route, and the mechanisms and conversion kinetics of the BP phase transformation are investigated. During the milling process, media collisions rapidly compress amorphous red phosphorus (RP) into crystalline, orthorhombic BP flakes, resulting in a conversion yield of ≈90% for ≈5 g of bulk BP powder. Milling conversion kinetics, monitored via ex situ x-ray diffraction, manifest a sigmoidal behavior best described by the Avrami rate model with each impact of sufficient energy (>25 mJ) producing BP nuclei; the process appears to be limited by grain growth. Using a kinematic model for ball trajectories and impact energies, the optimum milling condition is determined to be an impact energy near ≈25 mJ and a milling dose near ≈100 kJ/gram. Photoexcitation of exfoliated BP flakes reveals emission in the near-infrared, indicating the formation of few-layer BP, a promising advance for optoelectronic device applications.

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Field # Chemicals
Updated 13 October 2020

#21

 

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Description Using a small organic cage structure as a node has enabled the preparation of a new 3D covalent organic framework.

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Field # Chemicals
Updated 13 October 2020