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Today: 28 February 2021, Sunday.

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#1

 

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Description TBD

#Chemicals
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Updated 26 February 2021

#2

 

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Description The precise spatiotemporal control of cell proliferation is key to the morphogenesis of epithelial tissues. Epithelial cell divisions lead to tissue crowding and local changes in force distribution, which in turn suppress the rate of cell divisions. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this mechanical feedback are largely unclear. Here, we identify a critical requirement of B-plexin transmembrane receptors in the response to crowding-induced mechanical forces during embryonic skin development. Epidermal stem cells lacking B-plexins fail to sense mechanical compression, resulting in disinhibition of the transcriptional coactivator YAP, hyperproliferation, and tissue overgrowth. Mechanistically, we show that B-plexins mediate mechanoresponses to crowding through stabilization of adhesive cell junctions and lowering of cortical stiffness. Finally, we provide evidence that the B-plexin-dependent mechanochemical feedback is also pathophysiologically relevant to limit tumor growth in basal cell carcinoma, the most common type of skin cancer. Our data define a central role of B-plexins in mechanosensation to couple cell density and cell division in development and disease. It is unclear how epithelial tissues adjust cell division rates to cell density. Here, the authors show that Plexin-B1 and Plexin-B2 sense mechanical compression (crowding) of epidermal stem cells, resulting in inactivation of YAP and suppression of cell proliferation.

#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 26 February 2021

#3

 

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Description Carbon mineralization is a versatile and thermodynamically downhill process that can be harnessed for capturing, storing, and utilizing CO2 to synthesize products with enhanced properties. Here the author discusses the advances in and challenges of carbon mineralization, and concludes that tuning the chemical interactions involved will allow us to unlock its potential for advancing low carbon energy and resource conversion pathways.

#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 26 February 2021

#4

 

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Description Using an interdisciplinary approach, hydrogen-peroxide-induced phase separation in the intrinsically disordered regions of the TERMINATING FLOWER transcription factor proteins was shown to regulate the shoot apical meristem through repression of the floral identity gene called ANANTHA.

#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 25 February 2021

#5

 

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Description To investigate the effects of their surface recovery and optical properties, extremely small sized (12 µm × 12 µm mesa area) red AlGaInP micro light emitting diodes ( $$upmu$$ LED) were fabricated using a diluted hydrofluoric acid (HF) surface etch treatment. After the chemical treatment, the external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of $$upmu$$ -LED at low and high injection current regions have been improved by 35.48% and 12.86%, respectively. The different phenomena of EQEs have a complex relationship between the suppression of non-radiative recombination originating from the etching damage of the surface and the improvement of light extraction of the sidewalls. The constant enhancement of EQE at a high injection current it is attributed to the expansion of the active region’s sidewall surface area by the selective etching of AlInP layers. The improved EQE at a low injection current is related to the minimization of the surface recombination caused by plasma damage from the surface. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) revealed physical defects on the sidewall surface, such as plasma-induced lattice disorder and impurity contamination damage, were eliminated using chemical treatment. This study suggests that chemical surface treatment using diluted HF acid can be an effective method for enhancing the $$upmu$$ -LED performance.

#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 25 February 2021

#6

 

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Description Zinc dendrite growth negatively affects zinc–bromine flow battery (ZBB) performance by causing membrane damage, inducing self-discharge. Herein, in a ZBB, a conventional polymer mesh was replaced with a titanium-based mesh interlayer; this provided additional abundant active sites for the Zn2+/Zn redox reaction and well-developed electrolyte flow channels, which resulted in improved reaction kinetics and suppressed Zn dendrite growth. Compared with a ZBB cell comprising a conventional polymer mesh and a carbon-based electrode, the ZBB cell using the titanium mesh interlayer and a carbon-based electrode showed significantly reduced frequency of the refreshing process, which occurs at regular cycling intervals during practical use for removing residual zinc dendrites in ZBB; also, the average energy efficiency at a current density of 40 mA cm−2 increased by 38.5%. Moreover, the modified ZBB cell exhibited higher energy efficiency at a high current density of 80 mA cm−2, which is an improvement of 14.7% than in case of the contemporary polymer mesh. Consequently, this study can provide helpful insights for new anode side structures including spacer mesh for developing high-performance ZBBs.

#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 24 February 2021

#7

 

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Description New chemical reactors don't require fossil fuels and may even consume greenhouse gas

#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 24 February 2021

#9

 

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#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 23 February 2021

#10

 

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Description Most mammals sniff to detect odors, but little is known how the periodic inhale and exhale that make up a sniff helps to improve odor detection. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we use fluid mechanics and machine olfaction to rationalize the benefits of sniffing at different rates. We design and build a bellows and sensor system to detect the change in current as a function of odor concentration. A fast sniff enables quick odor recognition, but too fast a sniff makes the amplitude of the signal comparable to noise. A slow sniff increases signal amplitude but delays its transmission. This trade-off may inspire the design of future devices that can actively modulate their sniffing frequency according to different odors. Sniff frequency naturally varies with animal type due to allometric scaling. Using data from live animals and a machine olfactory system, Spencer et al. reveal a deeper reason for sniffing with implications for designing gas detectors: the sniff is adapted to efficient odor detection.

#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 23 February 2021

#11

 

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Description Fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is widely used as a colorectal cancer screening tool. Antithrombotic drugs may affect the screening performance of FIT for colorectal tumors. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of antithrombotic agents on FIT accuracy in screening for colorectal neoplasms. This retrospective study enrolled a total of 758 patients who underwent both FIT and total colonoscopy. The effect of antithrombotic drugs on FIT accuracy in detecting colorectal neoplasms (CN), including colorectal cancer (CRC), advanced adenoma (AA), and non-advanced adenoma (NAA), was examined. Of the 758 patients, 144 (19%) received antithrombotic drugs (administration group). In administration group, 61/144 (42%) cases had CN [CRC:14, AA:15, NAA:32] and 217/614 (35%) cases had CN (CRC:43, AA:56, NAA:118) in non-administration group. The prevalence of CN was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.1157). There was no significant difference in sensitivity or specificity of the detection of all types of CN with or without taking antithrombotic drugs. Neither the positive predictive value nor negative predictive value of FIT was affected by antithrombotic drug administration. Taking antithrombotic drugs may not have a large impact on sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, or negative predictive value of FIT in screening for CN.

#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 23 February 2021

#12

 

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#Chemicals
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Updated 23 February 2021

#13

 

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#Chemicals
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Updated 23 February 2021

#14

 

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#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 23 February 2021

#15

 

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#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 23 February 2021

#16

 

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Description Inorganic macrocycles remain largely underdeveloped compared with their organic counterparts due to the challenges involved in their synthesis. Among them, cyclodiphosphazane macrocycles have shown to be promising candidates for supramolecular chemistry applications due to their ability to encapsulate small molecules or ions within their cavities. However, further developments have been handicapped by the lack of synthetic routes to high-order cyclodiphosphazane macrocycles. Moreover, current approaches allow little control over the size of the macrocycles formed. Here we report the synthesis of high-order oxygen-bridged phosphazane macrocycles via a “3 + n cyclisation” (n = 1 and 3). Using this method, an all-PIII high-order hexameric cyclodiphosphazane macrocycle was isolated, displaying a larger macrocyclic cavity than comparable organic crown-ethers. Our approach demonstrates that increasing building block complexity enables precise control over macrocycle size, which will not only generate future developments in both the phosphazane and main group chemistry but also in the fields of supramolecular chemistry. Cyclodiphosphazane macrocycles have demonstrated promising host-guest chemistry, but synthetic routes to highorder versions are lacking. Here the authors synthesise high-order oxygen-bridged phosphazane macrocycles via a modular cyclisation strategy.

#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 22 February 2021

#17

 

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Description Splat chemistry fires molecules at a surface and then analyses the products that remain attached in order to study the dynamics of collision-activated reactions

#Chemicals
Field # Chemicals
Updated 22 February 2021