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#1

 

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#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 October 2020

#2

 

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Description The Royal Meteorological Society has announced the winners of 2020's Weather Photographer of the Year, providing some beautifully stunning images of nature.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 October 2020

#3

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 October 2020

#4

 

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Description Identification of a suitable nonhuman primate (NHP) model of COVID-19 remains challenging. Here, we characterized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in three NHP species: Old World monkeys Macaca mulatta (M. mulatta) and Macaca fascicularis (M. fascicularis) and New World monkey Callithrix jacchus (C. jacchus). Infected M. mulatta and M. fascicularis showed abnormal chest radiographs, an increased body temperature and a decreased body weight. Viral genomes were detected in swab and blood samples from all animals. Viral load was detected in the pulmonary tissues of M. mulatta and M. fascicularis but not C. jacchus. Furthermore, among the three animal species, M. mulatta showed the strongest response to SARS-CoV-2, including increased inflammatory cytokine expression and pathological changes in the pulmonary tissues. Collectively, these data revealed the different susceptibilities of Old World and New World monkeys to SARS-CoV-2 and identified M. mulatta as the most suitable for modeling COVID-19.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 October 2020

#5

 

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Description The covid-19 pandemic has shown us that rapid change to both systems and behaviours are possible – now we must harness what we have learned as we rebuild our economies

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 October 2020

#6

 

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Description Breathing in iron sounds like a bad idea and yet millions of chinese people are forced to do that. How does iron appear in the air? Industrial and vehicle pollution produce enough acidic gases to dissolve insoluble iron particles in East China’s major cities. Scientists at the University of Birm

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 October 2020

#7

 

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Description An open question in aggressive cancers such as melanoma is how malignant cells can shift the immune system to pro-tumorigenic functions. Here we identify midkine (MDK) as a melanoma-secreted driver of an inflamed, but immune evasive, microenvironment that defines poor patient prognosis and resistance to immune checkpoint blockade. Mechanistically, MDK was found to control the transcriptome of melanoma cells, allowing for coordinated activation of nuclear factor-κB and downregulation of interferon-associated pathways. The resulting MDK-modulated secretome educated macrophages towards tolerant phenotypes that promoted CD8+ T cell dysfunction. In contrast, genetic targeting of MDK sensitized melanoma cells to anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 treatment. Emphasizing the translational relevance of these findings, the expression profile of MDK-depleted tumors was enriched in key indicators of a good response to immune checkpoint blockers in independent patient cohorts. Together, these data reveal that MDK acts as an internal modulator of autocrine and paracrine signals that maintain immune suppression in aggressive melanomas. Tumor-secreted midkine modulates immune tolerance in the melanoma tumor microenvironment and determines resistance to immune checkpoint blockade.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 October 2020

#8

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 October 2020

#9

 

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Description Month-on-month, year-on-year, the world continues to experience record high temperatures. In response to this and exacerbated by a growing global population, it is expected that air-conditioning demand will continue to rise. ...

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 October 2020

#10

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 October 2020

#11

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 18 October 2020

#12

 

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Description A unique study conducted by University of Georgia entomologists led to the discovery of a distinctive supergene in fire ant colonies that determines whether young queen ants will leave their birth colony to start their own new colony or if they will join one with multiple queens. Researchers also

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 18 October 2020

#13

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 18 October 2020

#14

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 18 October 2020

#15

 

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Description There are some parts of the world where the ground never fully thaws. These permafrost regions are quite interesting for scientists, because they are like frozen time capsules, containing information about the times when Earth was a much warmer place. However, as scientists from  the University

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 18 October 2020

#16

 

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Description We are very pleased to be launching our Microbial Ecology in Changing Environments Collection, the product of a call for papers convened by PLOS ONE and our Guest Editors, Melissa Cregger and Stephanie Kivlin. The research in the Collection crosses disciplinary boundaries and represents a wide range

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 17 October 2020

#17

 

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Description Nice looking website you've got there. It'd be a shame if someone DDoSed it.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 17 October 2020

#18

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 17 October 2020

#19

 

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Description Scientists have been trying to develop some sort of carbon capture and storage solutions to cleanse the atmosphere. This is very important, but we cannot forget that we already have such CO2 capture and storage devices - trees! Scientists from UCL now developed a new way of measuring the volume and

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 17 October 2020

#20

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 17 October 2020

#21

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 17 October 2020

#22

 

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Description Citizen science database helped map birds’ current ranges—and their likely ranges in 2070

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 16 October 2020

#23

 

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Description Biden HQ island went live Friday.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 16 October 2020

#24

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 16 October 2020

#25

 

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Description Global warming is beginning to penetrate even the deepest parts of our oceans.  

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 16 October 2020

#26

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 16 October 2020

#27

 

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Description New study links ocean temperatures to dry spells years later

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 16 October 2020

#28

 

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Description This poignant image of an orphaned baby macaque awaiting its fate at a market in Bali won an award in the Natural History Museum’s Wildlife Photographer of the Year competition

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 16 October 2020

#29

 

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Description Generating mathematical word problems is an interesting task in education. In this task, models need to understand mathematical variables, numerical quantities and operations besides creating fluent sentences. To engage students, it is important to create real-life story plots. Diverse narratives ai

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 16 October 2020

#30

 

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Description A new study shows that the body size of the iconic gigantic or megatooth shark, about 15 meters (50 feet) in length, was indeed anomalously large compared to the body sizes of its relatives. Formally called Otodus megalodon, the fossil shark that lived 3.6 to 15 million years ago is receiving a r

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 16 October 2020

#31

 

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Description Vodafone Idea late on Thursday said its voice and data services have been restored in Maharashtra after being disrupted due to flooding of a key site in Pune amid heavy showers.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 16 October 2020

#32

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 16 October 2020

#33

 

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Description Climate is an important driver of changes in animal population size, but its effect on the underlying demographic rates remains insufficiently understood. This is particularly true for avian long-distance migrants which are exposed to different climatic factors at different phases of their annual cycle. To fill this knowledge gap, we used data collected by a national-wide bird ringing scheme for eight migratory species wintering in sub-Saharan Africa and investigated the impact of climate variability on their breeding productivity and adult survival. While temperature at the breeding grounds could relate to the breeding productivity either positively (higher food availability in warmer springs) or negatively (food scarcity in warmer springs due to trophic mismatch), water availability at the non-breeding should limit the adult survival and the breeding productivity. Consistent with the prediction of the trophic mismatch hypothesis, we found that warmer springs at the breeding grounds were linked with lower breeding productivity, explaining 29% of temporal variance across all species. Higher water availability at the sub-Saharan non-breeding grounds was related to higher adult survival (18% temporal variance explained) but did not carry-over to breeding productivity. Our results show that climate variability at both breeding and non-breeding grounds shapes different demographic rates of long-distance migrants.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 16 October 2020

#34

 

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Description Characteristics of sea ice extent (SIE) have been rapidly changing in the Pacific Arctic sector (PAS) in recent years. The SIE variability in PAS during the late spring and early summer (i.e., April–May–June, AMJ) plays a key role in determining the SIE during the following fall when SIE is at a minimum. We find that the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), which is the most dominant variability of sea surface temperature (SST) on the low-frequency timescales, differently influences the SIE in PAS during AMJ before and after the mid-1990s. While a positive phase of PDO during the previous winter acts to increases SIE during AMJ before the mid-1990s, it acts to decrease SIE during AMJ after the mid-1990s. Further analysis indicates that atmospheric circulation associated with PDO differently influences the variability of SIE in the PAS during AMJ by modulating poleward moisture transport across the Alaska or the Far East Asia peninsula. This results in the change in the relationship of PDO and SIE in the PAS before and after the mid-1990s.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 16 October 2020

#35

 

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Description Plastic debris in the ocean form a new ecosystem, termed ‘plastisphere’, which hosts a variety of marine organisms. Recent studies implemented DNA metabarcoding to characterize the taxonomic composition of the plastisphere in different areas of the world. In this study, we used a modified metabarcoding approach which was based on longer barcode sequences for the characterization of the plastisphere biota. We compared the microbiome of polyethylene food bags after 1 month at sea to the free-living biome in two proximal but environmentally different locations on the Mediterranean coast of Israel. We targeted the full 1.5 kb-long 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and 0.4–0.8 kb-long regions within the 18S rRNA, ITS, tufA and COI loci for eukaryotes. The taxonomic barcodes were sequenced using Oxford Nanopore Technology with multiplexing on a single MinION flow cell. We identified between 1249 and 2141 species in each of the plastic samples, of which 61 species (34 bacteria and 27 eukaryotes) were categorized as plastic-specific, including species that belong to known hydrocarbon-degrading genera. In addition to a large prokaryotes repertoire, our results, supported by scanning electron microscopy, depict a surprisingly high biodiversity of eukaryotes within the plastisphere with a dominant presence of diatoms as well as other protists, algae and fungi.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 16 October 2020

#36

 

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Description Cytolytic score (CYT), calculated from mRNA expression levels of granzyme and perforin, positively correlates with CD8+ T cell infiltration/activity in a variety of cancers. Unlike other cancers, higher CYT has been associated with worse prognosis in glioblastoma (GBM). To address this discrepancy, we sought to investigate the relationship between CYT and immune checkpoint gene score (ICGscore), as well as their correlation with patient survival and tumor immune cell infiltration. Clinical and RNA-sequencing data for patients with newly diagnosed GBM were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Maximally-selected rank statistics was used to dichotomize subgroups. CIBERSORT was used to estimate abudence of immune cell-types. Spearman correlation was used to characterize the relationship between CYT and ICGscore. Kaplan–Meier curves were generated for survival analysis. Overall, 28/151 patients had high CYT. High CYT was associated with a mesenchymal subtype (p < 0.001) and worse survival (7.45 vs. 12.2 months, p < 0.001). There were no differences in patient demographics, IDH/MGMT mutation status, or treatment. On subgroup analysis, patients with high CYT/ICGscore had significantly increased CD8+ infiltration (p < 0.001), as expected, and worse survival (HR 0.445, p < 0.01). Furthermore, CYT strongly correlated with ICGscore (RS = 0.675, p < 0.001). The high CYT/ICGscore subgroup was associated with greater infiltration of M2 macrophages (p = 0.011) and neutrophils (p = 0.055). Our study highlights a multidimensional immunosuppressive GBM microenvironment in patients with higher CYT and potentially identifies patients with high CYT/ICGscore as a subgroup that may particularly benefit from multi-faceted immunotherapies, given their already elevated tumor CD8+ T cell levels.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 16 October 2020

#37

 

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Description Bacterial viruses are widespread and abundant across natural and engineered habitats. They influence ecosystem functioning through interactions with their hosts. Laboratory studies of phage–host pairs have advanced our understanding of phenotypic and genetic diversification in bacteria and phages. However, the dynamics of phage–host interactions have been seldom recorded in complex natural environments. We conducted an observational metagenomic study of the dynamics of interaction between Gordonia and their phages using a three-year data series of samples collected from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant. The aim was to obtain a comprehensive picture of the coevolution dynamics in naturally evolving populations at relatively high time resolution. Coevolution was followed by monitoring changes over time in the CRISPR loci of Gordonia metagenome-assembled genome, and reciprocal changes in the viral genome. Genome-wide analysis indicated low strain variability of Gordonia, and almost clonal conservation of the trailer end of the CRISPR loci. Incorporation of newer spacers gave rise to multiple coexisting bacterial populations. The host population carrying a shorter CRISPR locus that contain only ancestral spacers, which has not acquired newer spacers against the coexisting phages, accounted for more than half of the total host abundance in the majority of samples. Phages genome co-evolved by introducing directional changes, with no preference for mutations within the protospacer and PAM regions. Metagenomic reconstruction of time-resolved variants of host and viral genomes revealed how the complexity at the population level has important consequences for bacteria-phage coexistence.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 16 October 2020

#38

 

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Description Silkworms die producing silk. This sustainable process offers another way.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 16 October 2020

#39

 

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Description Much of life on Earth today relies on oxygen to exist, but before oxygen was present on our planet, lifeforms likely used arsenic. The findings of the U.S. National Science Foundation-funded research are detailed in Communications Earth and Environment. A key component of the oxygen cycle occurs

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 16 October 2020

#40

 

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Description In this year of extreme weather events — from devastating West Coast wildfires to tropical Atlantic storms that have exhausted the alphabet — scientists and members of the public are asking when these extreme events can be scientifically linked to climate change. Dale Durran, a professor of atmos

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 16 October 2020

#41

 

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Description Assessing the impacts of parent material on distributions of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in soils has significant consequences in the apportionment of their sources. In this study, geochemical distributions and sources of PTEs in the soils developed in quaternary sediments and granite plutons of Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China, were investigated. The results indicate that there are systematic differences between the concentrations of oxides and PTEs in the soils developed in these two parent materials. The parent material predominantly determines the element distributions in the soils. The PTEs of the deep soils developed in quaternary sediments originated mainly from mafic, felsic, and carbonate sources materials as well as polymetallic deposits. For the deep soils developed in granite plutons, the element associations are governed mainly by their geochemical affinities and behaviors and the mineral compositions of granite plutons. Anthropogenic activities impact the features of the PTEs in the surface soils of PRD. However, superimposed regional-scale pollution was found to not hide the effect of the parent material on the distribution of PTEs in the surface soils.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 15 October 2020

#42

 

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Description Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers are two-dimensional semiconductors with two valleys in their band structure that can be selectively addressed using circularly polarized light. Their photoluminescence spectrum is characterized by neutral and charged excitons (trions) that form a chemical equilibrium governed by the net charge density. Here, we use chemical doping to drive the conversion of excitons into trions in $$ ext {WS}_{2}$$ monolayers at room temperature, and study the resulting valley polarization via photoluminescence measurements under valley-selective optical excitation. We show that the doping causes the emission to become dominated by trions with a strong valley polarization associated with rapid non-radiative recombination. Simultaneously, the doping results in strongly quenched but highly valley-polarized exciton emission due to the enhanced conversion into trions. A rate equation model explains the observed valley polarization in terms of the doping-controlled exciton-trion equilibrium. Our results shed light on the important role of exciton-trion conversion on valley polarization in monolayer TMDs.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 15 October 2020

#43

 

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Description High temperature during grain filling considerably reduces yield and quality in rice (Oryza sativa L.); however, how high temperature affects seed germination of the next generation is not yet well understood. Here, we report that seeds from plants exposed to high temperature during the grain filling stage germinated significantly later than seeds from unstressed plants. This delay remained even after dormancy release treatments, suggesting that it was not due to primary seed dormancy determined during grain filling. In imbibed embryos of heat-stressed seeds, expression of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis genes (OsNCEDs) was higher than in those of control seeds, whereas that of ABA catabolism genes (OsABA8′OHs) was lower. In the aleurone layer, despite no change in GA signaling as evidenced by no effect of heat stress on OsGAMYB gene expression, the transcripts of α-amylase genes OsAmy1C, OsAmy3B, and OsAmy3E were significantly down-regulated in heat-stressed seeds in comparison with controls. Changes in promoter methylation levels were consistent with transcriptional changes of ABA catabolism-related and α-amylase genes. These data suggest that high temperature during grain filling results in DNA methylation of ABA catabolism-related and α-amylase gene promoters, delaying germination of heat-stressed seeds.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 15 October 2020

#44

 

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Description Large trees are disproportionately important in terms of their above ground biomass (AGB) and carbon storage, as well as their wider impact on ecosystem structure. They are also very hard to measure and so tend to be underrepresented in measurements and models of AGB. We show the first detailed 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) estimates of the volume and AGB of large coastal redwood Sequoia sempervirens trees from three sites in Northern California, representing some of the highest biomass ecosystems on Earth. Our TLS estimates agree to within 2% AGB with a species-specific model based on detailed manual crown mapping of 3D tree structure. However TLS-derived AGB was more than 30% higher compared to widely-used general (non species-specific) allometries. We derive an allometry from TLS that spans a much greater range of tree size than previous models and so is potentially better-suited for use with new Earth Observation data for these exceptionally high biomass areas. We suggest that where possible, TLS and crown mapping should be used to provide complementary, independent 3D structure measurements of these very large trees.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 15 October 2020

#45

 

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Description Visualizing the dynamics of cesium (Cs) is desirable to understand the impact of radiocesium when accidentally ingested or inhaled by humans. However, visualization of radiocesium in vivo is currently limited to plants. Herein, we describe a method for the production and purification of 127Cs and its use in visualizing Cs dynamics in a living animal. The positron-emitting nuclide 127Cs was produced using the 127I (α, 4n) 127Cs reaction, which was induced by irradiation of sodium iodide with a 4He2+ beam from a cyclotron. We excluded sodium ions by using a material that specifically adsorbs Cs as a purification column and successfully eluted 127Cs by flowing a solution of ammonium sulfate into the column. We injected the purified 127Cs tracer solution into living rats and the dynamics of Cs were visualized using positron emission tomography; the distributional images showed the same tendency as the results of previous studies using disruptive methods. Thus, this method is useful for the non-invasive investigation of radiocesium in a living animal.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 15 October 2020

#46

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 15 October 2020

#47

 

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Description Catastrophic events hog the climate limelight but there are more understated effects that demand attention too, says Hannah Cloke

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 15 October 2020

#48

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 15 October 2020

#49

 

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Description Compressing simple molecular solids with hydrogen at extremely high pressures, University of Rochester engineers and physicists have, for the first time, created material that is superconducting at room temperature. Featured as the cover article in the journal Nature, the work was conducted by th

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 15 October 2020

#50

 

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Description Mi True Wireless Earphones 2C has 14.2mm audio drivers on board. It comes with USB Type-C port for charging and has touch controls for play and pausing music, rejecting calls, and for voice assistance as well.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 15 October 2020

#51

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 15 October 2020

#52

 

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Description Room-temperature superconductors—materials that conduct electricity with zero resistance without needing special cooling—are the sort of technological miracle that would upend daily life. They could revolutionize the electric grid and enable levitating trains, among many other potential applications. But until now, superconductors have had to be cooled to extremely low temperatures, which has restricted them to…

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 15 October 2020

#53

 

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Description Scientists have made a major breakthrough in superconducting, with the first discovery of a genuine

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 15 October 2020

#54

 

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Description The rare, endangered Przewalski’s horse was cloned from cells taken from a stallion that had sat frozen at the San Diego Zoo for 40 years.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 15 October 2020

#55

 

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Description The incidence of kidney diseases from communicable and non-communicable causes is expected to increase globally — especially in low and middle-income countries — as a consequence of global warming. As this increase could lead to overburdening of health-care systems, action is crucial to minimize the negative impacts of climate change on kidney health.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 15 October 2020

#56

 

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Description Electrical-transmission towers and the cables are part of the landscape of industrialized countries. Less visible but just as important are switchgear devices that protect electrical equipment. But did you know that many ...

#Construction;#Agriculture & Gardening;#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 15 October 2020

#57

 

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Description Sudden climatic changes may have been a significant driver of the extinction of early human species, including the Neanderthals, Homo erectus and Homo heidelbergensis

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 15 October 2020

#58

 

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Description San Francisco-based engineering company Edge Innovations has designed and built a robot dolphin that looks and acts just like the real thing.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 15 October 2020

#59

 

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Description Smoke at concentrations that topped the government’s charts for health risks and lasted at least a day enshrouded counties inhabited by more than 8 million people.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 15 October 2020

#60

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 15 October 2020

#61

 

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Description Superconductors are materials capable of transmitting electricity without resistance, allowing current to flow without any loss of energy. Unfortunately, all previously developed superconductors must first be cooled to extremely low temperatures to attain the necessary properties, making them largel

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 15 October 2020

#62

 

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Description Evading questions about climate change is a problematic stance for anyone likely to assume power in the U.S. government, like Judge Amy Coney Barrett.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 15 October 2020

#63

 

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Description A few million atmospheres of pressure let mundane chemicals superconduct.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#64

 

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Description Farm management strategies for alternatives to nitrogen application can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve air quality, and increase crop yields in China.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#65

 

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Description DALLAS - A camera in the security lines at Dallas Love Field is scanning every passerby for elevated temperatures, in a test by the airport and Southwest Airlines to find out if it can detect sick people before they board ...

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#66

 

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Description Tardigrades are famously near-indestructible, and some have harnessed the power of fluorescence to help them survive intense ultraviolet radiation

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#67

 

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Description A device that uses heat from sunlight to extract water from the air could help provide a sustainable source of water in remote, arid regions

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#68

 

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Description A study of 82 bacula, the bones found in the penis of most male mammals, suggests that they may be used to displace sperm from another male already in a female’s reproductive tract

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#69

 

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Description Converting 30 per cent of some tropical farmland into its original state could create a carbon store big enough for half of our emissions since the Industrial Revolution

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#70

 

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Description The huntingtin (HTT) protein in its mutant form is the cause of the inherited neurodegenerative disorder, Huntington’s disease. Beyond its effects in the central nervous system, disease-associated mutant HTT causes aberrant phenotypes in myeloid-lineage innate immune system cells, namely monocytes and macrophages. Whether the wild-type form of the protein, however, has a role in normal human macrophage function has not been determined. Here, the effects of lowering the expression of wild-type (wt)HTT on the function of primary monocyte-derived macrophages from healthy, non-disease human subjects were examined. This demonstrated a previously undescribed role for wtHTT in maintaining normal macrophage health and function. Lowered wtHTT expression was associated, for instance, with a diminished release of induced cytokines, elevated phagocytosis and increased vulnerability to cellular stress. These may well occur by mechanisms different to that associated with the mutant form of the protein, given an absence of any effect on the intracellular signalling pathway predominantly associated with macrophage dysfunction in Huntington’s disease.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#71

 

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Description Asked by: Dhyey, India

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#72

 

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Description Steady rotation is induced in cholesteric droplets dispersed in a specific liquid solvent under a temperature gradient. In this phenomenon, two rotational modes have been considered: (1) collective rotation of the local director field and (2) rigid-body rotation of the whole droplet structure. However, here we present another rotational mode induced in a pillar-shaped cholesteric droplet confined between substrates under a temperature gradient, that is, a differential rotation where the angular velocity varies as a function of the radial coordinate in the pillar. A detailed flow field analysis revealed that every pillar under a temperature gradient involves a double convection roll. These results suggested that the differential rotation in the cholesteric pillars was driven by the inhomogeneous material flow induced by a temperature gradient. The present experimental study indicates that the coupling between the flow and the director motion plays a key role in the rotation of the cholesteric droplets under the temperature gradient.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#73

 

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Description Analysis at Dutch university suggests researchers are not reporting a large number of animal experiments

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#74

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#75

 

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Description Synthesizing novel views from a set of captured images is important in virtual and augmented reality applications. Usually, Neural Radiance Field (NeRF) is employed for this task. However, this technique requires constant lighting and static content. Therefore, NeRF cannot be used to create views fr

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#76

 

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Description

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#77

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#78

 

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Description Named for its elephants, Ivory Coast once had one of the largest elephant populations in West Africa. Now there are just hundreds left

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#79

 

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Description The on-going developments in laser acceleration of protons and light ions, as well as the production of strong bursts of neutrons and multi- $$hbox {MeV}$$ photons by secondary processes now provide a basis for novel high-flux nuclear physics experiments. While the maximum energy of protons resulting from Target Normal Sheath Acceleration is presently still limited to around $$100 , hbox {MeV}$$ , the generated proton peak flux within the short laser-accelerated bunches can already today exceed the values achievable at the most advanced conventional accelerators by orders of magnitude. This paper consists of two parts covering the scientific motivation and relevance of such experiments and a first proof-of-principle demonstration. In the presented experiment pulses of $$200 , hbox {J}$$ at $$approx , 500 , hbox {fs}$$ duration from the PHELIX laser produced more than $$10^{12}$$ protons with energies above $$15 , hbox {MeV}$$ in a bunch of sub-nanosecond duration. They were used to induce fission in foil targets made of natural uranium. To make use of the nonpareil flux, these targets have to be very close to the laser acceleration source, since the particle density within the bunch is strongly affected by Coulomb explosion and the velocity differences between ions of different energy. The main challenge for nuclear detection with high-purity germanium detectors is given by the strong electromagnetic pulse caused by the laser-matter interaction close to the laser acceleration source. This was mitigated by utilizing fast transport of the fission products by a gas flow to a carbon filter, where the $$upgamma$$ -rays were registered. The identified nuclides include those that have half-lives down to $$39 , hbox {s}$$ . These results demonstrate the capability to produce, extract, and detect short-lived reaction products under the demanding experimental condition imposed by the high-power laser interaction. The approach promotes research towards relevant nuclear astrophysical studies at conditions currently only accessible at nuclear high energy density laser facilities.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#80

 

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Description Campylobacteriosis is the leading bacterial cause of human diarrheal illness worldwide. Campylobacteriosis incidence exhibits seasonality and has been attributed to ambient temperature. However, the role of ambient temperature on campylobacteriosis remains poorly understood. To examine the impact of ambient temperature on local campylobacteriosis in Germany, weekly incidences on NUTS-3 level were analysed using a novel small-scaled approach, regression and time lags. Campylobacteriosis incidence correlated positively with temperatures between − 5 and 28 °C. The sigmoid regression model estimated an incidence increase of 0.52 per 5 °C temperature rise in the observation period. The weekly average of daily minimum temperature was most significant at a time lag of two weeks and showed the steepest incidence increase of 0.13 per 1 °C temperature increase in a temperature corridor of 5.1 to 12.2 °C. The impact of average minimum temperatures on campylobacteriosis incidence is crucial, likely to be indirect and especially relevant in the recent part of the infection chain. Vectors or human behaviour are presumably more directly linked with temperature than the pathogen’s microbiology and should be examined. These variables outweigh the direct temperature-pathogen relationship when the whole chain of infection is considered. In the context of climate change, campylobacteriosis is likely to increase in Germany due to an increased temperature effect.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#81

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#82

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#83

 

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Description A major new milestone has just been achieved in the quest for superconductivity. For the first time, physicists have achieved the resistance-free flow of an electrical current at room temperature - a positively balmy 15 degrees Celsius (59 degrees

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#84

 

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Description But the hydrogen-based material requires high pressure

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#85

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#86

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#87

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#88

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#89

 

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Description A new study has found that the Great Barrier Reef has lost half its corals in just 20 years, as a hotter climate causes mass bleaching events.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 14 October 2020

#90

 

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Description The icy landscape of the Arctic as we imagine it will no longer exist in just a few decades, researchers returning from the MOSAiC expedition have warned.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 13 October 2020

#91

 

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Description Paramacrobiotus pigments transform ultraviolet into harmless blue light

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 13 October 2020

#92

 

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Description Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental and occupational pollutants derived from incomplete combustion of organic materials, including wood and fossil fuels. Epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between PAH exposure and hypertension or cardiovascular disease in the general population, but the evidence is limited. In this study, we evaluated the association between urinary PAH metabolites and hypertension in the Korean adult population. A total of 6478 adults who participated in the Second Korean National Environmental Health Survey (2012–2014) were included. The differences in urinary concentrations of four PAH metabolites, including 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 2-naphthol, were compared according to hypertension status using a general linear model. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for hypertension were calculated according to the quartile groups of urinary PAH metabolites after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol consumption in multiple logistic regression analyses. The estimated mean concentrations of urinary 1-hydroxyphenanthrene were significantly higher in the hypertension group than in the non-hypertension group. In 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, the OR for hypertension was significantly higher in the third and fourth quartile groups than in the first quartile group (third: OR 1.707, 95% CI 1.203–2.423, fourth: OR 1.604, 95% CI 1.158–2.223). No significant associations were detected for the other metabolites. Our results suggest an association between exposure to PAHs and hypertension in a Korean adult population. Further studies are required to evaluate the effects of low-dose long-term exposure to PAHs on hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 13 October 2020

#93

 

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Description Solar irradiation is the primary driving force for the Earth’s climate system. However, we are still short of powerful tools to study the variability of the Earth’s climate due to the solar activity. Here we apply the Liang–Kleeman information flow to quantify the causality from Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) to the global ocean heat content anomaly (OHCA). It reveals that the information flow from TSI to OHCA varies in both time and space. We adapt the method into a multi-scale version which describes the variation of information flow on different timescales. In different ocean basins, the significant information flow from TSI to OHCA varies on different timescales, which could be several decades, much longer than the timescale of the correlation revealed by wavelet coherence. Then we calculate the information flow from TSI to the first three expansion coefficients of the OHCA Empirical Orthogonal Functions. The results indicate that TSI is a part cause of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and global warming, especially in the 1970s. In the recent 40 years, the contribution of TSI to the variation of the OHCA becomes less significant probably due to the increasing influence of human activity on the climate system.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 13 October 2020

#94

 

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Description Shark-cephalopod interactions have been documented in trophic ecology studies around the world. However, there is little information about the encounters between white sharks Carcharodon carcharias and squids in the eastern North Pacific Ocean. Here we provide evidence of interactions between white sharks and large squids in the waters of Guadalupe Island, Mexico. Through the use of non-invasive techniques, we found the presence of evident scars made by large squids on the body of the white sharks, mainly on the head and trunk, of at least 14 sharks recorded during August–December in the years 2008, 2012, 2013, 2017 and 2019. The mean length of the white sharks was 3.7 m (SD ± 0.6; total length), although the majority of the sharks with scars were adult and subadult males (n = 9; 64%). One of these males was photographically recaptured during the same season in which the individual showed new scars, confirming that the squid-white shark interaction likely occurs near Guadalupe Island. Our results highlight the importance of the twilight zone for white sharks and the use of shared habitat and trophic interactions between squid and white sharks, in which future ecosystem studies should consider both species for management and conservation purposes.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 13 October 2020

#95

 

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Description The biological mechanisms involved in fear transmission within families have been scarcely investigated in humans. Here we studied (1) how children acquired conditioned fear from observing their parent, or a stranger, being exposed to a fear conditioning paradigm, and (2) the subsequent fear extinction process in these children. Eighty-three child-parent dyads were recruited. The parent was filmed while undergoing a conditioning procedure where one cue was paired with a shock (CS + Parent) and one was not (CS −). Children (8 to 12 years old) watched this video and a video of an adult stranger who underwent conditioning with a different cue reinforced (CS + Stranger). Children were then exposed to all cues (no shocks were delivered) while skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded. Children exhibited higher SCR to the CS + Parent and CS + Stranger relative to the CS −. Physiological synchronization between the child’s SCR during observational learning and the parent’s SCR during the actual process of fear conditioning predicted higher SCR for the child to the CS + Parent. Our data suggest that children acquire fear vicariously and this can be measured physiologically. These data lay the foundation to examine observational fear learning mechanisms that might contribute to fear and anxiety disorders transmission in clinically affected families.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 13 October 2020

#96

 

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Description The community composition of betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (ß-AOB) in the River Elbe Estuary was investigated by high throughput sequencing of ammonia monooxygenase subunit A gene (amoA) amplicons. In the course of the seasons surface sediment samples from seven sites along the longitudinal profile of the upper Estuary of the Elbe were investigated. We observed striking shifts of the ß-AOB community composition according to space and time. Members of the Nitrosomonas oligotropha-lineage and the genus Nitrosospira were found to be the dominant ß-AOB within the river transect, investigated. However, continuous shifts of balance between members of both lineages along the longitudinal profile were determined. A noticeable feature was a substantial increase of proportion of Nitrosospira-like sequences in autumn and of sequences affiliated with the Nitrosomonas marina-lineage at downstream sites in spring and summer. Slightly raised relative abundances of sequences affiliated with the Nitrosomonas europaea/Nitrosomonas mobilis-lineage and the Nitrosomonas communis-lineage were found at sampling sites located in the port of Hamburg. Comparisons between environmental parameters and AOB-lineage (ecotype) composition revealed promising clues that processes happening in the fluvial to marine transition zone of the Elbe estuary are reflected by shifts in the relative proportion of ammonia monooxygenase sequence abundance, and hence, we propose ß-AOB as appropriate indicators for environmental dynamics and the ecological condition of the Elbe Estuary.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 13 October 2020

#97

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 13 October 2020

#98

 

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Description (Inside Science) -- Scientists have revealed the first room-temperature superconductor -- an extraordinary compound that conducts electricity perfectly, without the subzero temperatures such materials have long demanded.The caveat: The new superconductor only works if the pressure is higher than pressures at which diamonds naturally form. Still, these findings may one day lead

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 13 October 2020

#99

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 13 October 2020

#100

 

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Description Humans are innately able to adapt their behavior and actions according to the movements of other humans in their surroundings. For instance, human drivers may suddenly stop, slow down, steer or start their car based on the ...

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 13 October 2020

#101

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 13 October 2020

#102

 

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Description Processing of animal carcasses and other animal wastes in rendering plants is a significant source of antibiotic resistant microorganisms. The main goal of this study was to investigate the resistance to 18 antibacterial agents including β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, colistin and virulence factors (iss, tsh, cvaC, iutA, papC, kps and ibeA genes) in 88 Escherichia coli strains isolated from a rendering plant over 1 year period. ESBL (Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases) and plasmid-mediated Amp were screened by interpretative reading of MIC. ESBL phenotype was detected in 20.4% of samples and high level of resistance to fluoroquinolone was found in 27.2% of strains. Cephalosporinase CTX-M1, cephamycinase CMY-2, integrase 1 and transposon 3 genes were detected by PCR. Furthermore, there were found three CMY-2 producing E. coli with O25b-ST131, resistant to the high level of enrofloxacin and containing the gene encoding the ferric aerobactin receptor (iutA). One enrofloxacin resistant E. coli strain possessed iss, ibeA, kps and papC virulence genes also with CMY-2, integrase1 and Tn3. ST131 E. coli with CMY-2 has a zoonotic potential and presents a serious health risk to humans.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 13 October 2020

#103

 

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Description Funding for volcano’s lone monitoring station lost as warning signs flash

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 13 October 2020

#104

 

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Description Numerous retailers are dropping prices on powerful Shark-branded vacuum cleaners for Prime Day 2020. Find the best Shark Prime Day deals right here.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 13 October 2020

#105

 

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Description Forests cover 30 per cent of the Earth’s landmass, but that number is on the decline. Despite forests’ crucial role in conserving wildlife and processing carbon dioxide, many are threatened by deforestation and wildfires. Complicating these threats is the lack of quantitative information that forest

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 13 October 2020

#106

 

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Description An unintended consequence of the industry’s quest to expand the internet could be a boon for weather prediction and climate research. Fluid dynamicist Pedram Hassanzadeh of Rice University’s Brown School of Engineering has received a National Science Foundation grant to study data from high-altit

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 13 October 2020

#107

 

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Description Wormholes are incredibly fascinating objects, but also completely hypothetical. We simply don't know if they can truly exist in our universe. But new theoretical insights are showing how we may be able to detect a wormhole – from a spray of high-energy particles emitted at the moment of its formatio

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 13 October 2020

#108

 

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Description Yearlong MOSAIC expedition ends as German icebreaker returns home

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 13 October 2020

#109

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 13 October 2020

#110

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 13 October 2020

#111

 

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Description Numerous retailers are dropping prices on powerful Shark-branded vacuum cleaners for Prime Day 2020. Find the best Shark Prime Day deals right here.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 13 October 2020