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#1

 

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Description Exploiting nonlinear characteristics in micro/nanosystems has been a subject of increasing interest in the last decade. Among others, vigorous intermodal coupling through internal resonance (IR) has drawn much attention because it can suggest new strategies to steer energy within a micro/nanomechanical resonator. However, a challenge in utilizing IR in practical applications is imposing the required frequency commensurability between vibrational modes of a nonlinear micro/nanoresonator. Here, we experimentally and analytically investigate the 1:2 and 2:1 IR in a clamped–clamped beam resonator to provide insights into the detailed mechanism of IR. It is demonstrated that the intermodal coupling between the second and third flexural modes in an asymmetric structure (e.g., nonprismatic beam) provides an optimal condition to easily implement a strong IR with high energy transfer to the internally resonated mode. In this case, the quadratic coupling between these flexural modes, originating from the stretching effect, is the dominant nonlinear mechanism over other types of geometric nonlinearity. The design strategies proposed in this paper can be integrated into a typical micro/nanoelectromechanical system (M/NEMS) via a simple modification of the geometric parameters of resonators, and thus, we expect this study to stimulate further research and boost paradigm-shifting applications exploring the various benefits of IR in micro/nanosystems. Achieving strong ‘internal resonance’ within a simple nanoelectromechanical resonator opens doors to further research and practical applications. Hanna Cho, and a team from The Ohio State University and Michigan State University, United States, describe in their new paper how internal resonance (IR) offers a “unique pathway” to steer vibrational energy, with applications in signal detection and simultaneous physical property sensing. Robust achievement of IR has proved challenging, with the property first realized in the early 2010s. The team now describe the robust generation of IR by a “relatively simple” nanoelectromechanical resonator, and the design parameters that can be manipulated to alter resonance behaviors. The team hope that their blueprints can act as a stepping stone for deeper investigation into the exploitation of IR for various applications.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 26 January 2021

#2

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 25 January 2021

#3

 

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Description New IBM SVP Bob Lord says the company is upping its partner game as it sharpens its focus on Red Hat OpenShift as the standard for hybrid cloud and AI.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 25 January 2021

#4

 

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Description Here is a look at why IBM CEO Arvind Krishna has named IBM Senior Vice President Bob Lord as the new head of worldwide ecosystems and blockchain.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 25 January 2021

#5

 

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Description The mouse species survived a devastating volcano eruption in the Philippines.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 25 January 2021

#6

 

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Description Airlines could save fuel and reduce emissions on transatlantic flights by hitching a better ride on the jet stream, new research has shown.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 25 January 2021

#7

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Construction;#Agriculture & Gardening;#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 25 January 2021

#8

 

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Description The nonlinear Hall effect (NLHE), the phenomenon in which a transverse voltage can be produced without a magnetic field, provides a potential alternative for rectification or frequency doubling1,2. However, the low-temperature detection of the NLHE limits its applications3,4. Here, we report the room-temperature NLHE in a type-II Weyl semimetal TaIrTe4, which hosts a robust NLHE due to broken inversion symmetry and large band overlapping at the Fermi level. We also observe a temperature-induced sign inversion of the NLHE in TaIrTe4. Our theoretical calculations suggest that the observed sign inversion is a result of a temperature-induced shift in the chemical potential, indicating a direct correlation of the NLHE with the electronic structure at the Fermi surface. Finally, on the basis of the observed room-temperature NLHE in TaIrTe4 we demonstrate the wireless radiofrequency (RF) rectification with zero external bias and magnetic field. This work opens a door to realizing room-temperature applications based on the NLHE in Weyl semimetals. Broken inversion symmetry in a type-II Weyl semimetal TaIrTe4 enables observation of the room-temperature nonlinear Hall effect as well as wireless radiofrequency rectification.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 25 January 2021

#9

 

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Description There used to be a greater diversity of human species, and paleoarchaeologists are still discovering more extinct relatives.

#Environment & Nature;#Theoretical sciences
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 25 January 2021

#10

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 25 January 2021

#11

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 24 January 2021

#12

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 23 January 2021

#13

 

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Description The dunes of the northwestern Sahara desert were streaked with ice on Tuesday, creating a surreal landscape

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 23 January 2021

#14

 

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Name
Description Warming temperatures and more variable rainfall are reducing diet diversity among children in many countries – and may even undermine efforts to improve food security

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 23 January 2021

#15

 

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Description We go on a journey with the MOSAiC Mission to the North Pole and back again.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 23 January 2021

#16

 

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Description African swine fever (ASF) has affected Romania since July 2017, with considerable economic and social consequences, despite the implementation of control measures mainly based on stamping out of infected pig populations. On the basis of the 2973 cumulative recorded cases up to September 2019 among wild boars and domestic pigs, analysis of the epidemiological characteristics could help to identify the factors favoring the persistence and spread of ASF. A statistical framework, based on a random forest methodology, was therefore developed to assess the spatiotemporal features of the epidemics and their relationships with environmental, human, and agricultural factors. The landscape of Romania was associated with the infection dynamics, particularly concerning forested and wetland areas. Waterways were also identified as a pivotal factor, raising questions about possible waterborne transmission since these waterways are often used as a water supply for backyard holdings. However, human activity was clearly identified as the main risk factor for the spread of ASF. Although the situation in Romania cannot be directly transposed to intensive pig farming countries, the findings of this study highlight the need for strict biosecurity measures on farms, and during transportation, to avoid ASF transmission at large geographic and temporal scales.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 22 January 2021

#17

 

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Description The increasing trend of gut colonization by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacterales has been observed in conventional farm animals and their owners. Still, such colonization among domesticated organically fed livestock has not been well studied. This study aimed to determine the gut colonization rate of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) among rural subsistence farming communities of the Kaski district in Nepal. Rectal swabs collected by systematic random sampling from 128 households of subsistence farming communities were screened for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and CPE by phenotypic and molecular methods. A total of 357 (57%) ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were obtained from 626 specimens, which included 97 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (75.8%) from 128 adult humans, 101 (79.5%) from 127 of their children, 51 (47.7%) from 107 cattle, 26 (51%) from 51 goats, 30 (34.9%) from 86 poultry and 52 (42%) from 127 environmental samples. No CPE was isolated from any of the samples. blaCTX-M-15 was the most predominant gene found in animal (86.8%) and human (80.5%) isolates. Out of 308 Escherichia coli isolates, 16 human and two poultry isolates were positive for ST131 and were of clade C. Among non-cephalosporin antibiotics, the resistance rates were observed slightly higher in tetracycline and ciprofloxacin among all study subjects. This is the first one-health study in Nepal, demonstrating the high rate of CTX-M-15 type ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae among gut flora of subsistence-based farming communities. Gut colonization by E. coli ST131 clade C among healthy farmers and poultry birds is a consequential public health concern.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 22 January 2021

#18

 

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Description Biden administration set to update the “social cost of carbon” used in greenhouse regulations

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 22 January 2021

#19

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 22 January 2021

#20

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature;#Theoretical sciences
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 22 January 2021

#21

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 22 January 2021

#22

 

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Description The number of bee species appears to have declined sharply in the past 30 years, which could mean many types of bee are extinct or so rare that no one has recording a sighting

#Environment & Nature;#Theoretical sciences
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 22 January 2021

#23

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 22 January 2021

#24

 

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Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 22 January 2021

#25

 

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Description Soon may the Wellerman come, to bring us sugar and tea and rum…

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 22 January 2021

#26

 

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Description Using trace fossils, scientists have reconstructed the 20-million-year-old lair of giant marine worms in northeast Taiwan, providing insights into the predator's behavior.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 22 January 2021

#27

 

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Description IBM CEO Arvind Krishna said the company is investing $1 billion in its cloud ecosystem, boosting the role partners play.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 22 January 2021

#28

 

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Description With the exception of high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX), there is currently no defined standard treatment for newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). This review focused on first-line induction and consolidation treatment of PCNSL and aimed to determine the optimal combination of HD-MTX and the long-term beneficial consolidation methods. A comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE identified 1407 studies, among which 31 studies met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis was performed by using Stata SE version 15. Forest plots were generated to report combined outcomes like the complete response rate (CRR), overall survival, and progression-free survival. We also conducted univariate regression analyses of the baseline characteristics to identify the source of heterogeneity. Pooled analysis showed a CRR of 41% across all HD-MTX-based regimens, and three- and four-drug regimens had better CRRs than HD-MTX monotherapy. In all combinations based on HD-MTX, the HD-MTX + procarbazine + vincristine (MPV) regimen showed pooled CRRs of 63% and 58% with and without rituximab, respectively, followed by the rituximab + HD-MTX + temozolomide regimen, which showed a pooled CRR of 60%. Pooled PFS and OS showed that post-remission consolidation with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) was associated with the best survival outcome, with a pooled 2-year OS of 80%, a 2-year PFS of 74%, a 5-year OS of 77%, and a 5-year PFS of 63%. Next, whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) + chemotherapy showed a pooled 2-year OS of 72%, 2-year PFS of 56%, 5-year OS of 55%, and 5-year PFS of 41%, with no detectable CR heterogeneity throughout the entire treatment process. In HD-MTX-based therapy of newly diagnosed PCNSL, MPV with or without rituximab can be chosen as the inductive regimen, and the rituximab + HD-MTX + temozolomide regimen is also a practical choice. Based on our study, high-dose chemotherapy supported by ASCT is an efficacious approach for consolidation. Consolidation with WBRT + chemotherapy can be another feasible approach.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 22 January 2021

#29

 

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Description Small changes in daylight in the environment can produce large changes in reflected light, even over short intervals of time. Do these changes limit the visual recognition of surfaces by their colour? To address this question, information-theoretic methods were used to estimate computationally the maximum number of surfaces in a sample that can be identified as the same after an interval. Scene data were taken from successive hyperspectral radiance images. With no illumination change, the average number of surfaces distinguishable by colour was of the order of 10,000. But with an illumination change, the average number still identifiable declined rapidly with change duration. In one condition, the number after two minutes was around 600, after 10 min around 200, and after an hour around 70. These limits on identification are much lower than with spectral changes in daylight. No recoding of the colour signal is likely to recover surface identity lost in this uncertain environment.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 22 January 2021

#30

 

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Description Understanding how biological and environmental factors interactively shape the global distribution of plant and animal genetic diversity is fundamental to biodiversity conservation. Genetic diversity measured in local populations (GDP) is correspondingly assumed representative for population fitness and eco-evolutionary dynamics. For 8356 populations across the globe, we report that plants systematically display much lower GDP than animals, and that life history traits shape GDP patterns both directly (animal longevity and size), and indirectly by mediating core-periphery patterns (animal fecundity and plant dispersal). Particularly in some plant groups, peripheral populations can sustain similar GDP as core populations, emphasizing their potential conservation value. We further find surprisingly weak support for general latitudinal GDP trends. Finally, contemporary rather than past climate contributes to the spatial distribution of GDP, suggesting that contemporary environmental changes affect global patterns of GDP. Our findings generate new perspectives for the conservation of genetic resources at worldwide and taxonomic-wide scales. A global analysis of population-level variation in genetic diversity for 727 plant and animal species finds that biogeography, life history traits and climate are important for predicting the distribution of local genetic diversity, and should be considered together when assessing the local conservation status of species.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 22 January 2021

#31

 

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Description Ugo Mellone captured the first ever high-resolution image of a rare Cuvier's gazelle (and her calf) in a desert environment using a technique called photo trapping

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 22 January 2021

#32

 

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Description New Scientist's weekly round-up of the best books, films, TV series, games and more that you shouldn't miss

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 22 January 2021

#33

 

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Name
Description From sit-ins at the office of US speaker Nancy Pelosi to school protests by Greta Thunberg, a fascinating podcast shares the stories of young people fighting climate change

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 22 January 2021

#34

 

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Description It cut average CO2 emissions in the fleet in the European Union by around 20% to 99.8 g/km, but that was around 0.5 g/km above its target, Volkswagen said.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 21 January 2021

#35

 

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Description How the innate and adaptive host immune system miscommunicate to worsen COVID-19 immunopathology has not been fully elucidated. Here, we perform single-cell deep-immune profiling of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 5 patients with mild and 26 with critical COVID-19 in comparison to BALs from non-COVID-19 pneumonia and normal lung. We use pseudotime inference to build T-cell and monocyte-to-macrophage trajectories and model gene expression changes along them. In mild COVID-19, CD8+ resident-memory (TRM) and CD4+ T-helper-17 (TH17) cells undergo active (presumably antigen-driven) expansion towards the end of the trajectory, and are characterized by good effector functions, while in critical COVID-19 they remain more naïve. Vice versa, CD4+ T-cells with T-helper-1 characteristics (TH1-like) and CD8+ T-cells expressing exhaustion markers (TEX-like) are enriched halfway their trajectories in mild COVID-19, where they also exhibit good effector functions, while in critical COVID-19 they show evidence of inflammation-associated stress at the end of their trajectories. Monocyte-to-macrophage trajectories show that chronic hyperinflammatory monocytes are enriched in critical COVID-19, while alveolar macrophages, otherwise characterized by anti-inflammatory and antigen-presenting characteristics, are depleted. In critical COVID-19, monocytes contribute to an ATP-purinergic signaling-inflammasome footprint that could enable COVID-19 associated fibrosis and worsen disease-severity. Finally, viral RNA-tracking reveals infected lung epithelial cells, and a significant proportion of neutrophils and macrophages that are involved in viral clearance.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 21 January 2021

#36

 

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Name
Description Equations show that jumping at 60 degrees relative to the horizontal helps insects avoid hitting obstacles – a finding that might help in the design of space exploration rovers

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 21 January 2021

#37

 

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Description Parts of Scotland face a 34 per cent increase in flooding in the next 50 years, whereas in south east England there is an 18 per cent increase expected.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 21 January 2021

#38

 

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Description Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lasers have demonstrated great potential as the light source for various spectroscopies, which, if they can be focused into a small beam spot, will not only allow investigation of mesoscopic materials and structures but also find application in the manufacture of nano-objects with excellent precision. In this work, we report the construction of a 177 nm VUV laser that can achieve a record-small (~0.76 μm) focal spot at a long focal length (~45 mm) by using a flat lens without spherical aberration. The size of the beam spot of this VUV laser was tested using a metal grating and exfoliated graphene flakes, and we demonstrated its application in a fluorescence spectroscopy study on pure and Tm3+-doped NaYF4 microcrystals, revealing a new emission band that cannot be observed in the traditional up-conversion process. In addition, this laser system would be an ideal light source for spatially and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 21 January 2021

#39

 

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Name
Description The UN accepted President Joe Biden's request to return to the Paris Agreement, and thereby help stabilize the planet's warming climate.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 21 January 2021

#40

 

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Name
Description Iron (Fe) is well known as a limiting factor to control primary productivity especially in high-nutrient and low chlorophyll area such as the subarctic Pacific. The solubility of Fe is believed to be controlled by its complexation with natural organic ligands, while the distribution of organic ligands is poorly understood. Here, we report that dissolved (< 0.2 µm) organic ligands were unevenly distributed between the western and eastern stations in the subarctic Pacific. The concentration of dissolved organic ligands around the lower part of subarctic Pacific intermediate water was higher in the western station, suggesting that Fe complexation with these organic ligands supports a lateral transport within the water mass. However, a more detailed size-fractionated treatment indicated no significant difference in the soluble (< 1000 kDa) ligands’ distribution between the western and eastern stations. These results suggest that organic and inorganic colloid formations are potentially essential for Fe transport mechanisms in the subarctic Pacific.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 21 January 2021

#41

 

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Description To determine the factor triggering the sudden surge of daily new COVID-19 cases arising in most European countries during the autumn of 2020. The dates of the surge were determined using a fitting of the two last months of reported daily new cases in 18 European countries with latitude ranging from 39° to 62°. The study proves no correlation between the country surge date and the 2 weeks preceding temperature or humidity but shows an impressive linear correlation with latitude. The country surge date corresponds to the time when its sun UV daily dose drops below ≈ 34% of that of 0° latitude. Introducing reported seasonal blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration variation into the reported link between acute respiratory tract infection risk and 25(OH)D concentration quantitatively explains the surge dynamics. Several studies have already substantiated a 25(OH)D concentration impact on COVID-19 severity. However, by comparing different patient populations, discriminating whether a low 25(OH)D concentration is a real factor underlying COVID-19 severity or only a marker of another weakness that is the primary severity factor can be challenging. The date of the surge is an intrapopulation observation and has the benefit of being triggered only by a parameter globally affecting the population, i.e. decreases in the sun UV daily dose. The results indicate that a low 25(OH)D concentration is a contributing factor to COVID-19 severity, which, combined with previous studies, provides a convincing set of evidence.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 21 January 2021

#42

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 21 January 2021

#43

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 21 January 2021

#44

 

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Name
Description Extreme sea surface temperatures (SSTs) attract much attention in recent years. However, the detailed spatial and temporal pattern of the extreme SSTs in China Seas has not been well understood. Using the daily SST data set of OISST v2 from January 1, 1982 to December 31, 2013, and based on four extreme SST indices, the frequency and intensity of SST extremes in the China Seas were examined. The analysis showed that the annual mean SST exhibited cooling trend, on pace with a trend of − 0.34 °C/decade during 1998–2013, confirming the previous studies that China Seas also experienced the recent global warming hiatus. But during this recent global warming hiatus, there was a notable asymmetric pattern of greater cooling trends in cold SSTs as compared to the hot SSTs in this region. During 1998–2013, the cold days (CDs) frequency increased significantly by 13 days per decade and cold SST extremes which were below the 10th percentile of each year (SST10p) notably decreased by 0.4 °C per decade. Hot days (HD) and hot SST extremes which were above the 90th percentile of each year (SST90p) slowed down, but without any distinct tendency. Meanwhile, the rates of SST10p and CDs were highly heterogeneous in space. Cold extremes in the near-shore areas are much more sensitive to the global warming hiatus than these in the eastern of the Kuroshio Current. Importantly, hot extremes do not reveal any distinct cooling tendency during 1998–2013, there were more frequent hot days and more intense hot SSTs in this region comparing with 1982–1997. These hot extremes could push some marine organisms, fisheries and ecosystems beyond the limits of their resilience, with cascading impacts on economies and societies.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 21 January 2021

#45

 

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Name
Description Brain metastasis (BM) is a common malignant event in lung cancer. Here, we recruited 33 lung cancer patients with brain oligo-metastasis to explore the genomic features and tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) of the lung and BM independently. For genomic profiling, targeted sequencing was performed. We found that high-frequent ZFHX3 occurred in the lung (40%) and brain tumor (28%), which might relate to brain metastasis event; the vast majority of patients had lesions-shared mutations in primary tumor and BM, confirming the common clonal events; and EGFR was the most frequently clonal gene in both lung and BM, indicating its driver capability. To characterize TIME status, we also sequenced the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires and performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) on CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and PD-L1 expression in 28 patients who had paired samples. Through the comparison, the TCR clonality of BM was higher than lung tumor, indicating the distinct pattern of the stronger oligoclonal T cell expansion in BM; the primary tumor had a higher TMB than oligo-BM (13.9 vs 8.7 mutations, p = 0.019); CD8 + TILs of BM were significantly lower than lung tumor (10% vs 30%, p = 0.015), revealing the lower level of cytotoxic T cell infiltration; BM showed statistically equivalent level of PD-L1 compared with lung tumor (p = 0.722). We further investigated the potential biomarkers associated with overall survival (OS) after brain surgery. We found that higher TCR clonality was related to prolonged OS in EGFR-treated patients (HR 0.175, p < 0.001) but the worse outcomes in non-EGFR-treated (HR 2.623, p = 0.034). More CD8+ TILs were an independently positive indicator for OS, in EGFR-treated (HR 0.160, p = 0.001) and non-EGFR-treated patients (HR 0.308, p = 0.009). These findings provide a meaningful molecular and clinical understanding of lung carcinoma and brain oligo-metastasis.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 21 January 2021

#46

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 21 January 2021

#47

 

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Name
Description The late Mike deGruy filmed iconic underwater footage that wowed audiences, drawing the admiration of David Attenborough and James Cameron. A fond documentary by his wife reveals the real man

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 21 January 2021

#48

 

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Name
Description Global carbon dioxide emissions from cars are growing because higher numbers of SUVs are cancelling out the reduction due to higher numbers of electric cars

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 21 January 2021

#49

 

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Name
Description Senator Ted Cruz repeated Donald Trump's America-centric climate rhetoric as President Joe Biden rejoined the Paris agreement on his first day in office.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 21 January 2021

#50

 

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Name
Description Hours after Joe Biden was sworn in on Wednesday, his first actions in the White House included signing two executive orders related to climate change.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 20 January 2021

#51

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Environment & Nature;#Theoretical sciences
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 20 January 2021

#52

 

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Name
Description Unusual winter wildfires are burning in parts of California, the result of dry, windy weather conditions and a warming climate.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 20 January 2021

#53

 

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Name
Description President Joe Biden signed a swathe of new executive orders on his first day as leader of the United States.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 20 January 2021

#54

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 20 January 2021

#55

 

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Description Sociality is a fundamental organizing principle across taxa, thought to come with a suite of adaptive benefits. However, making causal inferences about these adaptive benefits requires experimental manipulation of the social environment, which is rarely feasible in the field. Here we manipulated the number of conspecifics in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in the wild, and quantified how this affected a key benefit of sociality, social foraging, by investigating several components of foraging success. As adaptive benefits of social foraging may differ between sexes, we studied males and females separately, expecting females, the more social and risk-averse sex in guppies, to benefit more from conspecifics. Conducting over 1600 foraging trials, we found that in both sexes, increasing the number of conspecifics led to faster detection of novel food patches and a higher probability of feeding following detection of the patch, resulting in greater individual resource consumption. The extent of the latter relationship differed between the sexes, with males unexpectedly exhibiting a stronger social benefit. Our study provides rare causal evidence for the adaptive benefits of social foraging in the wild, and highlights that sex differences in sociality do not necessarily imply an unequal ability to profit from the presence of others. Snijders et al. present a field-based experimental study of the effects of group size and sex composition on social foraging in Trinidadian guppies. Their results indicate that sex differences in sociality do not necessarily imply an unequal ability to benefit from social presence.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 20 January 2021

#56

 

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Name
Description Sangay volcano in Ecuador has collapsed twice in the past 250,000 years, unleashing debris avalanches that caused devastation over 60 kilometres away

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 20 January 2021

#57

 

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Name
Description Arctic (formerly Arctic Cooling) may be prepping to introduce its first new thermal paste in nearly a decade. ...

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 20 January 2021

#58

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 20 January 2021

#59

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 20 January 2021

#60

 

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Description The number of western monarch butterflies wintering along the California coast has plummeted precipitously to a record low.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 20 January 2021

#61

 

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Name
Description On his first day in office, President Joe Biden has a full plate of executive orders, memoranda and directives ready to go.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 20 January 2021

#62

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 20 January 2021

#63

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 January 2021

#64

 

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Description China’s decision to ban the trade and consumption of terrestrial wild animals, while controversial, is a viable response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The ban has implications that extend beyond safeguarding human health to also help combat illegal wildlife trade and protect threatened species.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 January 2021

#65

 

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Name
Description The piezoelectric optomechanical devices supply a promising experimental platform to realize the coherent and effective control and measurement of optical circuits working in Terahertz (THz) frequencies via superconducting electron devices typically working in Radio (MHz) frequencies. However, quantum fluctuations are unavoidable when the size of mechanical oscillators enter into the nanoscale. The consequences of the noisy environment are still challenging due to the lack of analytical tools. In this paper, a semi-classical and full-quantum model of piezoelectric optomechanical systems coupled to a noisy bosonic quantum environment are introduced and solved in terms of quantum-state diffusion (QSD) trajectories in the non-Markovian regime. We show that the noisy environment, particularly the central frequency of the environment, can enhance the entanglement generation between optical cavities and LC circuits in some parameter regimes. Moreover, we observe the critical points in the coefficient functions, which can lead the different behaviors in the system. Besides, we also witness the entanglement transfers between macroscopic objects due to the memory effect of the environment. Our work can be applied in the fields of electric/ optical switches, and long-distance distribution in a large-scale quantum network.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 January 2021

#66

 

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Description Nuclear quantum effects (NQE) tend to generate delocalized molecular dynamics due to the inclusion of the zero point energy and its coupling with the anharmonicities in interatomic interactions. Here, we present evidence that NQE often enhance electronic interactions and, in turn, can result in dynamical molecular stabilization at finite temperature. The underlying physical mechanism promoted by NQE depends on the particular interaction under consideration. First, the effective reduction of interatomic distances between functional groups within a molecule can enhance the n → π* interaction by increasing the overlap between molecular orbitals or by strengthening electrostatic interactions between neighboring charge densities. Second, NQE can localize methyl rotors by temporarily changing molecular bond orders and leading to the emergence of localized transient rotor states. Third, for noncovalent van der Waals interactions the strengthening comes from the increase of the polarizability given the expanded average interatomic distances induced by NQE. The implications of these boosted interactions include counterintuitive hydroxyl–hydroxyl bonding, hindered methyl rotor dynamics, and molecular stiffening which generates smoother free-energy surfaces. Our findings yield new insights into the versatile role of nuclear quantum fluctuations in molecules and materials. The inclusion of nuclear quantum effects (NQE) in atomistic simulations of chemical systems is of key importance. Here the authors use machine learned force fields trained on coupled cluster reference data to show the dynamical strengthening of covalent and non-covalent molecular interactions induced by NQE.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 January 2021

#67

 

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Description Many penguin populations are under threat but you can help researchers keep an eye on them through a citizen science project called Penguin Watch

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 January 2021

#68

 

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Description The forces fighting climate science have not been defeated, just changed tactics. But Michael Mann, a key figure in the fightback, argues for hope in his new book

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 January 2021

#69

 

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Description Noise Elan TWS earbuds have been launched in India as the company&rsquo;s first environmental noise cancelling (ENC) TWS earbuds. Noise Elan have an extended battery life of up to 36 hours. The earbuds have a quad microphone system and 6mm Titanium drivers with ENC technology. The buds are offered in a Shadow Grey (Black) colour.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 January 2021

#70

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 January 2021

#71

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 January 2021

#72

 

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Description Strong explosive eruptions of volcanoes throw out mixtures of gases and ash from high-pressure underground reservoirs. Investigating these subsurface reservoirs may help to forecast and characterize an eruption. In this study, we compare seismic tomography results with remote sensing and petrology data to identify deep and subaerial manifestations of pre-eruptive processes at Bezymianny volcano in Kamchatka shortly before its violent explosion on December 20, 2017. Based on camera networks we identify precursory rockfalls, and based on satellite radar data we find pre-eruptive summit inflation. Our seismic network recorded the P and S wave data from over 500 local earthquakes used to invert for a 3D seismic velocity distribution beneath Bezymianny illuminating its eruptive state days before the eruption. The derived tomography model, in conjunction with the presence of the high-temperature-stable SiO2 polymorph Tridymite in juvenile rock samples , allowed us to infer the coexistence of magma and gas reservoirs revealed as anomalies of low (1.5) and high (2.0) Vp/Vs ratios, respectively, located at depths of 2–3 km and only 2 km apart. The reservoirs both control the current eruptive activity: while the magma reservoir is responsible for episodic dome growth and lava flow emplacements, the spatially separated gas reservoir may control short but powerful explosive eruptions of Bezymianny.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 January 2021

#73

 

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Description Top-down and bottom-up forces determine ecosystem function and dynamics. Fisheries as a top-down force can shorten and destabilize food webs, while effects driven by climate change can alter the bottom-up forces of primary productivity. We assessed the response of a highly-resolved intertidal food web to these two global change drivers, using network analysis and bioenergetic modelling. We quantified the relative importance of artisanal fisheries as another predator species, and evaluated the independent and combined effects of fisheries and changes in plankton productivity on food web dynamics. The food web was robust to the loss of all harvested species but sensitive to the decline in plankton productivity. Interestingly, fisheries dampened the negative impacts of decreasing plankton productivity on non-harvested species by reducing the predation pressure of harvested consumers on non-harvested resources, and reducing the interspecific competition between harvested and non-harvested basal species. In contrast, the decline in plankton productivity increased the sensitivity of harvested species to fishing by reducing the total productivity of the food web. Our results show that strategies for new scenarios caused by climate change are needed to protect marine ecosystems and the wellbeing of local communities dependent on their resources.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 January 2021

#74

 

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Description Selective removal of lignin and other recalcitrant compounds, collectively registered as acid-unhyrolyzable residue (AUR), results in bleaching of leaf litter, but the importance of bleaching in decomposition processes on forest soil has not been fully evaluated. The aims of this study were to elucidate the occurrence of bleached area in decomposing leaf litter and to compare chemical composition between bleached and nonbleached portions in a subtropical forest in Japan. Field incubation of leaf litter was performed over an 18-month period with the litterbag method. The decomposition processes during the first 9 month were characterized by the relatively rapid mass loss and increase of bleached area, whereas the mass loss was slowed down and the bleached area decreased thereafter. Mass loss of leaf tissues was faster and AUR content was lower in bleached than in nonbleached portions, indicating the acceleration of mass loss in bleached leaf tissues by the selective decomposition of recalcitrant compounds. The decrease in carbonyl-C in the bleached portions was associated with the increase of extractable nitrogen. The results suggest that the bleaching plays a dominant role in the transformation and turnover of organic compounds and nitrogen in decomposing leaf litter.

#Environment & Nature
Field # Environment & Nature
Updated 19 January 2021