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Today: 30 October 2020, Friday.

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#1

 

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Description The recombination is one of the most frequently identified drivers of double-stranded DNA viruses evolution. However, the recombination events in African swine fever virus (ASFV) genomes have been poorly annotated. We hypothesize that the genetic determinants of ASFV variability are potential hot-spots for recombination. Here, we analyzed ASFV serotype-specific locus (C-type lectin (EP153R) and CD2v (EP402R)) in order to allocate the recombination breakpoints in these immunologically important proteins and reveal driving forces of virus evolution. The recombinations were found in both proteins, mostly among ASFV strains from East Africa, where multiple virus transmission cycles are notified. The recombination events were essentially associated with the domain organization of proteins. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the lack of clonal evolution for African strains which conclusively support the significance of recombinations in the serotype-specific locus. In addition, the signature of adaptive evolution of these two genes, pN/pS > 1, was demonstrated. These results have implications for the interpretation of cross-protection potential between evolutionary distant ASFV strains and strongly suggest that C-type lectin and CD2v may experience substantial selective pressure than previously thought.

#Food
Field # Food
Updated 28 October 2020

#2

 

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Description The hearing calls Mark Zuckerberg, Jack Dorsey, and Sundar Pichai to talk about Section 230, but that means different things to Republicans and Democrats.

#Food;#Hardware & Devices
Field # Food
Updated 28 October 2020

#3

 

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Name
Description The fabric can identify non-metallic objects using capacitive sensing.

#Food
Field # Food
Updated 28 October 2020

#4

 

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Name
Description Claims that solanine, a toxic compound found in many plants, exacerbates arthritis are a staple of health columns – but there’s no sound science to back this up, finds James Wong

#Food
Field # Food
Updated 28 October 2020

#5

 

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Name
Description Previous combinations of Ubuntu and the Pi have been community efforts only.

#Food
Field # Food
Updated 27 October 2020

#6

 

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Description An international team of researchers has identified a direct molecular link between meat and dairy diets and the development of antibodies in the blood that increase the chances of developing cancer. This connection may explain the high incidence of cancer among those who consume large amounts of da

#Food
Field # Food
Updated 26 October 2020

#7

 

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Description A series of in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies show that starch structure and plant tissue intactness control glucose release from pea-based foods. Modification of these characteristics through plant breeding and food processing may provide opportunities for enhanced food formulation, but challenges for labelling and communication.

#Food
Field # Food
Updated 26 October 2020

#8

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Food
Field # Food
Updated 25 October 2020

#9

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Food
Field # Food
Updated 25 October 2020

#10

 

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Name
Description These devices will help keep you cozy in the colder seasons.

#Food
Field # Food
Updated 24 October 2020

#11

 

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Name
Description From Oxo, Takeya, Filtron, Espro and others, we tested many popular cold-brew coffee makers to find out which is the best.

#Food
Field # Food
Updated 24 October 2020

#12

 

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Name
Description Hepatic apoptosis and the initiated liver inflammation play the initial roles in inflammation-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of hepatocyte apoptosis and their roles in hepatocarcinogenesis have attracted much attention. A set of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been determined to be dysregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and participated in cancer progression, however, the roles of these dysregulated miRNAs in carcinogenesis are still poorly understood. We previously analyzed the dysregulated miRNAs in HCC using high-throughput sequencing, and found that miR-199a/b-3p was abundantly expressed in human normal liver while markedly decreased in HCC, which promotes HCC progression. Whether miR-199a/b-3p participates in HCC carcinogenesis is still unknown up to now. Hence, we focused on the role and mechanism of miR-199a/b-3p in hepatocarcinogenesis in this study. Hepatic miR-199a/b-3p was determined to be expressed by miR-199a-2 gene in mice, and we constructed miR-199a-2 knockout and hepatocyte-specific miR-199a-2 knockout mice. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis were markedly increased by hepatocyte-specific miR-199a-3p knockout, which is mediated by the enhanced hepatocyte apoptosis and hepatic injury by DEN administration. In acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute hepatic injury model, hepatocyte-specific miR-199a-3p knockout also aggravated hepatic apoptosis. By proteomic screening and reporter gene validation, we identified and verified that hepatic programed cell death 4 (PDCD4), which promotes apoptosis, was directly targeted by miR-199a-3p. Furthermore, we confirmed that miR-199a-3p-suppressed hepatocyte apoptosis and hepatic injury by targeting and suppressing PDCD4. Thus, hepatic miR-199a-3p inhibits hepatocyte apoptosis and hepatocarcinogenesis, and decreased miR-199a-3p in hepatocytes may aggravate hepatic injury and HCC development.

#Food;#Medicine & Human body
Field # Food
Updated 24 October 2020

#13

 

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Description Obesity has been recognized as a major risk factor for chronic kidney disease, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we investigated the mechanism whereby long-term high-fat diet (HFD) feeding induces renal injury in mice. The C57BL/6 mice fed HFD for 16 weeks developed obesity, diabetes, and kidney dysfunction manifested by albuminuria and blood accumulation of BUN and creatinine. The HFD-fed kidney showed marked glomerular and tubular injuries, including prominent defects in the glomerular filtration barrier and increased tubular cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, HFD feeding markedly increased triglyceride and cholesterol contents in the kidney and activated lipogenic pathways for cholesterol and triglyceride synthesis. HFD feeding also increased oxidative stress and induced mitochondrial fission in tubular cells, thereby activating the pro-apoptotic pathway. In HK-2 and mesangial cell cultures, high glucose, fatty acid, and TNF-α combination was able to activate the lipogenic pathways, increase oxidative stress, promote mitochondrial fission, and activate the pro-apoptotic pathway, all of which could be attenuated by an inhibitor that depleted reactive oxygen species. Taken together, these observations suggest that long-term HFD feeding causes kidney injury at least in part as a result of tissue lipid accumulation, increased oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction, which promote excess programmed cell death.

#Food
Field # Food
Updated 24 October 2020

#14

 

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Name
Description Scientists have found a significant association between the consumption of flavanol-rich foods, like apples, cocoa and nuts, and lower blood pressure.

#Food
Field # Food
Updated 23 October 2020

#15

 

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Description The earth has been undergoing climate change, especially in recent years, driven by increasing concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and rising earth-surface temperature, which could reduce N allocation to Bt toxin for transgenic Bt crops (Bt crops), but the N fertilization is considered to be an effective method to enhance the C–N balance in Bt crops in the case of elevated CO2 in future. DNA methylation not only in promoterregion but also in codingregion of transgene plays a critical role in transgene expression regulation and silencing of transgenic crops. Recent research has emphasized the risks of increased transgene silencing of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice under elevated CO2. In this study, the effects of elevated CO2 (vs. ambient CO2) on exogenous Bt toxins and transgene expression in promoterregion and codingregion of Bt rice during tillering stage (cv. HH1 expressing fused Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac) were evaluated under three nitrogen (N) fertilizer rate (1/4, 1 and 2 N levels). The aboveground and belowground biomass, and foliar Bt protein content of Bt rice were all significantly increased with the augmentation of N-fertilizer. And elevated CO2 significantly increased belowground biomass, total soluble protein content, transgene methylation levels in promoterregion (P1), and in total of promoterregion(P1) and codingregion (P2 + P3) (i.e., P1 + P2 + P3) at 1 N level, and it also increased transgene methylation levels in codingregion (P2), and in total of promoterregion and codingregion (P1 + P2 + P3) at 2 N level. In addition, elevated CO2 decreased foliar Bt protein content at 1 N level. The transgene methylation levels in promoterregion and codingregion were negatively correlated with Bt-transgene expression level. The methylation level of cytosines located at CG sites was higher than those at CHG and CHH sites in P1, P2 and P3 fragments regardless of the CO2 or N-fertilizer level. The correlation of transgene mehtylation in promoterregion with transgene expression is even stronger than that in codingregion. These data indicate that N fertilization supply will increase the Bt toxin content in transgenic Bt rice, especially under elevated CO2.

#Food
Field # Food
Updated 23 October 2020