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Today: 28 February 2021, Sunday.

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#1

 

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#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 27 February 2021

#2

 

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#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 26 February 2021

#3

 

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Description High-density memory devices are essential to sustain growth in information technology (IT). Furthermore, brain-inspired computing devices are the future of IT businesses such as artificial intelligence, deep learning, and big data. Herein, we propose a facile and hierarchical nickel cobaltite (NCO) quasi-hexagonal nanosheet-based memristive device for multilevel resistive switching (RS) and synaptic learning applications. Electrical measurements of the Pt/NCO/Pt device show the electroforming free pinched hysteresis loops at different voltages, suggesting the multilevel RS capability of the device. The detailed memristive properties of the device were calculated using the time-dependent current–voltage data. The two-valued charge-flux properties indicate the memristive and multilevel RS characteristics of the device. Interestingly, the Pt/NCO/Pt memristive device shows a compliance current (CC)-dependent RS property; compliance-free RS was observed from 10−2 to 10−4 A, and the compliance effect dominated in the range of 10−5–10−6 A. In CC control mode, the device demonstrated three resistance states during endurance and retention measurements. In addition, the device was successful in mimicking biological synaptic properties such as potentiation-depression- and spike-timing-dependent plasticity rules. The results of the present investigation demonstrated that solution-processable NCO nanosheets are potential switching materials for high-density memory and brain-inspired computing applications. A simple technique for producing nanostructured oxides shows promise for developing neuromorphic computing systems. Tae Geun Kim from Korea University in Seoul, South Korea, and co-workers report that nickel cobaltite, a low-cost material being considered for non-volatile memory devices, can be synthesized as porous nanosheets through a co-precipitation method. The team demonstrated that when stacked a few hundred nanometers thick, these sheets had properties ideal for ‘resistive switching’, an effect that stores data by transforming insulators into conductors using metal filaments. Characterizations revealed that the material’s morphology proved ideal for fine-tuning filament growth, enabling the memory cell to switch between three conductive states. Because the nanosheet devices retained memories of their switching history, they were capable of mimicking neural network behavior, such as the potentiation, depression and spike-timing-dependent plasticity processes associated with synapses. A resistive switching device is fabricated using nanostructured nickel cobaltite for high-density data storage and synaptic learning applications. The active switching layer of the device consists of quasi-hexagonal porous nanosheets that enable smooth charge transport. The device shows voltage tunable and forming-free resistive switching effect and non-ideal memristive properties. The rational design of the device helps to show controlled multilevel resistive switching property and thereby switch between three conductive states. The analog switching of the device helps to mimic specific neural network behavior, such as the potentiation, depression and four spike-timing-dependent plasticity rules.

#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 26 February 2021

#4

 

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Description A light-induced topological phase transition is realized in the Dirac semimetal ZrTe5 by coherently driving symmetry-breaking phonons.

#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 25 February 2021

#5

 

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Description Using group theory and first principles calculations, it is shown that an analogue of the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction that allows the antisymmetric exchange spin coupling in magnets exists in ferroelectrics.

#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 25 February 2021

#6

 

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Description Two classical criteria, by Pugh and Pettifor, have been widely used by metallurgists to predict whether a material will be brittle or ductile. A phenomenological correlation by Pugh between metal brittleness and its shear modulus to bulk modulus ratio was established more than 60 years ago. Nearly four decades later Pettifor conducted a quantum mechanical analysis of bond hybridization in a series of intermetallics and derived a separate ductility criterion based on the difference between two single-crystal elastic constants, C12–C44. In this paper, we discover the link between these two criteria and show that they are identical for materials with cubic crystal structures.

#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 25 February 2021

#7

 

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#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 24 February 2021

#8

 

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Description An article in Nature Biomedical Engineering reports a wearable sensor for the simultaneous non-invasive monitoring of heart rate, blood pressure and multiple biochemical markers.

#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 23 February 2021

#9

 

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Description Tweets linking to news stories that rely on "hacked materials" are now being stamped with a warning label on Twitter.

#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 23 February 2021

#10

 

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Description To overcome the severe toxicity and blind absorption zone of conventional lead-based shielding materials for X-rays in the 70–90 keV range, the lead-free multilayered polymer composites were designed and fabricated. The effects of the direction of incidence of the X-rays and number of layers as well as layer thickness ratio of the (tungsten/ethylene-octene copolymer)/(bismuth/ethylene-octene copolymer) layered composites on their shielding efficiency were studied systematically. Compared to the traditional polymer blending, the multilayered polymer composites exhibited the improved photon attenuation. The multilayered polymer composites (layer thickness ratio was 3:7) with 6 layers had the best X-ray shielding ability. Moreover, the X-ray shielding provided by the multi-layered interfaces and the multiple complementary effect of the absorption within the multilayered structure were firstly proposed based on computer simulations. The multilayered structural design effectively weakened the probability of the X-ray penetration. Therefore, the X-ray shielding capability can be effectively enhanced through increasing number of layers and the synergistic effect of multi-layered interfaces. The experimental results of this study can serve as guidelines for the fabrication of flexibility, lead-free, lightweight and high-efficiency X-ray shielding materials.

#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 23 February 2021

#11

 

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Description Aliphatic polycarbonate-based polyurethanes were successfully synthesized using two aliphatic polycarbonate polyols and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) with 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) as the chain extender. One of the aliphatic polycarbonate polyols, named PBC-diol, was prepared from dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and 1,4-BD, while the other, named PCHC-diol, was derived by reacting DMC with 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol (CHDM). The results of the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the cyclic structure improved the thermal stability of the polyurethanes. In addition, the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves showed that the cyclic structure increased the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polyurethanes but slowed their crystallization. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the polyurethanes with different cyclic structure contents were analyzed using Instron. Although the elongation at break decreased, the tensile strength increased from 32.6 to 844.0 MPa when the PBC-diol was replaced with PCHC-diol in the polyurethanes. Finally, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis was conducted to investigate the formation of hydrogen bonds. The relationship between the hydrogen bonds and cyclic structure content was also shown in this study. A series of aliphatic polycarbonate-based polyurethanes with different content of cyclic structure was synthesized. There were more hydrogen bonds between soft and hard segments formed as the content of cyclic units increased. The mechanical and thermal properties of the environment-friendly polycarbonate-based polyurethanes can be enhanced and controlled by varying the content of the cycloaliphatic structures. These polyurethanes can be considered as high potential materials that can be used in different applications in the future.

#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 22 February 2021

#12

 

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Description Hybridization of semiconductor nanostructures with asymmetric metallic layers offers new paths to circular polarization control and chiral properties. Here we study, both experimentally and numerically, chiral properties of GaAs-based nanowires (NWs) which have two out of six sidewalls covered by Au. Sparse ensembles of vertical, free-standing NWs were fabricated by means of lithography-free self-assembled technique on Si substrates and subsequently covered by Au using tilted evaporation. We report on optical spin-dependent specular reflection in the 680–1000 nm spectral range when the orientation of the golden layers follows the rule of extrinsic chirality. The analysis shows reflection peaks of the chiral medium whose intensity is dependent on the light handedness. We further propose a novel, time-efficient numerical method that enables a better insight into the far-field intensity and distribution of the scattered light from a sparse NW ensembles. The measurements done on three different samples in various orientations show good agreement with theoretical predictions over a broad wavelength range.

#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 22 February 2021

#13

 

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Description We selected an aptamer against a fluorogenic dye called Thioflavin T (ThT). Aptamers are single-stranded DNA that can bind a specific target. We selected the ThT aptamer using graphene oxide assisted SELEX and a low-cost Open qPCR instrument. We optimized, minimized, and characterized the best aptamer candidate against ThT. The aptamer, ThT dye, and the enzymatic strand displacement amplification (SDA) were used in a label-free approach to detect the micro RNA miR-215 in saliva and serum. The aptamer confers higher specificity than intercalating dyes but without expensive covalently modified DNA probes. This isothermal, low-cost, simple method can detect both DNA and RNA. The target, miR-215, was detected with a limit of detection of 2.6 nM.

#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 22 February 2021

#14

 

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#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 22 February 2021

#15

 

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#Materials
Field # Materials
Updated 22 February 2021