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Today: 26 January 2021, Tuesday.

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#1

 

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Description Anti-PD-1 antibodies and BRAF/MEK inhibitors are the two main groups of systemic therapy in the treatment of BRAFV600-mutant advanced melanoma. Until now, data are inconclusive on which therapy to use as first-line treatment. The aim of this study was to use propensity score matching to compare first-line anti-PD-1 monotherapy vs. BRAF/MEK inhibitors in advanced BRAFV600-mutant melanoma patients. We selected patients diagnosed between 2014 and 2017 with advanced melanoma and a known BRAFV600-mutation treated with first-line BRAF/MEK inhibitors or anti-PD-1 antibodies, registered in the Dutch Melanoma Treatment Registry. Patients were matched based on their propensity scores using the nearest neighbour and the optimal matching method. Between 2014 and 2017, a total of 330 and 254 advanced melanoma patients received BRAF/MEK inhibitors and anti-PD-1 monotherapy as first-line systemic therapy. In the matched cohort, patients receiving anti-PD-1 antibodies as a first-line treatment had a higher median and 2-year overall survival compared to patients treated with first-line BRAF/MEK inhibitors, 42.3 months (95% CI: 37.3-NE) vs. 19.8 months (95% CI: 16.7–24.3) and 85.4% (95% CI: 58.1–73.6) vs. 41.7% (95% CI: 34.2–51.0). Our data suggest that in the matched BRAFV600-mutant advanced melanoma patients, anti-PD-1 monotherapy is the preferred first-line treatment in patients with relatively favourable patient and tumour characteristics.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 January 2021

#2

 

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Description Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence for a role of endogenous sex hormones in the aetiology of breast cancer. The aim of this analysis was to identify genetic variants that are associated with urinary sex-hormone levels and breast cancer risk. We carried out a genome-wide association study of urinary oestrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide levels in 560 premenopausal women, with additional analysis of progesterone levels in 298 premenopausal women. To test for the association with breast cancer risk, we carried out follow-up genotyping in 90,916 cases and 89,893 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. All women were of European ancestry. For pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, there were no genome-wide significant associations; for oestrone-3-glucuronide, we identified a single peak mapping to the CYP3A locus, annotated by rs45446698. The minor rs45446698-C allele was associated with lower oestrone-3-glucuronide (−49.2%, 95% CI −56.1% to −41.1%, P = 3.1 × 10–18); in follow-up analyses, rs45446698-C was also associated with lower progesterone (−26.7%, 95% CI −39.4% to −11.6%, P = 0.001) and reduced risk of oestrogen and progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.82–0.91, P = 6.9 × 10–8). The CYP3A7*1C allele is associated with reduced risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer possibly mediated via an effect on the metabolism of endogenous sex hormones in premenopausal women.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 January 2021

#3

 

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Description Google CEO Sundar Pichai has announced via a blog post that the company’s offices in the US will be used as COVID-19 vaccination centres. Google has also pledged $150 million (roughly Rs. 1,090 crores) for programmes to promote vaccine education.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#4

 

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Description Coronavirus can infect a wide range of species including cats, dogs, mink and other domesticated species, experts said.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#5

 

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Name
Description It’s vital to keep your blood pressure healthy. This is how I keep an eye on mine.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#6

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#7

 

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Description Moncef Slaoui candidly discusses Trump, the shortcomings of the COVID-19 vaccine rollout, and the joy of getting his first dose

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#8

 

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Description After testing to 628mph in 2019, the car now needs its rocket engine integrated.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#9

 

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Description This article presents a retrospective descriptive analysis about female-to-male (FtM) gender-affirmation nongenital surgical procedures involving the gynecological team at the CIDIGeM (Centro Interdipartimentale Disturbi di Identità di Genere Molinette) Center in Turin. From 2004 to 2019, seventy FtM transsexual patients underwent hysteroannessiectomy: the chosen surgical technique involved a Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy. The patients presented a median age of 30.5 years (range 21–53). No patients presented intraoperative complications, the median of surgery time was 80 min (range 40–150) and the hospital stay median was 5 days (range: 2–25). Histopathological examinations were negative for cancer in all patients except for one unknown case of grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy is confirmed to be the method of choice in the group of FtM transsexuals: this approach has several advantages over abdominal hysterectomy, including more rapid recovery, fewer wound or abdominal wall infections; moreover, it has enabled us to preserve the vital structures needed for reconstruction of external genitalia. Cancer risk is still considered an area of priority in transgender research; thus, we underline the importance of performing a histopathological examination of the surgical specimen.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#10

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#11

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#12

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#13

 

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Name
Description Moderna is tweaking its coronavirus vaccine to make it more effective against emerging variants of the virus, the company announced Monday.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#14

 

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Name
Description Vaccine site listings will show access requirements and appointment info.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#15

 

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Description Biden admin officials work to manage expectations on topsy-turvy vaccine rollout.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#16

 

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Description Retinoic acid and retinoid acid receptor (RA-RAR) signaling exhibits suppressive functions in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through multiple mechanisms. However, whether RA-RAR signaling induces autophagy that contributes its anti-tumor activity in HCC remains elusive. In the current study, the effects of RA-RAR pathway on autophagy were investigated in two HCC cell lines: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) positive PLC/PRF/5 and AFP negative HLE cells. Cell autophagy was analyzed with western blot for detection of LC3 conversion and p62/SQSTM1 degradation while autophagy flux was assayed using the mRFP-GFP-LC3 reporter. Cell apoptosis and viability were analyzed by caspase-3 activity, TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and Cell Counting Kit (CCK)-8, respectively. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was employed to detect the binding of RAR onto the promoter of autophagy-relevant 7 (ATG7), and co-immunoprecipitation (CoIP) was used to analyze the interaction of AFP and RAR. The results showed that ATRA dosage and time-dependently induced high levels of cell autophagy in both the PLC/PRF/5 and HLE cells, which was accompanied with up-regulation of ATG7. ChIP assay showed that RAR was able to bind to its responsive elements on ATG7 promoter. Impairment of ATG7 induction or blockade of autophagy with chloroquine aggravated ATRA induced apoptosis of HCC cells. Furthermore, intracellular AFP was able to complex with RAR in PLC/PRF/5 cells. Knockdown of AFP in PLC/PRF/5 cells augmented the up-regulation of ATG7 by ATRA while overexpression of AFP in HLE cells attenuated ATRA induced ATG7 expression and autophagy. Thus, ATRA induced ATG7 and autophagy participated in its cytotoxicity on HCC cells and AFP interfere with the induction of ATG7 and autophagy through forming complex with RAR.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#17

 

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Description Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is an attractive target for muscle disease therapy because of its role as a negative regulator of muscle growth and strength. Here, we describe a novel antibody therapeutic approach that maximizes the potential of myostatin-targeted therapy. We generated an antibody, GYM329, that specifically binds the latent form of myostatin and inhibits its activation. Additionally, via “sweeping antibody technology”, GYM329 reduces or “sweeps” myostatin in the muscle and plasma. Compared with conventional anti-myostatin agents, GYM329 and its surrogate antibody exhibit superior muscle strength-improvement effects in three different mouse disease models. We also demonstrate that the superior efficacy of GYM329 is due to its myostatin specificity and sweeping capability. Furthermore, we show that a GYM329 surrogate increases muscle mass in normal cynomolgus monkeys without any obvious toxicity. Our findings indicate the potential of GYM329 to improve muscle strength in patients with muscular disorders.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#18

 

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Description Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic immune-mediated disorder, whose etiology is not fully understood and for which no effective treatment is available. Recently, research has focused on the dysbiosis of gut microbiome in UC. However, the results so far remain inconsistent and insufficient to understand the microbial component in UC pathogenesis. In this study, we determine specific changes in the gut microbial profile in Polish UC patients compared to healthy subjects for the first time. Using 16S rRNA gene-based analysis we have described the intestinal microbial community in a group of 20 individuals (10 UC patients and 10 controls). Our results after multiple hypothesis testing correction demonstrated substantially lower gut microbiome diversity in UC cases compared to the controls and considerable differences at the phylum level, as well as among 13 bacterial families and 20 bacterial genera (p < 0.05). UC samples were more abundant in Proteobacteria (8.42%), Actinobacteria (6.89%) and Candidate Division TM7 (2.88%) than those of healthy volunteers (2.57%, 2.29% and 0.012%, respectively). On the other hand, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia were presented at a lower level in UC relative to the controls (14% and 0% vs 27.97% and 4.47%, respectively). In conclusion, our results show a reduced gut microbial diversity in Polish UC patients, a reduction of taxa with an anti-inflammatory impact and an increased abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#19

 

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Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#20

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#21

 

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Description In the era where antibiotic resistance is considered one of the major worldwide concerns, bacteriophages have emerged as a promising therapeutic approach to deal with this problem. Genetically engineered bacteriophages can enable enhanced anti-bacterial functionalities, but require cloning additional genes into the phage genomes, which might be challenging due to the DNA encapsulation capacity of a phage. To tackle this issue, we designed and assembled for the first time synthetic phages with smaller genomes by knocking out up to 48% of the genes encoding hypothetical proteins from the genome of the newly isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage vB_PaeP_PE3. The antibacterial efficacy of the wild-type and the synthetic phages was assessed in vitro as well as in vivo using a Galleria mellonella infection model. Overall, both in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that the knock-outs made in phage genome do not impair the antibacterial properties of the synthetic phages, indicating that this could be a good strategy to clear space from phage genomes in order to enable the introduction of other genes of interest that can potentiate the future treatment of P. aeruginosa infections.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#22

 

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Description In response to the drawbacks of autograft donor-site morbidity and bone morphogenetic protein type 2 (BMP2) carcinogenesis and ectopic bone formation, there has been an increased research focus towards developing alternatives capable of achieving spatial control over bone formation. Here we show for the first time both osteogenic differentiation and mineralization (from solution or mediated by cells) occurring within predetermined microscopic patterns. Our results revealed that both PEGylated BMP2 and nacre proteins induced stem cell osteodifferentiation in microscopic patterns when these proteins were covalently bonded in patterns onto polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel substrates; however, only nacre proteins induced mineralization localized to the micropatterns. These findings have broad implications on the design and development of orthopedic biomaterials and drug delivery.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#23

 

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Description We analyze data from Twitter to uncover early-warning signals of COVID-19 outbreaks in Europe in the winter season 2019–2020, before the first public announcements of local sources of infection were made. We show evidence that unexpected levels of concerns about cases of pneumonia were raised across a number of European countries. Whistleblowing came primarily from the geographical regions that eventually turned out to be the key breeding grounds for infections. These findings point to the urgency of setting up an integrated digital surveillance system in which social media can help geo-localize chains of contagion that would otherwise proliferate almost completely undetected.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#24

 

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Description Smart and e-textiles have nowadays an important increasing place in the garment industry. The rise of embedded telecommunications, especially smartphones in our pocket, enables us to provide a power source and a wireless link for smart textiles. The main issue is to develop garments able to receive power from smartphones and communicate with them without flexibility and comfort constraints bound to embedded solid-state electronic components. Consequently, this article aims to develop a fully textile NFC combiner to transfer data and power between a smartphone and sensors without any electronic components. It precisely describes textile NFC multiple combiners composed of textile NFC antennas linked by two-wire transmission lines. Also, theoretical analysis, simulations, and experiments have been conducted to adapt the resonant frequency of such structures to the NFC technology (13.56 MHz). Finally, our article generalizes textile NFC combiner resonant frequency equations for multiple combiners with any number of antennas.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#25

 

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Description Multidrug-resistant bacteria are a growing global concern, and with increasingly prevalent resistance to last line antibiotics such as colistin, it is imperative that alternative treatment options are identified. Herein we investigated the mechanism of action of a novel antimicrobial peptide (CDP-B11) and its effectiveness against multidrug-resistant bacteria including Escherichia coli #0346, which harbors multiple antibiotic-resistance genes, including mobilized colistin resistance gene (mcr-1). Bacterial membrane potential and membrane integrity assays, measured by flow cytometry, were used to test membrane disruption. Bacterial growth inhibition assays and time to kill assays measured the effectiveness of CDP-B11 alone and in combination with colistin against E. coli #0346 and other bacteria. Hemolysis assays were used to quantify the hemolytic effects of CDP-B11 alone and in combination with colistin. Findings show CDP-B11 disrupts the outer membrane of E. coli #0346. CDP-B11 with colistin inhibits the growth of E. coli #0346 at ≥ 10× lower colistin concentrations compared to colistin alone in Mueller–Hinton media and M9 media. Growth is significantly inhibited in other clinically relevant strains, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In rich media and minimal media, the drug combination kills bacteria at a lower colistin concentration (1.25 μg/mL) compared to colistin alone (2.5 μg/mL). In minimal media, the combination is bactericidal with killing accelerated by up to 2 h compared to colistin alone. Importantly, no significant red blood hemolysis is evident for CDP-B11 alone or in combination with colistin. The characteristics of CDP-B11 presented here indicate that it can be used as a potential monotherapy or as combination therapy with colistin for the treatment of multidrug-resistant infections, including colistin-resistant infections.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#26

 

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Description Bloom Syndrome (BS; OMIM #210900; ORPHA #125) is a rare genetic disorder that is associated with growth deficits, compromised immune system, insulin resistance, genome instability and extraordinary predisposition to cancer. Most efforts thus far have focused on understanding the role of the Bloom syndrome DNA helicase BLM as a recombination factor in maintaining genome stability and suppressing cancer. Here, we observed increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA base damage in BLM-deficient cells, as well as oxidative-stress-dependent reduction in DNA replication speed. BLM-deficient cells exhibited increased mitochondrial mass, upregulation of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), higher ATP levels and increased respiratory reserve capacity. Cyclin B1, which acts in complex with cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1 to regulate mitotic entry and associated mitochondrial fission by phosphorylating mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, fails to be fully degraded in BLM-deficient cells and shows unscheduled expression in G1 phase cells. This failure to degrade cyclin B1 is accompanied by increased levels and persistent activation of Drp1 throughout mitosis and into G1 phase as well as mitochondrial fragmentation. This study identifies mitochondria-associated abnormalities in Bloom syndrome patient-derived and BLM-knockout cells and we discuss how these abnormalities may contribute to Bloom syndrome.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#27

 

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Description Persistent HPV infection associated with immune modulation may result in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (CIN)2/3. Currently, there is little information on the cervicovaginal microbiome, local cytokine levels and HPV infection related to CIN. Follow-up of patients after local surgery provides an opportunity to monitor changes in the cervicovaginal environment. Accordingly, we undertook this longitudinal retrospective study to determine associations between HPV genotypes, cervicovaginal microbiome and local cytokine profiles in 41 Japanese patients with CIN. Cervicovaginal microbiota were identified using universal 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) bacterial primers for the V3/4 region by PCR of genomic DNA, followed by MiSeq sequencing. We found that Atopobium vaginae was significantly decreased (p < 0.047), whereas A. ureaplasma (p < 0.022) increased after surgery. Cytokine levels in cervical mucus were measured by multiplexed bead-based immunoassays, revealing that IL-1β (p < 0.006), TNF-α (p < 0.004), MIP-1α (p < 0.045) and eotaxin (p < 0.003) were significantly decreased after surgery. Notably, the level of eotaxin decreased in parallel with HPV clearance after surgery (p < 0.028). Thus, local surgery affected the cervicovaginal microbiome, status of HPV infection and immune response. Changes to the cervicovaginal microbiota and cervical cytokine profile following surgery for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia may be important for understanding the pathogenesis of CIN in future.

#Medicine & Human body;#Theoretical sciences
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#28

 

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Description Singular blockade of C5a in experimental models of sepsis is known to confer protection by rescuing lethality and decreasing pro-inflammatory responses. However, the role of inhibiting C5a has not been evaluated in the context of sterile systemic inflammatory responses, like polytrauma and hemorrhagic shock (PT + HS). In our presented study, a novel and highly specific C5a L-aptamer, NoxD21, was used to block C5a activity in an experimental murine model of PT + HS. The aim of the study was to assess early modulation of inflammatory responses and lung damage 4 h after PT + HS induction. NoxD21-treated PT + HS mice displayed greater polymorphonuclear cell recruitment in the lung, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and reduced myeloperoxidase levels within the lung tissue. An in vitro model of the alveolar-capillary barrier was established to confirm these in vivo observations. Treatment with a polytrauma cocktail induced barrier damage only after 16 h, and NoxD21 treatment in vitro did not rescue this effect. Furthermore, to test the exact role of both the cognate receptors of C5a (C5aR1 and C5aR2), experimental PT + HS was induced in C5aR1 knockout (C5aR1 KO) and C5aR2 KO mice. Following 4 h of PT + HS, C5aR2 KO mice had significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-17 levels in the BALF without significant lung damage, and both, C5aR1 KO and C5aR2 KO PT + HS animals displayed reduced MPO levels within the lungs. In conclusion, the C5aR2 could be a putative driver of early local inflammatory responses in the lung after PT + HS.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#29

 

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Description The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak has killed over a million people since its emergence in late 2019. However, there has been substantial variability in the policies and intensity of diagnostic efforts between countries. In this paper, we quantitatively evaluate the association between national contact tracing policies and case fatality rates of COVID-19 in 138 countries. Our regression analyses indicate that countries that implement comprehensive contact tracing have significantly lower case fatality rates. This association of contact tracing policy and case fatality rates is robust in our longitudinal regression models, even after controlling for the number of tests conducted and non-pharmaceutical control measures adopted by governments. Our results suggest that comprehensive contact tracing is instrumental not only to curtailing transmission but also to reducing case fatality rates. Contact tracing achieves the early detection and isolation of secondary cases which are particularly important given that the peak in infectiousness occurs during the presymptomatic phase. The early detection achieved by contact tracing accelerates the rate at which infected individuals receive medical care they need to maximize their chance of recovery. In addition, the combination of reduced transmission and more rapid recovery diminishes the burden on the healthcare system which in turn ensures that the resources remain available for individuals who do become infected.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#30

 

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Description The myxozoan parasite, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae has a two-host life cycle alternating between freshwater bryozoans and salmonid fish. Infected fish can develop Proliferative Kidney Disease, characterised by a gross lymphoid-driven kidney pathology in wild and farmed salmonids. To facilitate an in-depth understanding of T. bryosalmonae-host interactions, we have used a two-host parasite transcriptome sequencing approach in generating two parasite transcriptome assemblies; the first derived from parasite spore sacs isolated from infected bryozoans and the second from infected fish kidney tissues. This approach was adopted to minimize host contamination in the absence of a complete T. bryosalmonae genome. Parasite contigs common to both infected hosts (the intersect transcriptome; 7362 contigs) were typically AT-rich (60–75% AT). 5432 contigs within the intersect were annotated. 1930 unannotated contigs encoded for unknown transcripts. We have focused on transcripts encoding proteins involved in; nutrient acquisition, host–parasite interactions, development, cell-to-cell communication and proteins of unknown function, establishing their potential importance in each host by RT-qPCR. Host-specific expression profiles were evident, particularly in transcripts encoding proteases and proteins involved in lipid metabolism, cell adhesion, and development. We confirm for the first time the presence of homeobox proteins and a frizzled homologue in myxozoan parasites. The novel insights into myxozoan biology that this study reveals will help to focus research in developing future disease control strategies.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#31

 

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Description The heart muscle diseases hypertrophic (HCM) and dilated (DCM) cardiomyopathies are leading causes of sudden death and heart failure in young, otherwise healthy, individuals. We conducted genome-wide association studies and multi-trait analyses in HCM (1,733 cases), DCM (5,521 cases) and nine left ventricular (LV) traits (19,260 UK Biobank participants with structurally normal hearts). We identified 16 loci associated with HCM, 13 with DCM and 23 with LV traits. We show strong genetic correlations between LV traits and cardiomyopathies, with opposing effects in HCM and DCM. Two-sample Mendelian randomization supports a causal association linking increased LV contractility with HCM risk. A polygenic risk score explains a significant portion of phenotypic variability in carriers of HCM-causing rare variants. Our findings thus provide evidence that polygenic risk score may account for variability in Mendelian diseases. More broadly, we provide insights into how genetic pathways may lead to distinct disorders through opposing genetic effects. Genome-wide analyses identify multiple loci associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and left ventricular (LV) traits. Cardiomyopathies exhibit strong genetic correlations with LV traits, with opposing effects in HCM and DCM.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#32

 

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Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#33

 

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Name
Description Therapeutic approaches to the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus that are designed to increase insulin secretion either directly target β-cells or indirectly target gastrointestinal enteroendocrine cells (EECs), which release hormones that modulate insulin secretion (for example, incretins). Given that β-cells and EECs both express a large array of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that modulate insulin secretion, considerable research and development efforts have been undertaken to design therapeutic drugs targeting these GPCRs. Among them are GPCRs specific for free fatty acid ligands (lipid GPCRs), including free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1, otherwise known as GPR40), FFA2 (GPR43), FFA3 (GPR41) and FFA4 (GPR120), as well as the lipid metabolite binding glucose-dependent insulinotropic receptor (GPR119). These lipid GPCRs have demonstrated important roles in the control of islet and gut hormone secretion. Advances in lipid GPCR pharmacology have led to the identification of a number of synthetic agonists that exert beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis in preclinical studies. Yet, translation of these promising results to the clinic has so far been disappointing. In this Review, we present the physiological roles, pharmacology and clinical studies of these lipid receptors and discuss the challenges associated with their clinical development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This Review summarizes the physiological functions, pharmacology and clinical studies of G protein-coupled receptors that are specific for lipid metabolite ligands. The challenges associated with the clinical development of therapeutics for type 2 diabetes mellitus that target these G protein-coupled receptors are also discussed.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#34

 

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Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#35

 

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Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#36

 

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Name
Description Pilot double-blinded randomized controlled trial. To investigate the additive effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) on functional outcome and disability in patients with traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (TCSCI). University-affiliated hospital in Mashhad, Iran. Patients with acute TCSCI admitted within 8 h after injury were randomly assigned to receive only methylprednisolone (M group) or rhEPO 500 IU/mL plus methylprednisolone (M + E group). All the patients underwent surgery within the next several days. Neurological function was assessed on admission, and at 6th and 12th months after the injury according to the sphincter function and American spinal cord injury association (ASIA) scale. Overall, 54 patients (mean age: 39.7 ± 13.3 years) including 46 (85%) males were studied in two groups of 27. The likelihood of developing adverse neurological outcomes (ASIA impairment score of A compared to D or E) was not significantly different between the groups after 6 (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.03–4.80, P = 0.46) and 12 months (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.11–6.11, P = 0.86). The groups also showed no significant difference in 1-year mortality (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.25–2.74, P = 0.76). It is not clear whether combination therapy with erythropoietin compared to methylprednisolone alone improves neurological functions of patients with TCSCI. Our study provides interim data to guide future larger definitive trials.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#37

 

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Description We present a nuclei isolation protocol for genomic and epigenomic interrogation of multiple cell type populations in the human and rodent brain. The nuclei isolation protocol allows cell type-specific profiling of neurons, microglia, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes, being compatible with fresh and frozen samples obtained from either resected or postmortem brain tissue. This 2-day procedure consists of tissue homogenization with fixation, nuclei extraction, and antibody staining followed by fluorescence-activated nuclei sorting (FANS) and does not require specialized skillsets. Cell type-specific nuclei populations can be used for downstream omic-scale sequencing applications with an emphasis on epigenomic interrogation such as histone modifications, transcription factor binding, chromatin accessibility, and chromosome architecture. The nuclei isolation protocol enables translational examination of archived healthy and diseased brain specimens through utilization of existing medical biorepositories. This protocol describes procedures for isolation of nuclei of multiple cell populations (neurons, microglia, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes) from resected or postmortem brain tissue that are compatible with downstream epigenomic or transcriptomic profiling.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#38

 

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Description This study shows that plant root barrier function and the root microbiota coordinate to maintain plant nutrient homeostasis.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#39

 

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Name
Description The science of why dogs bury bones is explained by the food-caching behavior of their wild, canine ancestors, gray wolves.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#40

 

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Description CAIT has demanded immediate action against e-commerce entities including Amazon, Flipkart, Zomato, Swiggy and others."It is a case of daylight robbery of e-commerce entities in India and therefore demand immediate action against the erring e-commerce portals and online mechanism providers," CAIT said.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#41

 

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Description The three new applications came to light after evidence was collected following encounters with terrorists or those who surrendered before the Army gave details about their mode of radicalisation by Pakistan-based terrorist groups, they said. The names of the messaging apps have been withheld for security reasons.

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#42

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#43

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#44

 

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Description Micro-sized robots could bring a new wave of innovation in the medical field by allowing doctors to access specific regions inside the human body without the need for highly invasive procedures. Among other things, these ...

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#45

 

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Description Google said Monday it would make its facilities available for Covid-19 vaccination sites as part of a new initiative to help speed the rollout of inoculations in the United States.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#46

 

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Description Right-wing extremists called for open revolt against the U.S. government for months on social media following the election in November. Behind the scenes on private messaging services, many of them recruited new followers, ...

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#47

 

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Description We are still working out what new coronavirus variants will mean for us. As we adapt, there is one thing we know for certain: the only way to stop the virus evolving is to stop it from spreading

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#48

 

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Name
Description The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 January 2021

#49

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 January 2021

#50

 

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Name
Description Cross-platform messaging app Signal has been downloaded by millions of users in India after WhatsApp updated its privacy policy allowing other Facebook companies access to its data.

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 January 2021

#51

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 January 2021

#52

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 January 2021

#53

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 January 2021

#54

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 January 2021

#55

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 January 2021

#56

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 January 2021

#57

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 January 2021

#58

 

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Name
Description Apple updated its support document to warn users not to place the iPhone 12 and MagSafe accessories too close to medical devices like pacemakers.

#Medicine & Human body;#Hardware & Devices
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 January 2021

#59

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 January 2021

#60

 

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Description Though 76 per cent of people in Manaus, Brazil have covid-19 antibodies, the virus is spreading quickly – potentially fuelled by a new variant – which may mean herd immunity by infection is not possible

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 January 2021

#61

 

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Description The debate over whether coronavirus spreads more through surfaces or aerosols is ongoing, but scientists and campaigners are now calling for tighter precautions to limit airborne spread

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 January 2021

#62

 

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Name
Description Rotational deceleration causes most deformation—like getting punched on the chin

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 January 2021

#63

 

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Name
Description Scientists tested a new vaccine for melanoma in a small trial.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 January 2021

#64

 

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Description In-person models of genetic counseling (GC) have been the common method in Japan for pregnant women to receive GC. However, recent increases in the number of pregnant women considering undergoing prenatal testing have made it challenging to retain individualized in-person care. To explore pregnant women’s opinions toward pretest GC models and the ideal time duration, a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted for women at their first prenatal visit. A total of 114 valid respondents (93.4%) were included in the analyses. Of these, 80.7% of women preferred in-person GC, followed by classroom (9.6%), group (3.5%), and telegenetic-based GC (2.6%). Women with experience in undergoing prenatal testing significantly did not prefer in-person GC (p = 0.05). Sixty-two women (54.4%) preferred a duration of 15–29 min for pretest GC sessions, followed by 30–59 min (28.9%) and <15 min (14.9%). Women’s preference of ≥30 min in length was significantly associated with anhedonia, singleton pregnancies, acquaintance with people with trisomy 21, and awareness of prenatal testing. Women who were unaware of the need for agreement with the partner for prenatal testing and who did not know the average life expectancy of a trisomy 21 patient significantly preferred <15 min in length over other durations. While the majority of women preferred in-person GC for <30 min, their preferences varied by their background characteristics, experiences, attitudes, and knowledge. These findings will help establish a prenatal GC system offering a choice of GC models in Japan; however, further large-scale studies are needed to confirm these findings.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 January 2021

#65

 

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Name
Description The association between severe adverse events (SAEs) and prior radiotherapy or stent type remains controversial. Patients with esophageal or esophagogastric junctional cancer who underwent stent placement (2005–2019) were enrolled in this retrospective study conducted at a tertiary cancer institute in Japan. The exclusion criteria were follow-up period of < 1 month and insufficient data on stent type or cancer characteristics. We used Mann–Whitney’s U test for quantitative data and Fisher’s exact test for categorical data. Multivariate analysis was performed using a logistic regression model. 107 stents were placed. Low radial-force stents (L group) were used in 51 procedures and high radial-force stents (H group) in 56 procedures. SAEs developed after nine procedures, the median interval from stent placement being 6 days (range, 1–141 days). SAEs occurred more frequently in the H (14%: 8/56) than in the L group (2%: 1/51) (P = 0.03). In patients who had undergone prior radiotherapy, SAEs were more frequent in the H (36%: 4/11) than in the L group (0%: 0/13) (P = 0.03). Re-obstruction and migration occurred after 16 and three procedures, respectively; these rates did not differ significantly between groups (P = 0.59, P = 1, respectively). Low radial-force stents may reduce the risk of SAEs after esophageal stenting.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#66

 

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Name
Description Increasing antibiotic resistance is a matter of grave concern for consumers, public health authorities, farmers, and researchers. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are emerging as novel and effective non-antibiotic tools to combat infectious diseases in poultry. In this study, we evaluated six avian AMPs including 2 truncated cathelicidins, [CATH-1(6–26) and CATH-2(1–15)], and 4 avian β-defensins (ABD1, 2, 6 and 9) for their bactericidal and immunomodulatory activities. Our findings have shown CATH-1(6–26) and ABD1 being the two most potent avian AMPs effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria investigated in these studies. Moreover, CATH-1(6–26) inhibited LPS-induced NO production and exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity to HD11 cells. While, ABD1 blocked LPS-induced IL-1β gene induction and was non-toxic to HD11 cells. Importantly, in ovo administration of these AMPs demonstrated that ABD1 can offer significant protection from early chick mortality (44% less mortality in ABD1 treated group versus the control group) due to the experimental yolk sac infection caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli. Our data suggest that in ovo administration of ABD1 has immunomodulatory and anti-infection activity comparable with CpG ODN. Thus, ABD1 can be a significant addition to potential alternatives to antibiotics for the control of bacterial infections in young chicks.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#67

 

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Name
Description The modern nitrogen cycle consists of a web of microbially mediated redox transformations. Among the most crucial reactions in this cycle is the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, an obligately aerobic process performed by a limited number of lineages of bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA). As this process has an absolute requirement for O2, the timing of its evolution—especially as it relates to the Great Oxygenation Event ~ 2.3 billion years ago—remains contested and is pivotal to our understanding of nutrient cycles. To estimate the antiquity of bacterial ammonia oxidation, we performed phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses of AOB. Surprisingly, bacterial ammonia oxidation appears quite young, with crown group clades having originated during Neoproterozoic time (or later) with major radiations occurring during Paleozoic time. These results place the evolution of AOB broadly coincident with the pervasive oxygenation of the deep ocean. The late evolution AOB challenges earlier interpretations of the ancient nitrogen isotope record, predicts a more substantial role for AOA during Precambrian time, and may have implications for understanding of the size and structure of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle through geologic time.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#68

 

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Description Resistance plasmids play a crucial role in the transfer of antimicrobial resistance from the veterinary sector to human healthcare. In this study plasmids from foodborne Escherichia coli isolates with a known (ES)BL or tetracycline resistance were sequenced entirely with short- and long-read technologies to obtain insight into their composition and to identify driving factors for spreading. Resistant foodborne E. coli isolates often contained several plasmids coding for resistance to various antimicrobials. Most plasmids were large and contained multiple resistance genes in addition to the selected resistance gene. The majority of plasmids belonged to the IncI, IncF and IncX incompatibility groups. Conserved and variable regions could be distinguished in each of the plasmid groups. Clusters containing resistance genes were located in the variable regions. Tetracycline and (extended spectrum) beta-lactamase resistance genes were each situated in separate clusters, but sulphonamide, macrolide and aminoglycoside formed one cluster and lincosamide and aminoglycoside another. In most plasmids, addiction systems were found to maintain presence in the cell.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#69

 

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Description Candida albicans (C. albicans) is the most common cause of candidiasis in humans and animals. This study was established to a new experimental infection model for systemic candidiasis using partridge and embryonated partridge egg. First, we tested the induction of systemic candidiasis in partridge and embryonated partridge egg. Finally, interaction between virulence factors of C. albicans and Bcl-2 family members was predicted. We observed that embryonic infection causes a decrease in survival time and at later embryonic days (11–12th), embryos showed lesions. Morphometric analysis of the extra-embryonic membrane (EEM) vasculature showed that vascular apoptotic effect of C. albicans was revealed by a significant reduction in capillary area. In immunohistochemistry assay, low expression of Bcl-2 and increased expression of Bax confirmed apoptosis. The gene expression of Bax and Bcl-2 was also altered in fungi-exposed EEM. Ourin silico simulation has shown an accurate interaction between aspartic proteinase, polyamine oxidase, Bcl-2 and BAX. We observed that the disease was associated with adverse consequences, which were similar to human candidiasis. Acquired results support the idea that partridge and embryonated partridge egg can be utilized as appropriate preclinical models to investigate the pathological effects of candidiasis.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#70

 

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Name
Description To describle how respiratory tract infections (RTIs) that occurred in children with allergic asthma (AA) on allergen immunotherapy (AIT) during an influenza season. Data including clinical symptoms and treatment history of children (those with AA on AIT and their siblings under 14 years old), who suffered from RTIs during an influenza season (Dec 1st, 2019–Dec 31st, 2019), were collected (by face to face interview and medical records) and analyzed. Children on AIT were divided into 2 groups: stage 1 (dose increasing stage) and stage 2 (dose maintenance stage). Their siblings were enrolled as control. During the study period, 49 children with AA on AIT (33 patients in stage 1 and 16 patients in stage 2) as well as 49 children without AA ( their siblings ) were included. There were no significant differences in occurrences of RTIs among the three groups (p > 0.05). Compared with children in the other two groups, patients with RTIs in stage 2 had less duration of coughing and needed less medicine. Children on AIT with maintenance doses had fewer symptoms and recovered quickly when they were attacked by RTIs, which suggested that AIT with dose maintenance may enhance disease resistance of the body.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#71

 

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Description Chronic kidney disease (CKD), which can ultimately progress to kidney failure, is influenced by genetics and the environment. Genes identified in human genome wide association studies (GWAS) explain only a small proportion of the heritable variation and lack functional validation, indicating the need for additional model systems. Outbred heterogeneous stock (HS) rats have been used for genetic fine-mapping of complex traits, but have not previously been used for CKD traits. We performed GWAS for urinary protein excretion (UPE) and CKD related serum biochemistries in 245 male HS rats. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified using a linear mixed effect model that tested for association with imputed genotypes. Candidate genes were identified using bioinformatics tools and targeted RNAseq followed by testing in a novel in vitro model of human tubule, hypoxia-induced damage. We identified two QTL for UPE and five for serum biochemistries. Protein modeling identified a missense variant within Septin 8 (Sept8) as a candidate for UPE. Sept8/SEPTIN8 expression increased in HS rats with elevated UPE and tubulointerstitial injury and in the in vitro hypoxia model. SEPTIN8 is detected within proximal tubule cells in human kidney samples and localizes with acetyl-alpha tubulin in the culture system. After hypoxia, SEPTIN8 staining becomes diffuse and appears to relocalize with actin. These data suggest a role of SEPTIN8 in cellular organization and structure in response to environmental stress. This study demonstrates that integration of a rat genetic model with an environmentally induced tubule damage system identifies Sept8/SEPTIN8 and informs novel aspects of the complex gene by environmental interactions contributing to CKD risk.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#72

 

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Description Physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), an important biomechanical variable, is an estimate of a muscle’s contractile force potential and is derived from dividing muscle mass by the product of a muscle’s average fascicle length and a theoretical constant representing the density of mammalian skeletal muscle. This density constant is usually taken from experimental studies of small samples of several model taxa using tissues collected predominantly from the lower limbs of adult animals. The generalized application of this constant to broader analyses of mammalian myology assumes that muscle density (1) is consistent across anatomical regions and (2) is unaffected by the aging process. To investigate the validity of these assumptions, we studied muscles of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the largest sample heretofore investigated explicitly for these variables, and we did so from numerous anatomical regions and from three different age-cohorts. Differences in muscle density and histology as a consequence of age and anatomical region were evaluated using Tukey’s HSD tests. Overall, we observed that older individuals tend to have denser muscles than younger individuals. Our findings also demonstrated significant differences in muscle density between anatomic regions within the older cohorts, though none in the youngest cohort. Approximately 50% of the variation in muscle density can be explained histologically by the average muscle fiber area and the average percent fiber area. That is, muscles with larger average fiber areas and a higher proportion of fiber area tend to be denser. Importantly, using the age and region dependent measurements of muscle density that we provide may increase the accuracy of PCSA estimations. Although we found statistically significant differences related to ontogeny and anatomical region, if density cannot be measured directly, the specific values presented herein should be used to improve accuracy. If a single muscle density constant that has been better validated than the ones presented in the previous literature is preferred, then 1.0558 and 1.0502 g/cm3 would be reasonable constants to use across all adult and juvenile muscles respectively.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#73

 

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Name
Description Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) deficiency or chronic hyperactivation in pancreatic β-cells leads to diabetes. mTORC1 complexes with La-related protein 1 (LARP1) to specifically regulate the expression of 5′ terminal oligopyrimidine tract (5′TOP) mRNAs which encode proteins of the translation machinery and ribosome biogenesis. Here we show that LARP1 is the most expressed LARP in mouse islets and human β-cells, being 2–4-fold more abundant than LARP1B, a member of the family that also interacts with mTORC1. Interestingly, β-cells from diabetic patients have higher LARP1 and LARP1B expression. However, specific deletion of Larp1 gene in β-cells (β-Larp1KO mice) did not impair insulin secretion and glucose metabolism in male and female mice. High fat or high branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) diets did not disturb glucose homeostasis compared to control littermates up to 8 weeks; BCAA diet slightly impaired glucose tolerance in the β-Larp1KO mice at 16 weeks. However, no differences in plasma insulin levels, non-fasting glycemia and β-cell mass were observed in the β-Larp1KO mice. In conclusion, LARP1 is the most abundant LARP in mouse islets and human β-cells, and it is upregulated in diabetic subjects. However, genetically disruption of Larp1 gene did not impact glucose homeostasis in basal and diabetogenic conditions, suggesting no major role for LARP1 in β-cells.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#74

 

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Description T2-weighted (T2W) MRI provides high spatial resolution and tissue-specific contrast, but it is predominantly used for qualitative evaluation of prostate anatomy and anomalies. This retrospective multicenter study evaluated the potential of T2W image-derived textural features for quantitative assessment of peripheral zone prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness. A standardized preoperative multiparametric MRI was performed on 87 PCa patients across 6 institutions. T2W intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram, and T2W textural features were computed from tumor volumes annotated based on whole-mount histology. Spearman correlations were used to evaluate association between textural features and PCa grade groups (i.e. 1–5). Feature utility in differentiating and classifying low-(grade group 1) vs. intermediate/high-(grade group ≥ 2) aggressive cancers was evaluated using Mann–Whitney U-tests, and a support vector machine classifier employing “hold-one-institution-out” cross-validation scheme, respectively. Textural features indicating image homogeneity and disorder/complexity correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with PCa grade groups. In the intermediate/high-aggressive cancers, textural homogeneity and disorder/complexity were significantly lower and higher, respectively, compared to the low-aggressive cancers. The mean classification accuracy across the centers was highest for the combined ADC and T2W intensity-textural features (84%) compared to ADC histogram (75%), T2W histogram (72%), T2W textural (72%) features alone or T2W histogram and texture (77%), T2W and ADC histogram (79%) combined. Texture analysis of T2W images provides quantitative information or features that are associated with peripheral zone PCa aggressiveness and can augment their classification.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#75

 

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Name
Description Visceral pain is a highly complex experience and is the most common pathological feature in patients suffering from inflammatory gastrointestinal disorders. Whilst it is increasingly recognized that aberrant neural processing within the gut-brain axis plays a key role in development of neurological symptoms, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the cortical activation patterns and effects of non-invasive chemogenetic suppression of cortical activity on visceral hypersensitivity and anxiety-related phenotypes in a well-characterized mouse model of acute colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). We found that within the widespread cortical network, the mid-cingulate cortex (MCC) was consistently highly activated in response to innocuous and noxious mechanical stimulation of the colon. Furthermore, during acute experimental colitis, impairing the activity of the MCC successfully alleviated visceral hypersensitivity, anxiety-like behaviors and visceromotor responses to colorectal distensions (CRDs) via downregulating the excitability of the posterior insula (PI), somatosensory and the rostral anterior cingulate cortices (rACC), but not the prefrontal or anterior insula cortices. These results provide a mechanistic insight into the central cortical circuits underlying painful visceral manifestations and implicate MCC plasticity as a putative target in cingulate-mediated therapies for bowel disorders.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#76

 

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Name
Description Contiguous genes in prokaryotes are often arranged into operons. Detecting operons plays a critical role in inferring gene functionality and regulatory networks. Human experts annotate operons by visually inspecting gene neighborhoods across pileups of related genomes. These visual representations capture the inter-genic distance, strand direction, gene size, functional relatedness, and gene neighborhood conservation, which are the most prominent operon features mentioned in the literature. By studying these features, an expert can then decide whether a genomic region is part of an operon. We propose a deep learning based method named Operon Hunter that uses visual representations of genomic fragments to make operon predictions. Using transfer learning and data augmentation techniques facilitates leveraging the powerful neural networks trained on image datasets by re-training them on a more limited dataset of extensively validated operons. Our method outperforms the previously reported state-of-the-art tools, especially when it comes to predicting full operons and their boundaries accurately. Furthermore, our approach makes it possible to visually identify the features influencing the network’s decisions to be subsequently cross-checked by human experts.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#77

 

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Name
Description A minimally invasive microneedle patch detects specific protein biomarkers in dermal interstitial fluid at high sensitivity via a needle-integrated immunoassay coupled with an ultrabright fluorescent label.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#78

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body;#Hardware & Devices
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#79

 

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Name
Description Eli Lilly reports up to 80% reduction in risk for nursing home residents

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#80

 

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Name
Description Cognitive computing is revolutionizing the way big data are processed and integrated, with artificial intelligence (AI) natural language processing (NLP) platforms helping researchers to efficiently search and digest the vast scientific literature. Most available platforms have been developed for biomedical researchers, but new NLP tools are emerging for biologists in other fields and an important example is metabolomics. NLP provides literature-based contextualization of metabolic features that decreases the time and expert-level subject knowledge required during the prioritization, identification and interpretation steps in the metabolomics data analysis pipeline. Here, we describe and demonstrate four workflows that combine metabolomics data with NLP-based literature searches of scientific databases to aid in the analysis of metabolomics data and their biological interpretation. The four procedures can be used in isolation or consecutively, depending on the research questions. The first, used for initial metabolite annotation and prioritization, creates a list of metabolites that would be interesting for follow-up. The second workflow finds literature evidence of the activity of metabolites and metabolic pathways in governing the biological condition on a systems biology level. The third is used to identify candidate biomarkers, and the fourth looks for metabolic conditions or drug-repurposing targets that the two diseases have in common. The protocol can take 1–4 h or more to complete, depending on the processing time of the various software used. This protocol describes how to use natural language processing software to analyze metabolomics data to prioritize metabolites for further study, identify candidates for unique disease biomarkers and elucidate their function on a pathway level.

#Medicine & Human body;#Software
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#81

 

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Name
Description As a critical subunit of the constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 (COP9) signalosome (CSN), CSN6 is upregulated in some human cancers and plays critical roles in tumorigenesis and progression, but its biological functions and molecular mechanisms in melanoma remain unknown. Our study showed that CSN6 expression was upregulated in melanoma patients and cells, and correlated with poor survival in melanoma patients. In melanoma cells, CSN6 knockdown remarkably inhibited cell proliferation, tumorigenicity, migration, and invasion, whereas CSN6 recovery rescued the proliferative and metastatic abilities. Notably, we identified that CSN6 stabilized CDK9 expression by reducing CDK9 ubiquitination levels, thereby activating CDK9-mediated signaling pathways. In addition, our study described a novel CSN6-interacting E3 ligase UBR5, which was negatively regulated by CSN6 and could regulate the ubiquitination and degradation of CDK9 in melanoma cells. Furthermore, in CSN6-knockdown melanoma cells, UBR5 knockdown abrogated the effects caused by CSN6 silencing, suggesting that CSN6 activates the UBR5/CDK9 pathway to promote melanoma cell proliferation and metastasis. Thus, this study illustrates the mechanism by which the CSN6-UBR5-CDK9 axis promotes melanoma development, and demonstrate that CSN6 may be a potential biomarker and anticancer target in melanoma.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#82

 

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Name
Description Amazon Inc said it will open a pop-up clinic in its Seattle headquarters on Jan. 24 with an aim to vaccinate 2,000 eligible members of the public against COVID-19 on the first day.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#83

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#84

 

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Name
Description The immune system initiates robust immune responses to defend against invading pathogens or tumor cells and protect the body from damage, thus acting as a fortress of the body. However, excessive responses cause detrimental effects, such as inflammation and autoimmune diseases. To balance the immune responses and maintain immune homeostasis, there are immune checkpoints to terminate overwhelmed immune responses. Pathogens and tumor cells can also exploit immune checkpoint pathways to suppress immune responses, thus escaping immune surveillance. As a consequence, therapeutic antibodies that target immune checkpoints have made great breakthroughs, in particular for cancer treatment. While the overall efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) is unsatisfactory since only a small group of patients benefited from ICB treatment. Hence, there is a strong need to search for other targets that improve the efficacy of ICB. Ubiquitination is a highly conserved process which participates in numerous biological activities, including innate and adaptive immunity. A growing body of evidence emphasizes the importance of ubiquitination and its reverse process, deubiquitination, on the regulation of immune responses, providing the rational of simultaneous targeting of immune checkpoints and ubiquitination/deubiquitination pathways to enhance the therapeutic efficacy. Our review will summarize the latest findings of ubiquitination/deubiquitination pathways for anti-tumor immunity, and discuss therapeutic significance of targeting ubiquitination/deubiquitination pathways in the future of immunotherapy.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#85

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#86

 

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Name
Description The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#87

 

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Description Longicatenamides A–D, two diastereomeric pairs of new cyclic hexapeptides, were isolated from the combined-culture of Streptomyces sp. KUSC_F05 and Tsukamurella pulmonis TP-B0596. Their planar structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis including extensive 2D NMR and MS analysis. The absolute configurations of their component amino acids were determined by the use of highly sensitive reagents we recently developed; the highly sensitive-advanced Marfey’s method (HS-advanced Marfey’s method), which led us to reduce the sample loss and prevent incorrect structural determination. Particularly, the Cβ-stereochemistry of hyGlu in longicatenamides A and C was assigned without any use of Cβ-Marfey’s methods. Longicatenamide A exhibited weak but preferential antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#88

 

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Description German researchers have enabled mice paralyzed after spinal cord injuries to walk again, re-establishing a neural link hitherto considered irreparable in mammals.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#89

 

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Name
Description Amazon Inc said it will open a pop-up clinic in its Seattle headquarters on Jan. 24 with an aim to vaccinate 2,000 eligible members of the public against COVID-19 on the first day.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#91

 

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Name
Description A report in Science describes in situ genome sequencing (IGS), a method that enables genomes to be simultaneously sequenced and imaged in intact samples, including early mouse embryos. IGS will facilitate insight into the relationship between genome sequence and organization.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#92

 

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Name
Description Variants of the coronavirus have led modelers warn that the U.S. is by no means out of the woods yet.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#93

 

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Name
Description Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the major cause of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite of recent therapies, mortality and resources spent on healthcare due to CVD is still important problem. Thus, appropriate markers are needed to predict poor outcomes. Therefore, we investigated the role of peripheral perfusion as an indicator for cardiovascular death in patients with type 2 diabetes and established CVD. This retrospective cohort study included 1080 patients with type 2 diabetes and history of CVD recruited from the outpatient clinic at Matsushita Memorial Hospital in Osaka, Japan. Peripheral perfusion is assessed using the perfusion index (PI), which represents the level of circulation through peripheral tissues. The median age and PI values were 74 years (range: 67–79 years) and 2.6% (range: 1.1–4.3%), respectively. During follow-up duration, 60 patients died due to CVD. The adjusted Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the risk of developing cardiovascular death was higher in the first quartile (Hazard ratio, 6.23; 95% CI, 2.28 to 22.12) or second quartile (Hazard ratio, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.46 to 6.85) of PI than that in the highest quartile (fourth quartile) of PI. PI (per 1% decrease) was associated with the development of cardiovascular death (Hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.68). PI could be a novel indicator of cardiovascular death in patients with type 2 diabetes and established CVD.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#94

 

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Name
Description Musculoskeletal pain and headache are leading causes of years lived with disability, and an escalating problem in school children. Children spend increasingly more time reading and using digital screens, and increased near tasks intensify the workload on the precise coordination of the visual and head-stabilizing systems. Even minor vision problems can provoke headache and neck- and shoulder (pericranial) pain. This study investigated the association between headaches, pericranial tenderness, vision problems, and the need for glasses in children. An eye and physical examination was performed in twenty 10–15 year old children presenting to the school health nurse with headache and pericranial pain (pain group), and twenty age-and-gender matched classmates (control group). The results showed that twice as many children in the pain group had uncorrected vision and needed glasses. Most children were hyperopic, and glasses were recommended mainly for near work. Headache and pericranial tenderness were significantly correlated to reduced binocular vision, reduced distance vision, and the need for new glasses. That uncorrected vision problems are related to upper body musculoskeletal symptoms and headache, indicate that all children with these symptoms should have a full eye examination to promote health and academic performance.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#95

 

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Name
Description The concept of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is used to describe the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and identification and treatment before further decline is an important clinical task. We selected longitudinal data from the ADNI database to investigate how well normal function (HC, n= 134) vs. conversion to MCI (cMCI, n= 134) and stable MCI (sMCI, n=333) vs. conversion to AD (cAD, n= 333) could be predicted from cognitive tests, and whether the predictions improve by adding information from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. Features representing trajectories of change in the selected cognitive and MRI measures were derived from mixed effects models and used to train ensemble machine learning models to classify the pairs of subgroups based on a subset of the data set. Evaluation in an independent test set showed that the predictions for HC vs. cMCI improved substantially when MRI features were added, with an increase in $$F_1$$ -score from 60 to 77%. The $$F_1$$ -scores for sMCI vs. cAD were 77% without and 78% with inclusion of MRI features. The results are in-line with findings showing that cognitive changes tend to manifest themselves several years after the Alzheimer’s disease is well-established in the brain.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#96

 

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Name
Description Therapies for infiltrative inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS) have advanced greatly, but neurodegeneration and compartmentalized inflammation remain virtually untargeted as in other diseases of the nervous system. Consequently, many therapies are available for the relapsing–remitting form of MS, but the progressive forms remain essentially untreated. The objective of the International Progressive MS Alliance is to expedite the development of effective therapies for progressive MS through new initiatives that foster innovative thinking and concrete advancements. Based on these principles, the Alliance is developing a new funding programme that will focus on experimental medicine trials. Here, we discuss the reasons behind the focus on experimental medicine trials, the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches and of the programme, and why we hope to advance therapies while improving the understanding of progression in MS. We are soliciting public and academic feedback, which will help shape the programme and future strategies of the Alliance. In this article, members of the International Progressive MS Alliance discuss why experimental medicine trials are important for the development of treatments for progressive multiple sclerosis and set out their funding programme for such trials.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#97

 

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Name
Description Despite experimental and mechanistic data suggesting circadian disruption’s role in carcinogenesis, mixed findings from epidemiological investigations of artificial light at night and cancer risk in the general population are difficult to interpret due to exposure assessment limitations. It will be important for future studies to assess and validate individual-level exposures, ideally over the lifetime.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#98

 

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Name
Description Neural crest cells (NCCs) give rise to various tissues including neurons, pigment cells, bone and cartilage in the head. Distal-less homeobox 5 (Dlx5) is involved in both jaw patterning and differentiation of NCC-derivatives. In this study, we investigated the differentiation potential of head mesenchyme by forcing Dlx5 to be expressed in mouse NCC (NCCDlx5). In NCCDlx5 mice, differentiation of dermis and pigment cells were enhanced with ectopic cartilage (ec) and heterotopic bone (hb) in different layers at the cranial vertex. The ec and hb were derived from the early migrating mesenchyme (EMM), the non-skeletogenic cell population located above skeletogenic supraorbital mesenchyme (SOM). The ec developed within Foxc1+-dura mater with increased PDGFRα signalling, and the hb formed with upregulation of BMP and WNT/β-catenin signallings in Dermo1+-dermal layer from E11.5. Since dermal cells express Runx2 and Msx2 in the control, osteogenic potential in dermal cells seemed to be inhibited by an anti-osteogenic function of Msx2 in normal context. We propose that, after the non-skeletogenic commitment, the EMM is divided into dermis and meninges by E11.5 in normal development. Two distinct responses of the EMM, chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, to Dlx5-augmentation in the NCCDlx5 strongly support this idea.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#99

 

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Name
Description SHANK2 mutations have been identified in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders, including intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, we obtained SH-SY5Y cell lines with frameshift mutations on one or both SHANK2 alleles. We investigated the effects of the different SHANK2 mutations on cell morphology, cell proliferation and differentiation potential during early neuronal differentiation. All mutant cell lines showed impaired neuronal differentiation marker expression. Cells with bi-allelic SHANK2 mutations revealed diminished apoptosis and increased proliferation, as well as decreased neurite outgrowth during early neuronal differentiation. Bi-allelic SHANK2 mutations resulted in an increase in p-AKT levels, suggesting that SHANK2 mutations impair downstream signaling of tyrosine kinase receptors. Additionally, cells with bi-allelic SHANK2 mutations had lower amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression compared to controls, suggesting a molecular link between SHANK2 and APP. Together, we can show that frameshift mutations on one or both SHANK2 alleles lead to an alteration of neuronal differentiation in SH-SY5Y cells, characterized by changes in cell growth and pre- and postsynaptic protein expression. We also provide first evidence that downstream signaling of tyrosine kinase receptors and amyloid precursor protein expression are affected.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#100

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#101

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#102

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 January 2021

#103

 

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Name
Description Systemic inflammation measured by the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), leucocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (LLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) and CRP/albumin ratio (CRP/Alb) was shown to impact the survival prognosis in patients with extracranial solid cancer. One thousand two hundred and fifty patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases (BM) were identified from the Vienna Brain Metastasis Registry. PLR and CRP/Alb were higher in patients with progressive extracranial disease and lower in patients with no evidence of extracranial disease. Lower NLR (cut-off = 5.07; 9.3 vs. 5.0 months), LLR (cut-off = 5.76; 10.0 vs. 5.3 months), PLR (cut-off = 335; 8.0 vs. 3.8 months), MLR (cut-off = 0.53; 6.0 vs. 3.5 months) and CRP/Alb (cut-off = 2.93; 8.5 vs. 3.7 months; padj < 0.05) were associated with longer overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis with graded prognostic assessment (hazard ratio (HR) 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32–1.59; padj = 1.62e − 13), NLR (HR 1.55; 95% CI: 1.38–1.75; padj = 1.92e − 11), LLR (HR 1.57; 95% CI: 1.39–1.77; padj = 1.96e − 11), PLR (HR 1.60; 95% CI: 1.39–1.85; padj = 2.87955e − 9), MLR (HR 1.41; 95% CI: 1.14–1.75; padj = 0.027) and CRP/Alb (HR 1.83; 95% CI: 1.54–2.18; padj = 2.73e − 10) remained independent factors associated with OS at BM diagnosis. Systemic inflammation, measured by NLR, LLR, PLR, MLR and CRP/Alb, was associated with OS in patients with BM. Further exploration of immune modulating therapies is warranted in the setting of BM.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#104

 

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Name
Description Maximal effort cytoreductive surgery is associated with improved outcomes in advanced high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). However, despite complete gross resection (CGR), there is a percentage of patients who will relapse and die early. The aim of this study is to identify potential candidate biomarkers to help personalise surgical radicality. 136 advanced HGSOC cases who underwent CGR were identified from three public transcriptomic datasets. Candidate prognostic biomarkers were discovered in this cohort by Cox regression analysis, and further validated by targeted RNA-sequencing in HGSOC cases from Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust (n = 59), and a public dataset. Gene set enrichment analysis was performed to understand the biological significance of the candidate biomarker. We identified ALG5 as a prognostic biomarker for early tumour progression in advanced HGSOC despite CGR (HR = 2.42, 95% CI (1.57–3.75), p < 0.0001). The prognostic value of this new candidate biomarker was additionally confirmed in two independent datasets (HR = 1.60, 95% CI (1.03–2.49), p = 0.0368; HR = 3.08, 95% CI (1.07–8.81), p = 0.0365). Mechanistically, the oxidative phosphorylation was demonstrated as a potential biological pathway of ALG5-high expression in patients with early relapse (p < 0.001). ALG5 has been identified as an independent prognostic biomarker for poor prognosis in advanced HGSOC patients despite CGR. This sets a promising platform for biomarker combinations and further validations towards future personalised surgical care.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#105

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#106

 

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Name
Description Plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma (PUC) is a rare, aggressive histologic variant of urothelial cancer characterised by a diffuse growth pattern and CDH1 mutation. We studied the efficacy of preoperative platinum-based chemotherapy in nonmetastatic PUC and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in advanced PUC. Cases of nonmetastatic PUC and advanced PUC treated with ICIs at our institution were identified. Outcomes were compared to those of a published cohort of patients with urothelial carcinoma not otherwise specified. We identified 81 patients with nonmetastatic PUC. Of the patients with localised disease who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, pathologic complete response and downstaging rates were 12 and 21%, respectively. Pathologic downstaging was not associated with significant improvement in clinical outcomes. Up to 18% of localised disease and 28% of locally advanced cases had unresectable disease at the time of surgery. ICI-treated advanced PUC (N = 21) had progression-free and overall survival of 4.5 and 10.5 months, respectively, and a 38% response rate. FGFR3 and DNA damage response gene alterations were observed in 3 and 15% of cases, respectively. PUC is associated with high disease burden and poor chemosensitivity. Increased awareness and recognition of this disease variant will allow for new treatment strategies.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#107

 

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Name
Description Human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2/ERBB2) is frequently amplified/mutated in cancer. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) lapatinib, neratinib, and tucatinib are FDA-approved for the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. Direct comparisons of the preclinical efficacy of the TKIs have been limited to small-scale studies. Novel biomarkers are required to define beneficial patient populations. In this study, the anti-proliferative effects of the three TKIs were directly compared using a 115 cancer cell line panel. Novel TKI response/resistance markers were identified through cross-analysis of drug response profiles with mutation, gene copy number and expression data. All three TKIs were effective against HER2-amplified breast cancer models; neratinib showing the most potent activity, followed by tucatinib then lapatinib. Neratinib displayed the greatest activity in HER2-mutant and EGFR-mutant cells. High expression of HER2, VTCN1, CDK12, and RAC1 correlated with response to all three TKIs. DNA damage repair genes were associated with TKI resistance. BRCA2 mutations were correlated with neratinib and tucatinib response, and high expression of ATM, BRCA2, and BRCA1 were associated with neratinib resistance. Neratinib was the most effective HER2-targeted TKI against HER2-amplified, -mutant, and EGFR-mutant cell lines. This analysis revealed novel resistance mechanisms that may be exploited using combinatorial strategies.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#108

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#109

 

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Name
Description This study aimed to investigate the possible role of inhibiting chromobox protein homologue 4 (CBX4) to deregulate of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and to evaluate the contribution of these molecules to sorafenib resistance in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC cell lines and a xenograft mouse model with resistance to sorafenib were employed to analyse the effects of miR424 on CSC characteristics. RNA expression was analysed by RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing in a cohort of HCC cancer patients and sorafenib-resistant (SR) cell lines, respectively, to validate the key microRNAs and targets in the network. MicroRNA and mRNA profiles of SR cell lines identified miR424 and its direct target CBX4 as significantly associated with stem-cell-like properties, poor survival, and clinical characteristics. Functional experiments demonstrated that miR424 suppressed CBX4 and CBX4 induced nuclear translocation of YAP1 protein but was not associated with protein production. When YAP1 and CBX4 were modulated with CA3 and UNC3866, tumorigenicity and stem-like properties were extremely inhibited, thus indicating that these compounds exerted a strong anti-tumour effect in vivo against SR HCC cells. Our results revealed that blocking CBX4 expression is critical in response to sorafenib resistance with advanced HCC.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#110

 

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Name
Description Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) target tumours defective in homologous recombination (HR). Most BRCA-wild-type (WT) HR-proficient breast cancers are intrinsically resistant to PARP inhibitors, e.g., talazoparib. We evaluated the role of autophagy in this de novo resistance and determined the underlying mechanism to overcome this. Autophagosome formation and autophagic flux were assessed by evaluating endogenous LC3-II levels and ectopic expression of EGFP-LC3 and mRFP-EGFP-LC3 in breast cancer cells. Autophagy-defective cells were generated by genetic depletion of BECN1, ATG5, p62/SQSTM1 and LAMP1 by using CRISPR-Cas9 double nickase system. The response of PARPi was evaluated in autophagy-proficient and -defective breast cancer cells and in xenograft SCID-mice model. Pro-survival autophagy was significantly enhanced upon talazoparib treatment in BRCA-WT breast cancer cell lines. Autophagy-deficient cells were hypersensitive to talazoparib. Targeting autophagy synergistically enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of talazoparib in BRCA1-WT breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo xenograft tumour mouse model. Mechanistically, autophagy inhibition by chloroquine promoted deleterious NHEJ mediated DSB-repair, leading to extensive genomic instability and mitotic catastrophe. Autophagy confers de novo resistance to PARP inhibitor, talazoparib. Autophagy inhibition improves the therapeutic outcome of PARPi treatment in preclinical mice model, bearing HR-proficient breast tumours, warranting its usage in the clinical settings.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#111

 

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Name
Description Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common type of salivary gland cancers and patients with advanced, metastatic, and recurrent MECs have limited therapeutic options and poor treatment outcomes. MEC is commonly associated with a chromosomal translocation t(11;19) (q14-21;p12-13) that encodes the CRTC1-MAML2 oncogenic fusion. The CRTC1-MAML2 fusion is required for MEC growth in part through inducing autocrine AREG-EGFR signaling. Growing evidence suggests that MEC malignancy is maintained by cancer stem-like cells. In this study, we aimed to determine critical signaling for maintaining MEC stem-like cells and the effect of combined targeting of stem cell signaling and CRTC1-MAML2-induced EGFR signaling on blocking MEC growth. First, we evaluated the significance of Notch signaling in regulating MEC stem-like cells. Aberrantly activated Notch signaling was detected in human fusion-positive MEC cells. The inhibition of Notch signaling with genetic or pharmacological inhibitors reduced oncosphere formation and ALDH-bright population in vitro and blocked the growth of MEC xenografts in vivo. Next, we investigated the effect of co-targeting Notch signaling and EGFR signaling, and observed enhanced inhibition on MEC growth in vivo. Collectively, this study identified a critical role of Notch signaling in maintaining MEC stem-like cells and tumor growth, and revealed a novel approach of co-targeting Notch and EGFR signaling as a potential effective anti-MEC treatment.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#112

 

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Name
Description Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and IBM Research in New York have recently created pFoodReQ, a system that can recommend recipes tailored around the preferences and dietary needs of individual users. This ...

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#113

 

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Name
Description Beans are a fabulous and tasty source of protein if you want to cut back on meat. But you need to know how to break down their structural polymers to get the best flavour

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#114

 

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Name
Description The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#115

 

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Name
Description Venom mix arose independently in three groups of the spitting snakes

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#116

 

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Name
Description Retrieving electrical impedance maps at the nanoscale rapidly via nondestructive inspection with a high signal-to-noise ratio is an unmet need, likely to impact various applications from biomedicine to energy conversion. In this study, we develop a multimodal functional imaging instrument that is characterized by the dual capability of impedance mapping and phase quantitation, high spatial resolution, and low temporal noise. To achieve this, we advance a quantitative phase imaging system, referred to as epi-magnified image spatial spectrum microscopy combined with electrical actuation, to provide complementary maps of the optical path and electrical impedance. We demonstrate our system with high-resolution maps of optical path differences and electrical impedance variations that can distinguish nanosized, semi-transparent, structured coatings involving two materials with relatively similar electrical properties. We map heterogeneous interfaces corresponding to an indium tin oxide layer exposed by holes with diameters as small as ~550 nm in a titanium (dioxide) over-layer deposited on a glass support. We show that electrical modulation during the phase imaging of a macro-electrode is decisive for retrieving electrical impedance distributions with submicron spatial resolution and beyond the limitations of electrode-based technologies (surface or scanning technologies). The findings, which are substantiated by a theoretical model that fits the experimental data very well enable achieving electro-optical maps with high spatial and temporal resolutions. The virtues and limitations of the novel optoelectrochemical method that provides grounds for a wider range of electrically modulated optical methods for measuring the electric field locally are critically discussed. A microscope capable of real-time, label-free analysis of nanoscale structures and their associated electrical properties could find applications in both biology and materials science. High-resolution microscopy methods that detect variations in the phase of a laser as it passes through samples are helping researchers overcome the limits of traditional optical imaging. In a joint effort, the groups led by Eugen Gheorghiu from the International Centre of Biodynamics in Bucharest, Romania, and by Gabriel Popescu from the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign have now developed an instrument that combines phase imaging with alternating voltage perturbations to measure a target’s refractive index and electrical impedance maps that can reveal properties including tumors in human tissue, or defects on coating surfaces. The team’s microscope proved capable of distinguishing the impedance contrasts and geometry of different nanostructures on a macroelectrode with submicron resolution.

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#117

 

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Name
Description Failure to note lack of peer review could risk overselling research

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#118

 

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Name
Description This study aimed to assess the role of multifocal visual-evoked potentials (mfVEPs) as a guiding factor for clinical conversion of radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS). We longitudinally followed a cohort of 15 patients diagnosed with RIS. All subjects underwent thorough ophthalmological, neurological and imaging examinations. The mfVEP signals were analysed to obtain features in the time domain (SNRmin: amplitude, Latmax: monocular latency) and in the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) domain (bmax: instant in which the CWT function maximum appears, Nmax: number of CWT function maximums). The best features were used as inputs to a RUSBoost boosting-based sampling algorithm to improve the mfVEP diagnostic performance. Five of the 15 patients developed an objective clinical symptom consistent with an inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system syndrome during follow-up (mean time: 13.40 months). The (SNRmin) variable decreased significantly in the group that converted (2.74 ± 0.92 vs. 4.07 ± 0.95, p = 0.01). Similarly, the (bmax) feature increased significantly in RIS patients who converted (169.44 ± 24.81 vs. 139.03 ± 11.95 (ms), p = 0.02). The area under the curve analysis produced SNRmin and bmax values of 0.92 and 0.88, respectively. These results provide a set of new mfVEP features that can be potentially useful for predicting prognosis in RIS patients.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#119

 

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Name
Description Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria significantly improve the efficiency and reduce cost of nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment plants. However, their slow growth and vulnerable activity limit the application of anammox technology. In this paper, the enhancement of biotin on the nitrogen removal activity of anammox bacteria in short-term batch experiments was studied. We found that biotin played a significant role in promoting anammox activity within a biotin concentration range of 0.1–1.5 mg/L. At a biotin concentration of 1.0 mg/L, the total nitrogen removal rate (NRR) increased by 112%, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) secretion and heme production significantly improved, and anammox bacterial biomass increased to maximum levels. Moreover, the predominant genus of anammox bacteria was Candidatus Brocadia.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#120

 

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Name
Description Diagnosis of pediatric paragonimiasis is difficult because of its non-specific clinical manifestations. We retrospectively reviewed the records of pediatric paragonimiasis in Children’s Hospital of Fudan University from January 2011 to May 2019. The confirmed diagnosis of paragonimiasis was based on positive anti-parasite serological tests from the local Center for Disease Control (CDC). A total of 11 patients (mean age: 7.7 ± 3.1, male–female ratio: 7:4) diagnosed as paragonimiasis were included. 81.8% were from endemic areas such as Sichuan and Yunnan, and 36% had a clear history of raw crab or crayfish consumption. The characteristic clinical features of pediatric paragonimiasis were eosinophilia (100%), pleural effusion (81.8%), hepatomegaly (54.5%), ascites (54.5%), and subcutaneous nodules (45.5%). Misdiagnosed with other diseases including tuberculosis (18.2%), pneumonia (9.1%), intracranial space-occupying lesions (9.1%) and brain abcess (9.1%) led to rehospitalization and prolonged hospitalization. For treatment, a 3-day course of 150 mg/kg praziquantel (PZQ) didn’t show ideal treatment effectivity and 63.6% needed more than one course of PZQ, while triclabendazole in a total dose of 10 mg/kg had a better efficacy to stubborn manifestations. This study indicated that pediatric paragonimiasis was often misdiagnosed, and the treatment with a 3-day course of 150 mg/kg PZQ had a high rate of failure.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#121

 

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Name
Description The staging system of remnant gastric cancer (RGC) has not yet been established, with the current staging being based on the guidelines for primary gastric cancer. Often, surgeries for RGC fail to achieve the > 15 lymph nodes needed for TNM staging. Compared with the pN staging system, lymph node ratio (NR) may be more accurate for RGC staging and prognosis prediction. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 208 patients who underwent R0 gastrectomy with curative intent and who have ≤ 15 retrieved lymph nodes (RLNs) for RGC between 2000 and 2014. The patients were divided into four groups on the basis of the NR cutoffs: rN0: 0; rN1: > 0 and ≤ 1/6; rN2: > 1/6 and ≤ 1/2; and rN3: > 1/2. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates for rN0, rN1, rN2, and rN3 were 84.3%, 64.7%, 31.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Multivariable analyses revealed that tumor size (p = 0.005), lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.023), and NR (p < 0.001), but not pN stage (p = 0.682), were independent factors for OS. When the RLN count is ≤ 15, the NR is superior to pN as an important and independent prognostic index of RGC, thus predicting the prognosis of RGC patients more accurately.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#122

 

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Name
Description Little is known about the incidence of metachronous advanced neoplasia (AN) following resection of submucosal invasive colorectal cancer (SM-CRC). Here, we aimed to assess the occurrence of metachronous AN following SM-CRC resection. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients who underwent SM-CRC resection at an academic medical center between 2005 and 2013. Among 343 patients, 250 (72.9%) underwent surgical resection or endoscopic resection followed by surgical resection and 93 (27.1%) underwent only endoscopic resection. During a median follow-up period of 61.5 months, the overall incidence of metachronous AN was 7.6%, and the cumulative incidence at 5 years was 6.1%. The cumulative incidence was significantly higher in the endoscopic resection group than in surgical resection group, in patients with colonic disease than in those with rectal disease, and in patients with synchronous AN than in those without. Multivariate analysis revealed that synchronous AN was the only significant risk factor for metachronous AN (HR 4.35; 95% CI 1.88–10.1). These findings imply that depending on synchronous AN, a surveillance protocol following SM-CRC resection can be changed for better detection of metachronous AN.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#123

 

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Name
Description Reduction in incidence has been associated with the introduction of novel approaches, like chemo/immune-prophylaxis. Incidence determined through follow-up cohort studies can evaluate the implementation of these innovative policies towards control and prevention. We have assessed the incidence in our contacts cohort over past 33 years, considering the effect of demographic and clinical variables. Survival analysis was used to estimate the risk of leprosy. A total of 9024 contacts were evaluated, of which 192 developed leprosy, resulting in an overall incidence of 1.4/1000 person-years. The multivariate analysis showed that the major risk factors were (i) contact from MB index cases and (ii) consanguinity (iii) intra household contact. Lower risk was detected for contacts with BCG scar who were revaccinated. There was a significant decrease in accumulated risk between the 2011–2019 period compared with 1987, probably linked to the improvement in laboratory tools to monitor contacts, thereby providing early diagnosis of contacts at intake and reduction of transmission. Our findings suggest that a combination of contact surveillance and tracing, adequate neurodermatological examination, and availability of molecular tools is highly effective in supporting early diagnosis, while a second dose of the BCG vaccination can exert extra protection.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#124

 

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Name
Description Altered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) subclass distribution in hemodialysis (HD) patients is well documented. Aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between HDL-C subclass distribution and macrovascular events in patients undergoing HD. A total of 164 prevalent HD patients and 71 healthy individuals in one hospital-facilitated clinic were enrolled from May 2019 to July 2019 and individual HD patients was follow-up for one year. Macrovascular events (cerebral stroke, coronary heart disease) were recorded in the study period. The HDL-2b, HDL-3 proportions and biochemical parameters were measured. Pearson correlation test and logistic regression analysis were used to examine correlation and odds ratio (OR). 144 HD patients completed one-year follow-up. Cohort with macrovascular events revealed significantly lower HDL-2b and higher HDL-3 subclass proportions compared to those without events. By multivariable adjustment, HDL-3 subclass proportion revealed significantly increase risk for these events (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02–1.41, P = 0.044). HDL-2b subclass was significantly higher and HDL-3 subclass was significantly lower in the HD cohort under the hs-CRP level of < 3 mg/L compared to higher hs-CRP level. In conclusion, HDL-2b and HDL-3 subclasses distributions were associated with macrovascular events in HD patients. Proinflammatory status influences the distribution of HDL-2b and HDL-3 subclasses in HD patients.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#125

 

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Name
Description In order to support vaccine development, and to aid convalescent plasma therapy, it would be important to understand the kinetics, timing and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), and their association with clinical disease severity. Therefore, we used a surrogate viral neutralization test to evaluate their levels in patients with varying severity of illness, in those with prolonged shedding and those with mild/asymptomatic illness at various time points. Patients with severe or moderate COVID-19 illness had earlier appearance of NAbs at higher levels compared to those with mild or asymptomatic illness. Furthermore, those who had prolonged shedding of the virus, had NAbs appearing faster and at higher levels than those who cleared the virus earlier. During the first week of illness the NAb levels of those with mild illness was significantly less (p = 0.01), compared to those with moderate and severe illness. At the end of 4 weeks (28 days), although 89% had NAbs, 38/76 (50%) in those with > 90 days had a negative result for the presence of NAbs. The Ab levels significantly declined during convalescence (> 90 days since onset of illness), compared to 4 to 8 weeks since onset of illness. Our data show that high levels of NAbs during early illness associated with clinical disease severity and that these antibodies declined in 50% of individuals after 3 months since onset of illness.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#126

 

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Name
Description Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important in regulating the response to environmental stresses in organisms. In this study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans as an animal model to determine the functions of intestinal lncRNAs in regulating response to simulated microgravity stress. Among the intestinal lncRNAs, linc-2, linc-46, linc-61, and linc-78 were increased by simulated microgravity treatment, and linc-13, linc-14, linc-50, and linc-125 were decreased by simulated microgravity treatment. Among these 8 intestinal lncRNAs, RNAi knockdown of linc-2 or linc-61 induced a susceptibility to toxicity of simulated microgravity, whereas RNAi knockdown of linc-13, linc-14, or linc-50 induced a resistance to toxicity of simulated microgravity. In simulated microgravity treated nematodes, linc-50 potentially binds to three transcriptional factors (DAF-16, SKN-1, and HLH-30). RNAi knockdown of daf-16, skn-1, or hlh-30 could suppress resistance of linc-50(RNAi) nematodes to the toxicity of simulated microgravity. Therefore, our results provide an important basis for intestinal lncRNAs, such as the linc-50, in regulating the response to simulated microgravity in nematodes.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#127

 

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Name
Description Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patients express significant clinical heterogeneity that often hinders a correct diagnostic definition. Intracellular deposition of TDP-43, a protein involved in RNA metabolism characterizes the pathology. Interestingly, this protein can be detected in serum, wherein cognate naturally-occurring auto-antibodies (anti-TDP-43 NAb) might be also present, albeit they have never been documented before. In this exploratory study, we quantified the levels of both anti-TDP-43 NAb and TDP-43 protein as putative accessible markers for improving the ALS diagnostic process by using ELISA in N = 70 ALS patients (N = 4 carrying TARDBP mutations), N = 40 age-comparable healthy controls (CTRL), N = 20 motor neuron disease mimics (MN-m), N = 20 Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and N = 15 frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) patients. Anti-TDP-43 NAb were found to be significantly increased in ALS patients compared to all the other groups (p < 0.001). On the other hand, the distribution of serum levels of TDP-43 protein was highly variable among the various groups. Levels were increased in ALS patients, albeit the highest values were detected in MN-m patients. NAb and protein serum levels failed to correlate. For the first time, we report that serum anti-TDP-43 NAb are detectable in human serum of both healthy controls and patients affected by a variety of neurodegenerative disorders; furthermore, their levels are increased in ALS patients, representing a potentially interesting trait core marker of this disease. Further studies are needed to clarify the exact role of the NAb. This information might be extremely useful for paving the way toward targeting TDP-43 by immunotherapy in ALS.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#128

 

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Name
Description This study aimed to investigate the relationship between autofluorescence (AF) signal measured with ultra-wide field imaging and visual functions in patients with cone-rod dystrophy (CORD). A retrospective chart review was performed for CORD patients. We performed the visual field test and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) measurement and visualized retinal structures with optical coherence tomography (OCT) on the same day. Using binarised FAF images, we identified a low FAF area ratio (LFAR: low FAF/30°). Relationships between age and logMAR visual acuity (VA), central retinal thickness (CRT), central choroidal thickness (CCT), mean deviation (MD) value, and LFAR were investigated. Thirty-seven eyes of 21 CORD patients (8 men and 13 women) were enrolled. The mean patient age was 49.8 years. LogMAR VA and MD were 0.52 ± 0.47 and − 17.91 ± 10.59 dB, respectively. There was a significant relationship between logMAR VA and MD (p = 0.001). LogMAR VA significantly correlated with CRT (p = 0.006) but not with other parameters. Conversely, univariate analysis suggested a significant relationship between MD and LFAR (p = 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, LFAR was significantly associated with MD (p = 0.002). In conclusion, it is useful to measure the low FAF area in patients with CORD. The AF measurement reflects the visual field deterioration but not VA in CORD.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#129

 

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Name
Description In recent years, the biology of the evolutionary origin of phytohormone signaling has made significant progress. Among them, the ligand-receptor co-evolution found in jasmonate signaling has attracted the attention of plant scientists. Dinor-cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (dn-cis-OPDA, 4) and dn-iso-OPDA (5) are ancestral plant hormones of the bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha L. We succeeded in the first practical synthetic supply of these hormones as well as their possible catabolites. These compounds are expected to be useful in the study of ancestral jasmonate signaling in bryophytes.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#130

 

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Name
Description Growth hormone (GH) secretion is related to many factors, such as weight and puberty, and the reproducibility of GH provocation tests is very poor. This study aimed to evaluate whether the triglyceride (TyG) index was associated with peak GH in children with short stature. This study included 1095 children with short stature divided into two groups based on peak GH level in GH provocation tests [GH deficiency (GHD) group = 733 children; non-GHD group = 362 children]. We found that the TyG index was significantly higher in the GHD group than in the non-GHD group (P < 0.001). A nonlinear relationship was detected between the TyG index and peak GH, whose point was 7.8. A significant negative association between the TyG index and peak GH was observed when the TyG index was greater than 7.8 (β − 2.61, 95% CI − 3.98, − 1.24; P < 0.001), whereas, the relationship between the TyG index and peak GH was not significant when the TyG index was lower than 7.8 (β 0.25, 95% CI − 1.68, 2.17; P = 0.799). There is a nonlinear relationship between the TyG index and peak GH, and a higher TyG index is associated with decreased peak GH in children with short stature.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#131

 

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Name
Description Exploiting the SIQR model for COVID-19, I show that the wavy infection curve in Japan is the result of fluctuation of policy on isolation measure imposed by the government and obeyed by citizens. Assuming the infection coefficient be a two-valued function of the number of daily confirmed new cases, I show that when the removal rate of infected individuals is between these two values, the wavy infection curve is self-organized. On the basis of the infection curve, I classify the outbreak of COVID-19 into five types and show that these differences can be related to the relative magnitude of the transmission coefficient and the quarantine rate of infected individuals.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#132

 

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Name
Description Heart failure is a major cause of death with an increasing population of elderly individuals. Several studies have demonstrated the involvement of soluble alpha-Klotho (sαKl) in various diseases. However, the correlation between sαKl and heart failure remains to be understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the levels and role of sαKl in patients with heart failure. Twenty-eight consecutive patients with acute heart failure (19 male, 9 female), admitted to the Osaka University Hospital from 2010 to 2018, were enrolled in this study. Mean NYHA score, left ventricular ejection fraction and BNP were 3.3, 17.0% and 588 pg/mL, respectively. SαKl significantly increased in heart failure patients. SαKl on admission were significantly higher in patients with heart failure who showed improvement after intensive treatment than that in patients who did not show improvement after the treatment. SαKl levels decreased significantly in patients who showed improvement. Interestingly, sαKl levels increased in male patients with heart failure, but not in female patients. Our data suggest that soluble αKl may be a novel biomarker for the responsiveness against treatment in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Our findings may help developing a personalized therapy for different patients with heart failure.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#133

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#134

 

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Name
Description Clozapine (CLZ), the sole antipsychotic with superior efficacy for ultra-treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), is limited by adverse effects, including metabolic dysregulation. Clozapine’s main metabolite, N-desmethylclozapine (NDMC), has potent 5-HT2C antagonist properties which may explain this metabolic dysfunction, thus the CLZ:NDMC ratio is of particular interest. High insulin resistance states could be associated with CYP1A2 induction and lower CLZ:NDMC ratios. Additionally, lower CLZ:NDMC ratios have been associated with better cognitive, but worse metabolic functioning. This study investigated associations between metabolic and cognitive parameters with the CLZ/NDMC ratio. Primary outcomes included relationships between the CLZ:NDMC ratio to the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) composite z-scores. Secondary outcomes assessed relationships between CLZ:NDMC ratios to fasting insulin, BMI, weight, fasting glucose, and BACS digit sequencing z-scores. 38 patients who were overweight or obese with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed fasting bloodwork, anthropometric, psychopathological, and cognitive assessments. Multivariate regressions found a statistically significant inverse association between the CLZ/NDMC ratio and HOMA-IR (B = − 1.028, SE B = .473, β = − 0.348 p = 0.037), which may have been driven by fasting insulin levels (B = − 27.124, SE B = 12.081, β = − 0.351 p = 0.031). The CLZ/NDMC ratio may predict insulin resistance/metabolic comorbidity among patients with TRS receiving clozapine.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#135

 

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Name
Description In a previous study, we found that higher waist circumference (WC) and higher body mass index (BMI) both increase the risk of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). The aim of this study was to determine whether WC and BMI also increase the duration of CSU. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to determine the hazard ratio (HR) for longer disease duration (longer than 3 years) according to WC and BMI. A total of 52,667 subjects were enrolled and their mean age was 54.5. After adjustments for other confounding variables the high WC/high BMI group had 1.062 times higher HR (95% CI, 1.028–1.098) than the normal WC/normal BMI group. Interestingly, the high WC/normal BMI group showed a significantly higher HR (1.053; 95% CI, 1.008–1.101) than the normal WC/normal BMI group, but not the normal WC/high BMI group (0.998; 95% CI, 0.951–1.046). Taken together, our results suggest that high WC rather than high BMI is a predictive risk factor for the longer disease duration of CSU.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#136

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#137

 

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Name
Description Microcirculatory dysfunction plays a crucial role in renal ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced injury. Dexmedetomidine was reported to ameliorate IR-induced acute kidney injury. This study investigated the effects of dexmedetomidine on renal microcirculation after IR-induced acute kidney injury in rats. In total, 50 rats were randomly allocated to the following five groups (10 in each group): Sham, Control‒IR, Dex (dexmedetomidine) ‒Sham, Dex‒IR, and IR‒Dex group. The microcirculation parameters included total small vessel density, perfused small vessel density (PSVD), proportion of perfused small vessels, microvascular flow index, and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) were recorded. The repeated measures analysis showed that PSVD on renal surface was higher in the Dex‒IR group than in the Control‒IR group (3.5 mm/mm2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6 to 6.4 mm/mm2, P = 0.01). At 240 min, StO2 on renal surface was lower in the Control‒IR group than in the Sham group (– 7%, 95% CI − 13 to − 1%, P = 0.021), but StO2 did not differ significantly among the Sham, Dex‒IR, and IR‒Dex groups. Our results showed that pretreatment with dexmedetomidine improved renal microcirculation in rats with IR-induced acute kidney injury. However, the adverse effects of low mean arterial pressure and heart rate might offset the protective effect of dexmedetomidine on organ injury.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#138

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body;#Psychology
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#139

 

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Name
Description Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor, and its standard treatment is a combination of surgery and chemotherapy. A poor response to chemotherapy causes unfavorable oncological outcomes. We investigated the correlation between osteoclast differentiation in biopsy specimens and the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in resected specimens. Forty-nine patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and subsequent surgical treatment at our institution between 1999 and 2018 were enrolled. Using medical records, we investigated the age, sex, tumor size, location, subtype, staging, chemotherapy agents (doxorubicin, cisplatin, ifosfamide, and methotrexate), number of neoadjuvant chemotherapy courses, number of osteoclasts in biopsy specimens, and efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy according to the Rosen and Huvos classification (Grade I-IV) in resected specimens. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors predictive of a good response in resected specimens after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A good response (Grade III/IV) was detected in 25, while a poor response (Grade I/II) was detected in 24. According to the multivariate analysis, ≥ 46 years old (odds ratio [OR], 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01–0.45; p < 0.01) and ≥ 5 mature osteoclasts in a biopsy specimen (OR, 36.9; 95% CI, 6.03–225; p < 0.01) were significantly associated with the neoadjuvant chemotherapy efficacy. The accuracy for predicting a good response to chemotherapy based on ≥ 5 osteoclasts in a biopsy specimen in patients < 46 years old was 85%. The number of mature osteoclasts in biopsy specimens is a simple factor for predicting the efficacy of chemotherapy before treatment, although further studies will be required to determine the underlying mechanism.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#140

 

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Name
Description Patients with stress-induced exhaustion disorder (SED) demonstrate cognitive dysfunction similar to patients with minor traumatic brain injury (TBI). We have previously detected elevated concentrations of astrocyte-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) in patients with TBI. As such, we hypothesized that astrocyte-derived EVs could be higher in patients with SED than in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls. Patients with SED (n = 31), MDD (n = 31), and healthy matched controls (n = 61) were included. Astrocyte-derived EVs (previously known as microparticles) were measured in plasma with flow cytometry and labeled against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and aquaporin 4 (AQP4). In addition, platelet EVs and their CD40 ligand expression were measured. Patients with SED had significantly higher concentrations of AQP4 and GFAP-positive EVs and EVs co-expressing AQP4/GFAP than patients with MDD and healthy controls. Patients with MDD had significantly higher concentrations of GFAP-positive EVs and EVs co-expressing AQP4/GFAP than healthy controls. Platelet EVs did not differ between groups. CD40 ligand expression was significantly higher in patients with SED and MDD than in controls. In conclusion, the present study suggests that patients with SED, and to some extent, patients with MDD, have increased leakage of astrocyte-derived EVs through the blood–brain barrier.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#141

 

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Name
Description The objective of this study was to investigate whether the BC tumor biology in women with larger breast volume, in obese women and especially in women with central adiposity at the moment of diagnosis of BC is more aggressive than in those women without these characteristics. 347 pre- and postmenopausal women with a recent diagnosis of BC were analyzed. In all patients, anthropometric measurements at the time of diagnosis was collected. In 103 of them, the breast volume was measured by the Archimedes method. The Breast volume, BMI, WHR and the menopausal status were related to different well-known pathological prognostic factors for BC. At the time of diagnosis, 35.4% were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2), 60.2% had a WHR ≥ 0.85, 68.8% were postmenopausal and 44.7% had a breast volume considered "large" (> 600 cc). Between patients with a large breast volume, only a higher prevalence of ER (+) tumors was found (95.3% vs. 77.2%; p = 0.04) compared to those with small breast volumes. The obese BC patients showed significantly higher rates of large tumors (45.5% vs. 40.6%; p = 0.04), axillary invasion (53.6% vs. 38.8%; p = 0.04), undifferentiated tumors (38.2% vs. 23.2%) and unfavorable NPI (p = 0.04) than non-obese women. Those with WHR ≥ 0.85 presented higher postsurgical tumor stages (61.7% vs. 57.8%; p = 0.03), higher axillary invasion (39.9% vs. 36.0%; p = 0.004), more undifferentiated tumors (30.0% vs. 22.3%; p = 0.009), higher lymphovascular infiltration (6.5% vs. 1.6%; p = 0.02), and a higher NPI (3.6 ± 1.8 vs. 3.2 ± 1.8; p = 0.04). No statistically significant differences were found according to menopausal status. We conclude that obesity, but especially central obesity can be associated with a more aggressive tumour phenotype. No relation between breast volume and tumoral prognostic factors was found, except for a higher proportion of ER (+) tumor in women with higher breast volume.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#142

 

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Name
Description Insomnia is common among patients on maintenance haemodialysis and may be exacerbated by the challenges of the COVID pandemic. However, data on the efficacy of insomnia interventions in this population are limited. Efforts are needed to address this important problem and increase access to insomnia interventions for patients on haemodialysis.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#143

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#144

 

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Name
Description The RIβ subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), encoded by Prkar1b, is a neuronal isoform of the type I regulatory subunit of PKA. Mice lacking the RIβ subunit exhibit normal long-term potentiation (LTP) in the Schaffer collateral pathway of the hippocampus and normal behavior in the open-field and fear conditioning tests. Here, we combined genetic, electrophysiological, and behavioral approaches to demonstrate that the RIβ subunit was involved in body tremor, LTP in the Schaffer collateral pathway, and fear conditioning memory in rats. Genetic analysis of WTC-furue, a mutant strain with spontaneous tremors, revealed a deletion in the Prkar1b gene of the WTC-furue genome. Prkar1b-deficient rats created by the CRISPR/Cas9 system exhibited body tremor. Hippocampal slices from mutant rats showed deficient LTP in the Schaffer collateral–CA1 synapse. Mutant rats also exhibited decreased freezing time following contextual and cued fear conditioning, as well as increased exploratory behavior in the open field. These findings indicate the roles of the RIβ subunit in tremor pathogenesis and contextual and cued fear memory, and suggest that the hippocampal and amygdala roles of this subunit differ between mice and rats and that rats are therefore beneficial for exploring RIβ function.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#146

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#147

 

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Name
Description As the new coronavirus evolves, it could follow the same path as other coronaviruses we live with already, becoming far less deadly in the future

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#148

 

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Name
Description Vi (Vodafone Idea) has partnered with MFine to connect patients with doctors through instant chat and video consultation. Vi customers will have access to over 4,000 doctors from over 600 reputed hospitals.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#149

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#150

 

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Name
Description The government has made it mandatory for people to link their mobile numbers with the Aadhaar mandatory for receiving Covid-19 vaccination.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#151

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 January 2021

#152

 

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Name
Description A huge number of Amazon's own 800,000 employees are considered essential workers.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#153

 

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Name
Description The stress hormone cortisol modulates fuel metabolism, cardiovascular homoeostasis, mood, inflammation and cognition. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium previously identified a single locus associated with morning plasma cortisol. Identifying additional genetic variants that explain more of the variance in cortisol could provide new insights into cortisol biology and provide statistical power to test the causative role of cortisol in common diseases. The CORNET consortium extended its genome-wide association meta-analysis for morning plasma cortisol from 12,597 to 25,314 subjects and from ~2.2 M to ~7 M SNPs, in 17 population-based cohorts of European ancestries. We confirmed the genetic association with SERPINA6/SERPINA1. This locus contains genes encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and α1-antitrypsin. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses undertaken in the STARNET cohort of 600 individuals showed that specific genetic variants within the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 locus influence expression of SERPINA6 rather than SERPINA1 in the liver. Moreover, trans-eQTL analysis demonstrated effects on adipose tissue gene expression, suggesting that variations in CBG levels have an effect on delivery of cortisol to peripheral tissues. Two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses provided evidence that each genetically-determined standard deviation (SD) increase in morning plasma cortisol was associated with increased odds of chronic ischaemic heart disease (0.32, 95% CI 0.06–0.59) and myocardial infarction (0.21, 95% CI 0.00–0.43) in UK Biobank and similarly in CARDIoGRAMplusC4D. These findings reveal a causative pathway for CBG in determining cortisol action in peripheral tissues and thereby contributing to the aetiology of cardiovascular disease.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#154

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#155

 

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Name
Description Tech colossus Amazon on Wednesday offered to put its vast operation to work helping President Joe Biden get 100 million Americans vaccinated against COVID-19 in the next 100 days.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#156

 

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Name
Description Signal is a free, privacy-focused messaging and voice talk app you can use on Apple and Android smartphones and via desktop.

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#157

 

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Name
Description Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and resistant Escherichia coli (rE.coli) infections can spread rapidly. Further they are associated with high morbidity and mortality from treatment failure. Therapy involves multiple rounds of ineffective antibiotics alongside unwanted side effects, alternative treatments are crucial. Apple cider vinegar (ACV) is a natural, vegan product that has been shown to have powerful antimicrobial activity hence we investigated whether ACV could ameliorate these resistant bacteria. The minimum dilution of ACV required for growth inhibition was comparable for both bacteria (1/25 dilution of ACV liquid and ACV tablets at 200 µg/ml were effective against rE. coli and MRSA). Monocyte co-culture with microbes alongside ACV resulted in an increase in monocyte phagocytosis by 21.2% and 33.5% compared to non-ACV treated but MRSA or rE. coli stimulated monocytes, respectively. Label free quantitative proteomic studies of microbial protein extracts demonstrated that ACV penetrated microbial cell membranes and organelles, altering the expression of key proteins. This resulted in significant reductions in total protein expression, moreover we could only detect ribosomal proteins; 50 s 30 s, enolase, phosphenol pyruvate and the ATP synthase subunit in rE. coli. Elongation factor iNOS and phosphoglycerate kinase OS were the only proteins present in MRSA samples following ACV treatment.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#158

 

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Name
Description Regular physical activity can help people to live well with kidney disease, yet the promotion, funding, level of interest, and general support of physical activity remains poor. Novel high-quality approaches to increase physical activity must be considered, and practical means of scaling up effective interventions at the population level are required.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#159

 

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Name
Description Osteoarthritis causes debilitating pain and disability, resulting in a considerable socioeconomic burden, yet no drugs are available that prevent disease onset or progression. Here, we develop, validate and use rapid-throughput imaging techniques to identify abnormal joint phenotypes in randomly selected mutant mice generated by the International Knockout Mouse Consortium. We identify 14 genes with functional involvement in osteoarthritis pathogenesis, including the homeobox gene Pitx1, and functionally characterize 6 candidate human osteoarthritis genes in mouse models. We demonstrate sensitivity of the methods by identifying age-related degenerative joint damage in wild-type mice. Finally, we phenotype previously generated mutant mice with an osteoarthritis-associated polymorphism in the Dio2 gene by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing and demonstrate a protective role in disease onset with public health implications. We hope this expanding resource of mutant mice will accelerate functional gene discovery in osteoarthritis and offer drug discovery opportunities for this common, incapacitating chronic disease. Osteoarthritis is a chronic, heritable disease with no available treatment. Here, the authors show that a validated, rapid-throughput joint phenotyping pipeline detects osteoarthritis in the mouse knee following surgical provocation, in aging and after single gene deletion or point mutation.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#160

 

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Name
Description T cell-mediated immune therapies have emerged as a promising treatment modality in different malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, only a fraction of patients currently respond to treatment. Understanding the lack of responses and finding biomarkers with predictive value is of great importance. There is evidence that CRC is a heterogeneous disease and several classification systems have been proposed that are based on genomic instability, immune cell infiltration, stromal content and molecular subtypes of gene expression. Human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) plays a pivotal role in presenting processed antigens to T lymphocytes, including tumour antigens. These molecules are frequently lost in different types of cancers, including CRC, resulting in tumour immune escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes during the natural history of cancer development. The aim of this review is to (i) summarize the prevalence and molecular mechanisms behind HLA-I loss in CRC, (ii) discuss HLA-I expression/loss in the context of the newly identified CRC molecular subtypes, (iii) analyze the HLA-I phenotypes of CRC metastases disseminated via blood or the lymphatic system, (iv) discuss strategies to recover/circumvent HLA-I expression/loss and finally (v) review the role of HLA class II (HLA-II) in CRC prognosis.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#161

 

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Name
Description Infection with rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria is emerging as a global health issue; however, key host factors remain elusive. Here, we investigated the characteristic immune profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients infected with Mycobacteroides abscessus subsp. abscessus (Mabc) and M. abscessus subsp. massiliense (Mmass). Using an integrated analysis of global mRNA and microRNA expression profiles, we found that several inflammatory cytokines/chemokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2, and C-C motif chemokine ligand 2] and miR-144-3p were significantly upregulated in PBMCs from patients compared with those from healthy controls (HCs). Notably, there was a strong correlation between the expression levels of miR-144-3p and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Similarly, upregulated expression of miR-144-3p and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines was found in macrophages and lungs from mice after infection with Mabc and Mmass. We showed that the expression of negative regulators of inflammation (SARM1 and TNIP3) was significantly downregulated in PBMCs from the patients, although they were not putative targets of miR-144-3p. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-144-3p led to a marked increase in proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines and promoted bacterial growth in macrophages. Together, our results highlight the importance of miR-144-3p linking to pathological inflammation during M. abscessus infection. A small RNA molecule which controls the expression of genes, and cell signaling molecules called cytokines are associated with the damaging inflammation caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). NTM infections, which can affect most organs of the body, and are often resistant to most available drugs, are emerging as a serious global health concern. Patients with suppressed immunity are at particular risk. Increased production of a specific microRNA and of a variety of cytokines during NTM infection has been demonstrated by Hyeon Ji Kim and colleagues at Chungnam National University, Daejeon, and co-workers from other institutions in South Korea. Their findings come from comparing peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with Mycobacteroides abscessus lung infections with those from healthy controls. The researchers found similar increased microRNA and cytokine production in the lungs of infected mice.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#162

 

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Name
Description Monge’s disease (chronic mountain sickness (CMS)) is a maladaptive condition caused by chronic (years) exposure to high-altitude hypoxia. One of the defining features of CMS is excessive erythrocytosis with extremely high hematocrit levels. In the Andean population, CMS prevalence is vastly different between males and females, being rare in females. Furthermore, there is a sharp increase in CMS incidence in females after menopause. In this study, we assessed the role of sex hormones (testosterone, progesterone, and estrogen) in CMS and non-CMS cells using a well-characterized in vitro erythroid platform. While we found that there was a mild (nonsignificant) increase in RBC production with testosterone, we observed that estrogen, in physiologic concentrations, reduced sharply CD235a+ cells (glycophorin A; a marker of RBC), from 56% in the untreated CMS cells to 10% in the treated CMS cells, in a stage-specific and dose-responsive manner. At the molecular level, we determined that estrogen has a direct effect on GATA1, remarkably decreasing the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of GATA1 (p < 0.01) and its target genes (Alas2, BclxL, and Epor, p < 0.001). These changes result in a significant increase in apoptosis of erythroid cells. We also demonstrate that estrogen regulates erythropoiesis in CMS patients through estrogen beta signaling and that its inhibition can diminish the effects of estrogen by significantly increasing HIF1, VEGF, and GATA1 mRNA levels. Taken altogether, our results indicate that estrogen has a major impact on the regulation of erythropoiesis, particularly under chronic hypoxic conditions, and has the potential to treat blood diseases, such as high altitude severe erythrocytosis. The hormone estrogen protects against chronic mountain sickness (CMS) in pre-menopausal women and may prove valuable in treating the condition. People who live for years in high altitude mountain regions are susceptible to CMS because of prolonged oxygen deprivation. One factor in CMS is an over-production of red blood cells, thickening the blood and increasing the risk of strokes and cardiovascular diseases. Men are more likely to suffer CMS than women, although cases spike in females after menopause. Gabriel Haddad at the University of California in San Diego, USA, and co-workers used a cell culture model of CMS to demonstrate that estrogen provides protection against the disease. Estrogen significantly alters the expression and activity of red blood cell-related genes to regulate red blood cell levels by controlling cell death mechanisms.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#163

 

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Name
Description A recent study found that prior infections enhance colonization resistance through a process whereby the host, prompted by transient infection, deploys the sulfonic acid taurine as a nutrient to train the gut microbiota and provide resistance to subsequent infections.

#Medicine & Human body;#Theoretical sciences
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#164

 

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Name
Description T helper type 17 (Th17) cells have important functions in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Retinoid-related orphan receptor-γt (RORγt) is necessary for Th17 cell differentiation and functions. However, the transcriptional regulation of RORγt expression, especially at the enhancer level, is still poorly understood. Here we identify a novel enhancer of RORγt gene in Th17 cells, RORCE2. RORCE2 deficiency suppresses RORγt expression and Th17 differentiation, leading to reduced severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Mechanistically, RORCE2 is looped to RORγt promoter through SRY-box transcription factor 5 (SOX-5) in Th17 cells, and the loss of SOX-5 binding site in RORCE abolishes RORCE2 function and affects the binding of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) to the RORγt locus. Taken together, our data highlight a molecular mechanism for the regulation of Th17 differentiation and functions, which may represent a new intervening clue for Th17-related diseases. T helper 17 (Th17) cells are important mediators of inflammatory diseases and fungal infection protection, and are critically regulated by the transcription factor (TF), RORγt. Here the authors identify a new enhancer for RORγt, RORCE2, which synergizes with another TF, Sox5, for binding with RORγt promoter and thereby modulation of RORγt expression.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#165

 

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Name
Description As organisms develop, individual cells generate mitochondria to fulfill physiological requirements. However, it remains unknown how mitochondrial network expansion is scaled to cell growth. The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) is a signaling pathway mediated by the transcription factor ATFS-1 which harbors a mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS). Here, using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans we demonstrate that ATFS-1 mediates an adaptable mitochondrial network expansion program that is active throughout normal development. Mitochondrial network expansion requires the relatively inefficient MTS in ATFS-1, which allows the transcription factor to be responsive to parameters that impact protein import capacity of the mitochondrial network. Increasing the strength of the ATFS-1 MTS impairs UPRmt activity by increasing accumulation within mitochondria. Manipulations of TORC1 activity increase or decrease ATFS-1 activity in a manner that correlates with protein synthesis. Lastly, expression of mitochondrial-targeted GFP is sufficient to expand the muscle cell mitochondrial network in an ATFS-1-dependent manner. We propose that mitochondrial network expansion during development is an emergent property of the synthesis of highly expressed mitochondrial proteins that exclude ATFS-1 from mitochondrial import, causing UPRmt activation. The mitochondrial network expands to accommodate cell growth, but how scaling occurs is unclear. Here, the authors show in C. elegans that ATFS-1 mitochondrial import is reduced when mitochondrial proteins are highly expressed, activating the unfolded protein response and causing expansion.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#166

 

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Name
Description The tumor suppressor p53 integrates stress response pathways by selectively engaging one of several potential transcriptomes, thereby triggering cell fate decisions (e.g., cell cycle arrest, apoptosis). Foundational to this process is the binding of tetrameric p53 to 20-bp response elements (REs) in the genome (RRRCWWGYYYN0-13RRRCWWGYYY). In general, REs at cell cycle arrest targets (e.g. p21) are of higher affinity than those at apoptosis targets (e.g., BAX). However, the RE sequence code underlying selectivity remains undeciphered. Here, we identify molecular mechanisms mediating p53 binding to high- and low-affinity REs by showing that key determinants of the code are embedded in the DNA shape. We further demonstrate that differences in minor/major groove widths, encoded by G/C or A/T bp content at positions 3, 8, 13, and 18 in the RE, determine distinct p53 DNA-binding modes by inducing different Arg248 and Lys120 conformations and interactions. The predictive capacity of this code was confirmed in vivo using genome editing at the BAX RE to interconvert the DNA-binding modes, transcription pattern, and cell fate outcome. The tumor suppressor p53 is a master regulator of cellular stress response pathways, including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Here, the authors identify molecular mechanisms of p53 binding to high- and low-affinity p53 response elements in the genome, linked to cell cycle arrest and pro-apoptotic genes, respectively.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#167

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#168

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#169

 

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Name
Description New versions of coronavirus that spread faster and might evade the immune system are causing fears about vaccine efficacy and a rise in covid-19 deaths. Here’s what you need to know

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#170

 

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Name
Description The World Health Organization has begun its investigation to try to determine the source of the coronavirus, but there have already been clashes between the US and China over access to people and evidence

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#171

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#172

 

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Name
Description High frequency ultrasonic imaging provides clinicians with high-resolution diagnostic images and more accurate measurement results. The technique is now widely used in ophthalmology, dermatology, and small animal imaging. However, since ultrasonic attenuation in tissue increases rapidly with increasing frequency, the depth of detection of high frequency ultrasound in tissue is limited to a few millimeters. In this paper, a novel method of using Golay-coded excitation as a replacement for conventional single-pulse excitation in high frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy was proposed, and real-time imaging was realized. While maintaining the transmission voltage and image resolution unchanged, the detection depth can be effectively improved. The ultrasonic transmission frequency is 30 MHz and the transmission voltage is ± 60 V p-p. In this study, 4-bit, 8-bit, and 16-bit coding sequences and decoding compression were used. To verify the effectiveness of the coding sequence in real-time imaging of ultrasound biomicroscopy, we designed a 10-μm diameter line target echo experiment, an ultrasound phantom experiment, and an in vitro porcine eye experiment. The experimental results show that the code/decode method of signal processing can not only maintain a resolution consistent with that of single-pulse transmission, but can also improve the detection depth and signal-to-noise ratio.

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#173

 

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Name
Description The DNA demethylating agent, 5-Azacytidine (5Aza), and histone deacetylase inhibitor, valproic acid (Vpa), can improve the reprogramming efficiencies of pluripotent cells. This study aimed to examine the roles of 5Aza and Vpa in the dedifferentiation of epithelial cell rests of Malassez (ERM) into stem-like cells. Additionally, the ability of stem-like cells to differentiate into mesenchymal cells was evaluated. ERM was cultured in embryonic stem cell medium (ESCM) with 1 µM of 5Aza, or 2 mM of Vpa, or a combination of 5Aza and Vpa. The cells stimulated with both 5Aza and Vpa were named as progenitor-dedifferentiated into stem-like cells (Pro-DSLCs). The Pro-DSLCs cultured in ESCM alone for another week were named as DSLCs. The stem cell markers were significantly higher in the DSLCs than the controls (no additions). The mRNA and protein levels of the endothelial, mesenchymal stem, and osteogenic cell markers were significantly higher in the Pro-DSLCs and DSLCs than the controls. The combination of a demethylating agent and a deacetylated inhibitor induced the dedifferentiation of ERM into DSLCs. The Pro-DSLCs derived from ERM can be directly reprogrammed into mesenchymal-like cells without dedifferentiation into stem-like cells. Isolated ERM treated with epigenetic agents may be used for periodontal regeneration.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#174

 

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Name
Description Older adults receiving dialysis commonly experience poor quality of life. A cyclical process of quality of life assessment, needs assessment and individualized care plans should be implemented to integrate quality of life into care planning. Improvements in health-care delivery and interpersonal communication are needed to prioritize quality of life.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#175

 

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Name
Description Data on the efficacy and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are now available, but evidence for these vaccines in those who are immunocompromised (including patients with inflammatory bowel diseases) are lacking. As vaccination begins, questions on advantages and disadvantages can be partially addressed using the experience from other vaccines or immune-mediated inflammatory disorders.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#176

 

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Name
Description Within the past decade, the field of immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of many cancers with the development and regulatory approval of various immune-checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapies in diverse indications. Another promising approach to cancer immunotherapy involves the use of personalized vaccines designed to trigger de novo T cell responses against neoantigens, which are highly specific to tumours of individual patients, in order to amplify and broaden the endogenous repertoire of tumour-specific T cells. Results from initial clinical studies of personalized neoantigen-based vaccines, enabled by the availability of rapid and cost-effective sequencing and bioinformatics technologies, have demonstrated robust tumour-specific immunogenicity and preliminary evidence of antitumour activity in patients with melanoma and other cancers. Herein, we provide an overview of the complex process that is necessary to generate a personalized neoantigen vaccine, review the types of vaccine-induced T cells that are found within tumours and outline strategies to enhance the T cell responses. In addition, we discuss the current status of clinical studies testing personalized neoantigen vaccines in patients with cancer and considerations for future clinical investigation of this novel, individualized approach to immunotherapy. Personalized neoantigen-based therapeutic vaccines hold promise as cancer immunotherapies. This Review provides an overview of the complex personalized neoantigen vaccine production process, vaccine-induced T cell responses and strategies to enhance these responses. Completed and ongoing clinical studies testing such vaccines are discussed, and considerations for future clinical investigation of this novel, individualized form of immunotherapy are outlined.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#177

 

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Name
Description Historically, studies of disseminated tumour cells in bone marrow and circulating tumour cells in peripheral blood have provided crucial insights into cancer biology and the metastatic process. More recently, advances in the detection and characterization of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) have finally enabled the introduction of liquid biopsy assays into clinical practice. The FDA has already approved several single-gene assays and, more recently, multigene assays to detect genetic alterations in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) for use as companion diagnostics matched to specific molecularly targeted therapies for cancer. These approvals mark a tipping point for the widespread use of liquid biopsy in the clinic, and mostly in patients with advanced-stage cancer. The next frontier for the clinical application of liquid biopsy is likely to be the systemic treatment of patients with ‘ctDNA relapse’, a term we introduce for ctDNA detection prior to imaging-detected relapse after curative-intent therapy for early stage disease. Cancer screening and diagnosis are other potential future applications. In this Perspective, we discuss key issues and gaps in technology, clinical trial methodologies and logistics for the eventual integration of liquid biopsy into the clinical workflow. Liquid biopsy assays have the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and management of cancer, and rapid progress is being made in the clinical translation of such assays. This Perspective outlines notable advances in the use of liquid biopsy technologies in the management of solid tumours, as well as future research avenues, clinical trial methodologies and implementation logistics for the eventual integration of liquid biopsy into the clinical workflow.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#178

 

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Name
Description Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathophysiological construct that derives a series of metabolic disturbances that promote cardiometabolic dysfunction. This study evaluated mediating and modifying effects of homeostatic model assessment-based IR (HOMA-IR) on the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and a constellation of adolescent cardiometabolic abnormalities. Comprehensive data on sociodemographics, diet, physical activity, and anthropometric and biochemical parameters for 1454 adolescents were obtained from a large-scale representative study for adolescent metabolic syndrome (MetS) conducted in Taiwan. The original (HOMA1-IR) and updated nonlinear (HOMA2-IR) HOMA-IR indicators were used as IR biomarkers. Principal component (PC) analysis was employed to create reduced groups of variables and risk scores for retained PCs. Higher SSB intake was associated with higher levels of HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR, and the two IR biomarkers were positively correlated with metabolic dysfunction clustering. Compared with SSB nondrinkers, adolescents who consumed >500 mL/day of hand-shaken high-fructose corn syrup beverages (HHB) had a 0.22 increase in the number of abnormal MetS components, and HOMA-IR mediation explained 33.9–37.9% of the effect. IR biomarkers accounted for 26.5–31.0% of the relationship between >500 mL/day of SSB consumption and bodyweight-enhanced PC scores. The effects of HOMA-IR indicators on all bodyweight-related factors were consistently intensified among >350 mL/day HHB drinkers (all Pinteraction < 0.05). Fructose-rich SSB intake correlates with a constellation of cardiometabolic abnormalities in adolescents, and this association may be partly mediated by HOMA-IR levels. The adverse effects of HOMA-IR on bodyweight-associated cardiometabolic risk factors depend on the type of SSB consumption, with enhanced risks observed in the intake of high amounts of HFCS-containing SSBs.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#179

 

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Name
Description Although excess visceral fat (VAT) is associated with numerous cardio-metabolic risk factors, measurement of this fat depot has historically been difficult. Recent dual X-ray absorptiometry approaches have provided an accessible estimate of VAT that has shown acceptable validity against gold standard methods. The aims of this study were to (i) evaluate DXA measured VAT as a predictor of elevated blood lipids and blood pressure and (ii) calculate thresholds associated with these cardio-metabolic risk factors. The sample comprised 1482 adults (56.4% women) aged 18–66 years. Total body scans were performed using a GE Lunar Prodigy, and VAT analyses were enabled through Corescan software (v 16.0). Blood pressure and blood lipids were measured by standard procedures. Regression models assessed how VAT mass was associated with each cardio-metabolic risk factor compared to other body composition measures. Measures of sensitivity and specificity were used to determine age- and sex-specific cut points for VAT mass associated with high cardio-metabolic risk. Similar to waist circumference, VAT mass was a strong predictor of cardio-metabolic risk especially in men over age 40. Four cut-offs for VAT mass were proposed, above which the cardio-metabolic risk increased: 700 g in women <40 yrs; 800 g in women 40+ yrs; 1000g in men <40 yrs; and 1200 g in men 40+ yrs. In general, these cut-offs discriminated well between those with high and low cardio-metabolic risk. In both sexes, DXA measured VAT was associated with traditional cardio-metabolic risk factors, particularly high blood pressure in those 40+ yrs and low HDL < 40 yrs. These reference values provide a simple, accessible method to assess cardio-metabolic risk in adults.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#180

 

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Name
Description We investigated the efficacy and safety of liraglutide 3 mg daily in combination with diet and exercise 2, 4, and 6 months after initiation in real-world settings in Korea. People first using liraglutide starting in 2018 were recruited from ten sites in Korea. Body weight and body mass index (BMI) were measured after 2, 4, and 6 months and compared with baseline values. The full cohort comprised 769 participants: 672 in the 2-month group, 427 in the 4-month group, and 219 in the 6-month group. The baseline mean ± standard deviation of BMI and body weight were 32.2 ± 5.1 kg/m2, and 87.5 ± 18.8 kg, respectively. Body weight and BMI decreased after initiation of liraglutide treatment: −2.94 kg and −1.08 kg/m2 at 2 months; −4.23 kg and −1.55 kg/m2 at 4 months, and −5.14 kg and −1.89 kg/m2 at 6 months (all P < 0.001). In the 6-month cohort, 52.5% and 18.3% of subjects lost ≥5% and ≥10% of body weight, respectively. After 6 months, systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly by 3.90 and 1.93 mmHg, respectively. In those with diabetes mellitus, HbA1c and fasting glucose levels decreased significantly by 1.14% and 27.8 mg/dl, respectively. Among all participants, 27.6% experienced adverse effects, including nausea (20.8%), vomiting (5.2%), diarrhoea (2.5%), and skin rash (3.6%). Documented reasons for discontinuation of treatment were lack of effect (4.4%), adverse events (4.3%), and high cost (3.1%). In real-world settings in Korea, daily treatment with liraglutide 3 mg was associated with clinically meaningful weight loss without serious adverse events.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#181

 

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Name
Description Ubiquitination is an essential post-translational modification that regulates most cellular processes. The assembly of ubiquitin into polymeric chains by E3 ubiquitin ligases underlies the pleiotropic functions ubiquitin chains regulate. Ubiquitin chains assembled via the N-terminal methionine, termed Met1-linked ubiquitin chains or linear ubiquitin chains, have emerged as essential signalling scaffolds that regulate pro-inflammatory responses, anti-viral interferon responses, cell death and xenophagy of bacterial pathogens downstream of innate immune receptors. Met1-linked ubiquitin chains are exclusively assembled by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex, LUBAC, and are disassembled by the deubiquitinases OTULIN and CYLD. Genetic defects that perturb the regulation of Met1-linked ubiquitin chains causes severe immune-related disorders, illustrating their potent signalling capacity. Here, we review the current knowledge about the cellular machinery that conjugates, recognises, and disassembles Met1-linked ubiquitin chains, and discuss the function of this unique posttranslational modification in regulating inflammation, cell death and immunity to pathogens.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#182

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#183

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#184

 

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Name
Description The highly infectious B.1.1.7 coronavirus variant from the UK has now been reported in more than 50 countries, placing new urgency on the race to vaccinate the vulnerable

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#185

 

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Name
Description The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#186

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#187

 

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Name
Description Fujifilm UK has just declared that it is going to merge its Photo Imaging, Electronic Imaging and Optical Devices teams into a single Imaging Solutions business unit.

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#188

 

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Name
Description Lack of diversity in genome studies means that treatments derived from them are leaving people of colour behind. Changing that isn’t only about justice – it could also lead to new therapies that would otherwise go undiscovered

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#189

 

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Name
Description Hematopoiesis requires finely tuned regulation of gene expression at each stage of development. The regulation of gene transcription involves not only individual transcription factors (TFs) but also transcription complexes (TCs) composed of transcription factor(s) and multisubunit cofactors. In their normal compositions, TCs orchestrate lineage-specific patterns of gene expression and ensure the production of the correct proportions of individual cell lineages during hematopoiesis. The integration of posttranslational and conformational modifications in the chromatin landscape, nucleosomes, histones and interacting components via the cofactor–TF interplay is critical to optimal TF activity. Mutations or translocations of cofactor genes are expected to alter cofactor–TF interactions, which may be causative for the pathogenesis of various hematologic disorders. Blocking TF oncogenic activity in hematologic disorders through targeting cofactors in aberrant complexes has been an exciting therapeutic strategy. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the models and functions of cofactor–TF interplay in physiological hematopoiesis and highlight their implications in the etiology of hematological malignancies. This review presents a deep insight into the physiological and pathological implications of transcription machinery in the blood system.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#190

 

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Name
Description Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Although activator of HSP90 ATPase activity 1 (AHA1) is reported to be a potential oncogene, its role in osteosarcoma progression remains largely unclear. Since metabolism reprogramming is involved in tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis, the relationship between AHA1 and cancer metabolism is unknown. In this study, we found that AHA1 is significantly overexpressed in osteosarcoma and related to the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients. AHA1 promotes the growth and metastasis of osteosarcoma both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, AHA1 upregulates the metabolic activity to meet cellular bioenergetic needs in osteosarcoma. Notably, we identified that isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is a novel client protein of Hsp90-AHA1. Furthermore, the IDH1 protein level was positively correlated with AHA1 in osteosarcoma. And IDH1 overexpression could partially reverse the effect of AHA1 knockdown on cell growth and migration of osteosarcoma. Moreover, high IDH1 level was also associated with poor prognosis of osteosarcoma patients. This study demonstrates that AHA1 positively regulates IDH1 and metabolic activity to promote osteosarcoma growth and metastasis, which provides novel prognostic biomarkers and promising therapeutic targets for osteosarcoma patients.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 January 2021

#191

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#192

 

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Name
Description Ocular surface dysfunction is common in patients receiving anti-cancer drug treatment. The effects of paclitaxel, a neurotoxic chemotherapeutic drug, on ocular surface discomfort associated with dry eye disease was investigated. Patients with cancer who had completed paclitaxel treatment between 3 and 24 months prior to assessment (n = 29) and age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (n = 29) were recruited and assessed with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) to measure ocular surface discomfort. In-vivo corneal confocal microscopy was used to evaluate corneal nerve parameters in the right eye. Peripheral neurotoxicity was assessed using patient-reported outcomes and clinical grading scales. The paclitaxel group had significantly worse OSDI total scores compared with controls (Median, Md = 19.3 and Md = 0, p = 0.007, respectively). Corneal nerve fiber and inferior whorl lengths were reduced in the paclitaxel group compared with controls (14.2 ± 4.0 and 14.4 ± 4.0 mm/mm2 vs. 16.4 ± 4.0 and 16.9 ± 4.9 mm/mm2, respectively, p = 0.04). When analyzed by presence of peripheral neuropathy, paclitaxel-treated patients with neuropathy showed worse OSDI total scores compared to those without peripheral neuropathy post-treatment (p = 0.001) and healthy controls (p < 0.001). More severe ocular discomfort and worse visual function was associated with greater peripheral neurotoxicity symptoms (r = 0.60, p = 0.001) and neuropathy severity (r = 0.49, p = 0.008), respectively. Patients who have been treated with paclitaxel have a higher risk of ocular surface discomfort associated with dry eye disease, particularly those with peripheral neuropathy. Future longitudinal studies should investigate the clinical impact of corneal nerve reduction in dry eye disease.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#193

 

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Name
Description Patients with metastasized malignant melanomas (MM) are regularly treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPI). Within our study, we evaluated the predictive value of tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) clusters in primary MM and its association to molecular subtypes to predict response to CPI treatment. A cohort of 90 MM patients who received CPI treatment were collected from a single center, as well as a validation cohort of 351 patients from the TCGA database (SKCM) who received standard of care. A deep-convolutional-neural network (U-Net) was trained to detect viable tumor areas on H&E whole-slide-images, following a quantitative detection of TILs with help of a separate additional neural network. The number of TIL clusters was associated with response to CPI in 90 MM patients (AUC = 0.6), even more pronounced within the sub-cohort of BRAF V600E/K-mutated MM patients (AUC = 0.7, n = 32). Interestingly, the TIL clusters in NRAS-mutated as well as wildtype MM (BRAF-wt, NRAS-wt) tumors, did not demonstrate a predictive value of CPI response (AUC = 0.5, n = 25). Moreover, PD-L1 expression had a limited predictive value within our cohort. In parallel, within an independent cohort of MM patients (TCGA, n = 351), the number of TIL clusters was associated with improved survival in BRAF V600E/K mutated MM (p < 0.0001, n = 164) but neither in NRAS-mutated (55.7 months vs. 63.0 months, respectively, p = 0.590, n = 85) nor BRAF/NRAS-wildtype MM patients (52.4 months vs. 47.4 months, respectively, p = 0.581, n = 104). While TILs in MM have been associated with improved survival, we show—for the first time—that TIL clusters are associated with response to immunotherapy in BRAF V600E/K mutated MM.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#194

 

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Name
Description Accuracy for computed tomography (CT) diagnosis of extrapancreatic perineural invasion (EPNI) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which is a significant cause of recurrence, has not been established. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CT in detecting EPNI preoperatively in resectable PDAC of the pancreatic head. Retrospective study design was approved by institutional review board. Preoperative CT-series of 46 patients with resectable PDAC were evaluated by two independent observers. Plexus Pancreaticus Capitalis-II (PPC-II) was assessed as this area is more susceptible for EPNI. All patients underwent surgery with dedicated histopathology, which served as the reference standard. Histologically EPNI was confirmed in 63.1%. Sensitivity of MDCT was 93.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 77.23% to 99.15%), specificity 64.7% (95% CI 38.33% to 85.79%) with area under the curve (AUC) 0.789 for the first observer. Positive predictive value (PPV) was 81.82% (95% CI 70.12% to 89.62%), negative predictive value (NPV—84.62% (95% CI 57.98% to 95.64%) with diagnostic accuracy of 82.61% (95% CI 68.58% to 92.18%). Interobserver agreement showed k-value of 0.893 ( $${p} < 0.001$$ ), which represents very good agreement between observers. Median actual survival in patients without EPNI was 30 months (95% CI 18.284–41.716), in patients with EPNI—13 months (95% CI 12.115–13.885). CT provides sufficient diagnostic information to detect PPC-II invasion in patients with resectable PDAC of the pancreatic head. Preoperative detection of EPNI might be an additional argument to perform neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with resectable PDAC. It should be included in preoperative evaluation form of CT-findings.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#195

 

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Name
Description Morphological characteristics and source of adipose tissue as well as adipokines may increase cardiometabolic risk. This study aimed to explore whether adipose tissue characteristics may impact metabolic and atherogenic risks. Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue (SAT), Visceral Adipose Tissue (VAT) and peripheral blood were obtained from obese patients submitted to bariatric surgery. Adipose tissue (morphometry), plasma adiponectin, TNF-α, resistin (multiplexing) and biochemical chemistry were analyzed; as well as endothelial dysfunction (Flow Mediated Dilation, FMD) and atherogenesis (Carotid Intima Media Thickness, CIMT). Subgroups divided by adipocyte size and source were compared; as well as correlation and multivariate analysis. Sixty patients 36.6% males, aged 44 years-old, BMI 46.7 kg/m2 were included. SAT’s adipocytes showed a lower range of size expandability than VAT’s adipocytes. Independent from their source, larger adipocytes were associated with higher glucose, lower adiponectin and higher CIMT. Particularly, larger adipocytes from SAT were associated with higher blood pressure, lower insulin and HDL-cholesterol; and showed positive correlation with glucose, HbA1c, systolic/diastolic values, and negatively correlated with insulin and adiponectin. VAT’s larger adipocytes particularly associated with lower resistin and lower FMD values. Gender and Diabetes Mellitus significantly impacted the relation of adipocyte size/source with the metabolic and atherogenic risk. Multivariable analysis suggested hypertension-resistin-HbA1c interactions associated with SAT’s larger adipocytes; whereas potential insulin-adiponectin associations were observed for VAT’s larger adipocytes. Adipocyte morphology and source are differentially related with cardiometabolic and atherogenic risk in population with obesity, which are potentially affected by gender and Diabetes Mellitus.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#196

 

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Name
Description The immune system has crucial roles in cancer development and treatment. Whereas adaptive immunity can prevent or constrain cancer through immunosurveillance, innate immunity and inflammation often promote tumorigenesis and malignant progression of nascent cancer. The past decade has witnessed the translation of knowledge derived from preclinical studies of antitumour immunity into clinically effective, approved immunotherapies for cancer. By contrast, the successful implementation of treatments that target cancer-associated inflammation is still awaited. Anti-inflammatory agents have the potential to not only prevent or delay cancer onset but also to improve the efficacy of conventional therapeutics and next-generation immunotherapies. Herein, we review the current clinical advances and experimental findings supporting the utility of an anti-inflammatory approach to the treatment of solid malignancies. Gaining a better mechanistic understanding of the mode of action of anti-inflammatory agents and designing more effective treatment combinations would advance the clinical application of this therapeutic approach. Chronic inflammation can promote the development of various cancers. In this Review, the current clinical advances in ameliorating inflammation for the prevention or treatment of cancer are highlighted, and the experimental insights into the biological mechanisms supporting current and potential novel anti-inflammatory approaches to the management of cancer are discussed.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#197

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#198

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#199

 

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Name
Description Major differences in survival of men and women from infectious diseases and cancers have been highlighted by death rates from COVID-19 infections. In cancer, attention has been focussed on differences in gene expression from X chromosomes in men and women with a preponderance of genes involved in immune responses being expressed in women. Important findings have been that some of the genes are important epigenetic regulators that play fundamental roles in immune responses.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#200

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#201

 

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Name
Description Tobacco smoking is the leading preventable cause of cancer. Moreover, continued smoking during cancer therapy reduces overall survival. Aware of the negative consequences of tobacco smoking and the challenges of smoking cessation, cancer patients are inquiring whether they should switch to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). To obtain evidence-based data to inform this decision, we examined the effects of e-cigarette aerosol exposure on cisplatin resistance in head and neck cancer cells. Our results show that cancer cells exposed to e-cigarette aerosol extracts and treated with cisplatin have a significant decrease in cell death, increase in viability, and increase in clonogenic survival when compared to non-exposed cells. Moreover, exposure to e-cigarette aerosol extracts increased the concentration of cisplatin needed to induce a 50% reduction in cell growth (IC50) in a nicotine-independent manner. Tobacco smoke extracts induced similar increases in cisplatin resistance. Changes in the expression of drug influx and efflux transporters, rather than activation of cell growth-promoting pathways or DNA damage repair, contribute to e-cigarette induced cisplatin resistance. These results suggest that like combustible tobacco, e-cigarette use might increase chemotherapy resistance, and emphasize the urgent need for rigorous evaluation of e-cigarettes health effects to ensure evidence-based public health policies.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#202

 

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Name
Description The microbial community during fermented vegetable production has a large impact on the quality of the final products. Lactic acid bacteria have been well-studied in such processes, but knowledge about the roles of non-lactic acid bacteria is limited. This study aimed to provide useful knowledge about the relationships between the microbiota, including non-lactic acid bacteria, and metabolites in commercial pickle production by investigating Japanese pickles fermented in rice-bran. The samples were provided by six manufacturers, divided into two groups depending on the production conditions. The microbiological content of these samples was investigated by high-throughput sequencing, and metabolites were assessed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and enzymatic assay. The data suggest that Halomonas, halophilic Gram-negative bacteria, can increase glutamic acid content during the pickling process under selective conditions for bacterial growth. In contrast, in less selective conditions, the microbiota consumed glutamic acid. Our results indicate that the glutamic acid content in fermented pickle is influenced by the microbiota, rather than by externally added glutamic acid. Our data suggest that both lactic acid bacteria and non-lactic acid bacteria are positive key factors in the mechanism of commercial vegetable fermentation and affect the quality of pickles.

#Medicine & Human body;#Theoretical sciences
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#203

 

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Name
Description Cell shape is crucial for the function and development of organisms. Yet, versatile frameworks for cell shape quantification, comparison, and classification remain underdeveloped. Here, we introduce a visibility graph representation of shapes that facilitates network-driven characterization and analyses across shapes encountered in different domains. Using the example of complex shape of leaf pavement cells, we show that our framework accurately quantifies cell protrusions and invaginations and provides additional functionality in comparison to the contending approaches. We further show that structural properties of the visibility graphs can be used to quantify pavement cell shape complexity and allow for classification of plants into their respective phylogenetic clades. Therefore, the visibility graphs provide a robust and unique framework to accurately quantify and classify the shape of different objects. While cell shape is crucial for function and development of organisms, versatile frameworks for cell shape quantification, comparison, and classification remain underdeveloped. Here, the authors use a network-based framework for Arabidopsis leaf epidermal cell shape characterization and classification.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#205

 

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Name
Description Such end-to-end monitoring will start the minute a vaccine consignment leaves a producer’s factory bound for an inoculation hub, including storage time at cold chains across India. Vi’s enterprise business unit has developed the IoT solutions and vaccine temperature sensors.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#206

 

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Name
Description The moment you open the MyGov website, you will be available to see how many citizens in India have taken the vaccine on a daily basis. Also, this portal will provide real-time updates on COVID-19 vaccination on the go.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#207

 

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Name
Description The Coalition for a Safer Web has sued Apple for not banning Telegram, while Parler continues to remain banned. The lawsuit also claims how Telegram’s USP features could be used to spread hate, plan violence and alleges that Telegram is already being used for doing the same in the US.

#Medicine & Human body;#Psychology
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#208

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#209

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#210

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#211

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#212

 

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Name
Description A research team in the Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering at Toyohashi University of Technology and the Department of Chemistry at University of Calgary has investigated the effect of post-annealing ...

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#213

 

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Name
Description It looks like some of the new coronavirus variants can evade parts of our immune response, but it's not yet clear if we need to update the vaccines

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#214

 

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Name
Description The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#215

 

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Name
Description With the medical world struggling to treat antibiotic-resistant infections, could scientists turn to viruses that explode bacterial cells from within?

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#216

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#217

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#218

 

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Name
Description Vismodegib has been used for the treatment of locally advanced basal cell carcinoma (laBCC) and metastatic BCC (mBCC) since 2011. Most efficacy and safety data are provided by clinical trials. This study evaluates the effectiveness of vismodegib for the treatment of laBCC, mBCC and basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) patients, and the tumour characteristics associated with a higher probability of achieving a complete response in the Netherlands. A retrospective cohort study that included all patients ≥18 years with histologically proven basal cell carcinoma that received ≥1 dose of vismodegib between July 2011 and September 2019 in the Netherlands. In total, 48 laBCC, 11 mBCC and 19 BCNS patients were included. Median progression-free survival was 10.3 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 7.5–22.6) for laBCC, 11.7 (95% CI, 5.2–17.5) for mBCC and 19.1 (95% CI, 7.4–20.2) for BCNS. Larger laBCCs were associated with a lower probability of complete response (hazard ratio (HR) 0.77 per increase in cm, p = 0.02). Of all BCNS patients, 63% received ≥2 treatment sequences with vismodegib; all achieved partial responses. Half of the aBCC patients progress within 1 year after the start of vismodegib treatment. More research is needed to investigate other treatment strategies after vismodegib progression and to evaluate long-term effects of repetitive vismodegib treatment.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#219

 

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Name
Description Innate immunity serves as the rapid and first-line defense against invading pathogens, and this process can be regulated at various levels, including epigenetic mechanisms. The bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) family of proteins consists of four conserved mammalian members (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT) that regulate the expression of many immunity-associated genes and pathways. In particular, in response to infection and sterile inflammation, abnormally expressed or dysfunctional BETs are involved in the activation of pattern recognition receptor (e.g., TLR, NLR, and CGAS) pathways, thereby linking chromatin machinery to innate immunity under disease or pathological conditions. Mechanistically, the BET family controls the transcription of a wide range of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory genes by recognizing acetylated histones (mainly H3 and H4) and recruiting transcription factors (e.g., RELA) and transcription elongation complex (e.g., P-TEFb) to the chromatin, thereby promoting the phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II and subsequent transcription initiation and elongation. This review covers the accumulating data about the roles of the BET family in innate immunity, and discusses the attractive prospect of manipulating the BET family as a new treatment for disease.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#220

 

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Name
Description State accuses her of unauthorized access to its computer systems.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#221

 

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Name
Description Oral cancer is very painful and impairs a patient’s ability to eat, talk, and drink. Mediators secreted from oral cancer can excite and sensitize sensory neurons inducing pain. Cancer mediators can also activate Schwann cells, the peripheral glia that regulates neuronal function and repair. The contribution of Schwann cells to oral cancer pain is unclear. We hypothesize that the oral cancer mediator TNFα activates Schwann cells, which further promotes cancer progression and pain. We demonstrate that TNFα is overexpressed in human oral cancer tissues and correlates with increased self-reported pain in patients. Antagonizing TNFα reduces oral cancer proliferation, cytokine production, and nociception in mice with oral cancer. Oral cancer or TNFα alone increases Schwann cell activation (measured by Schwann cell proliferation, migration, and activation markers), which can be inhibited by neutralizing TNFα. Cancer- or TNFα-activated Schwann cells release pro-nociceptive mediators such as TNFα and nerve growth factor (NGF). Activated Schwann cells induce nociceptive behaviors in mice, which is alleviated by blocking TNFα. Our study suggests that TNFα promotes cancer proliferation, progression, and nociception at least partially by activating Schwann cells. Inhibiting TNFα or Schwann cell activation might serve as therapeutic approaches for the treatment of oral cancer and associated pain.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#222

 

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Name
Description Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is an uncommon paraneoplastic syndrome presenting with sustained hypophosphatemia. Treatment of choice is removal of the tumor causing the TIO, but identification of the culprit tumor by routine imaging is challenging. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of somatostatin receptor imaging, called 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT, in the management of patients with TIO. Twelve patients who were suspected of having TIO underwent 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT. Lesion detectability and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) were determined and retrospectively compared with the clinical/imaging surveillance and histopathologic diagnosis. The median duration of suspected TIO with hypophosphatemia was 7.8 years (range 2.1–21.0). Conventional radiologic and/or nuclear medicine images failed to identify the culprit tumors. However, 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT scans showed that 8 of the 12 patients had positive lesions, suggesting the presence of focal culprit tumors. The SUVmax of positive tumors was 1.9–45.7 (median: 11.5). Six skeletal lesions and two extra-skeletal lesions were identified. Seven of the lesions were pathologically confirmed as potential culprits of TIO. Hypophosphatemia was resolved in five patients who underwent lesion excision. The 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT is a useful whole-body imaging modality for the detection of causative tumors in patients with suspected TIO.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#223

 

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Name
Description Hox genes are early determinants of cell identity along the anterior–posterior body axis across bilaterians. Several late non-homeotic functions of Hox genes have emerged in a variety of processes involved in organogenesis in several organisms, including mammals. Several studies have reported the misexpression of Hox genes in a variety of malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia. The Hox genes Dfd, Ubx, abd-A and Abd-B were overexpressed via the UAS-Gal4 system using Cg-Gal4, Lsp2-Gal4, He-Gal4 and HmlD3-Gal4 as specific drivers. Genetic interaction was tested by bringing overexpression lines in heterozygous mutant backgrounds of Polycomb and trithorax group factors. Larvae were visually scored for melanized bodies. Circulating hemocytes were quantified and tested for differentiation. Pupal lethality was assessed. Expression of Dfd, Ubx and abd-A, but not Abd-B in the hematopoietic compartment of Drosophila led to the appearance of circulating melanized bodies, an increase in cell number, cell-autonomous proliferation, and differentiation of hemocytes. Pupal lethality and melanized pseudo-tumors were suppressed in Psc1 and esc2 backgrounds while polycomb group member mutations Pc1 and Su(z)123 and trithorax group member mutation TrlR85 enhanced the phenotype. Dfd, Ubx and abd-A are leukemogenic. Mutations in Polycomb and trithorax group members modulate the leukemogenic phenotype. Our RNAseq of Cg-Gal4 > UAS-abd-A hemocytes may contain genes important to Hox gene induced leukemias.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#224

 

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Name
Description The biggest killers in the modern world, like dementia and cancer, are down to ageing. Is it possible to tackle the ageing process so we can live for longer and stay healthier too? By Andrew Steele.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#225

 

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Name
Description To evaluate the usefulness of transperineal ultrasound (TPUS) as a method of membranous urethra length (MUL) measurement and investigate whether preoperative (MULpre) and postoperative (MULpost) would be associated with the degree and time of urinary continence recovery after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP). 84 patients who underwent LRP between January 2017 and December 2018 were selected for final analysis. All patients had preoperative and postoperative measurement of MUL in TPUS. Urinary continence was defined as no pad or a safety pad. Recovery of continence was assessed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after catheter removal. We prospectively analyzed correlation of MULpre, MULpost and a percent change in membranous urethral length (MULratio) with the urinary continence status. 69 (82%) patients regained continence in the follow-up of 12 months. MULpre, MULpost and MULratio assessed in TPUS were larger in subgroups of patients who regained continence earlier and in the entire continent group. Spearman rank test showed strong correlations between MULpost and MULratio (R—0.6 and R—0.56, respectively, p < 0.0001) with the time to continence recovery in the cumulative 12 months follow-up. TPUS allowed a reliable measurement of MUL before and after LRP. MULpre, MULpost as well as MULratio are related with time to regain continence and recovery rate after LRP. Sparing longest possible sphincteric urethra, with respect to oncological outcomes is a key factor in recovering continence after prostate cancer surgery.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#226

 

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Name
Description We developed a diabetes risk score using a novel analytical approach and tested its diagnostic performance to detect individuals at high risk of diabetes, by applying it to the Qatari population. A representative random sample of 5,000 Qataris selected at different time points was simulated using a diabetes mathematical model. Logistic regression was used to derive the score using age, sex, obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity as predictive variables. Performance diagnostics, validity, and potential yields of a diabetes testing program were evaluated. In 2020, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.79 and sensitivity and specificity were 79.0% and 66.8%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were 36.1% and 93.0%, with 42.0% of Qataris being at high diabetes risk. In 2030, projected AUC was 0.78 and sensitivity and specificity were 77.5% and 65.8%. PPV and NPV were 36.8% and 92.0%, with 43.0% of Qataris being at high diabetes risk. In 2050, AUC was 0.76 and sensitivity and specificity were 74.4% and 64.5%. PPV and NPV were 40.4% and 88.7%, with 45.0% of Qataris being at high diabetes risk. This model-based score demonstrated comparable performance to a data-derived score. The derived self-complete risk score provides an effective tool for initial diabetes screening, and for targeted lifestyle counselling and prevention programs.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#227

 

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Name
Description Regulation of endometrial (EM) CD8+T cells is essential for successful reproduction and protection against pathogens. Suppression of CD8+T cells is necessary for a tolerogenic environment that promotes implantation and pregnancy. However, the mechanisms regulating this process remain unclear. Sex hormones are known to control immune responses directly on immune cells and indirectly through the tissue environment. When the actions of estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and TGFβ on EM CD8+T cells were evaluated, cytotoxic activity, perforin and granzymes were directly suppressed by E2 and TGFβ but not P. Moreover, incubation of polarized EM epithelial cells with P, but not E2, increased TGFβ secretion. These findings suggest that E2 acts directly on CD8+T cell to suppress cytotoxic activity while P acts indirectly through induction of TGFβ production. Understanding the mechanisms involved in regulating endometrial CD8+T cells is essential for optimizing reproductive success and developing protective strategies against genital infections and gynecological cancers.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#228

 

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Name
Description Obesity is strongly correlated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and bariatric surgery can effectively treat obesity and alleviate OSA. However, the contributing factors are still unclear. We aimed to explore the relationship between betatrophin and OSA in patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Our study consisted of thirty-seven individuals with OSA and type 2 diabetes (16 males, 21 females) undergoing RYGB surgery. The polysomnography test, anthropometric results, serum betatrophin, and abdominal magnetic resonance images were evaluated both before and 1 year after RYGB surgery. Factors that may correlate with the alleviation of OSA were investigated. In our study, RYGB surgery significantly decreased apnea hypopnea index (AHI) and serum betatrophin concentration (p < 0.001). The abdominal visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area and HOMA-IR were also significantly decreased (p < 0.001). The preoperative AHI, postoperative AHI and the change in AHI were significantly correlated with the preoperative betatrophin, postoperative betatrophin and the change in betatrophin, respectively (p < 0.05). These correlations were still significant after adjustment for other risk factors. The change in betatrophin was also independently associated with the change in minimum oxygen saturation (p < 0.001). Our data might indicate that serum betatrophin was significantly independently correlated with the improvement of OSA after bariatric surgery.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#229

 

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Name
Description Success in smallpox eradication was enabled by the absence of non-human reservoir for smallpox virus. However, other poxviruses with a wider host spectrum can infect humans and represent a potential health threat to humans, highlighted by a progressively increasing number of infections by (re)emerging poxviruses, requiring new improved diagnostic and epidemiological tools. We describe here a real-time PCR assay targeting a highly conserved region of the poxvirus genome, thus allowing a pan-Poxvirus detection (Chordopoxvirinae and Entomopoxvirinae). This system is specific (99.8% for vertebrate samples and 99.7% for arthropods samples), sensitive (100% for vertebrate samples and 86.3% for arthropods samples) and presents low limit of detection (< 1000 DNA copies/reaction). In addition, this system could be also valuable for virus discovery and epidemiological projects.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#230

 

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Name
Description Although both angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are all suitable for the initiation of antihypertensive treatment, studies investigating efficacy and safety between ARBs and CCBs are limited, and there is no previous study comparing their clinical outcomes during long-term follow-up periods in real world setting. We compared cardiovascular (CV) events between ARBs and CCBs in 464,948 hypertensive adults using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database during a 3-year follow-up. The patients with hypertension without heart failure, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral artery disease were enrolled. The CV events between only single prescription of CCBs and ARBs were finally compared. The primary endpoint for this study was the first occurrence of a major adverse CV events, defined as the composite of all-cause death, cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. ARB was significantly more administered in male and patients with higher income, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney diseases, and higher Charlson comorbidity index. The primary endpoints occurred in 10,526 patients (5.2%) in the ARB group and in 19,363 patients (7.3%) in the CCB group (p < 0.001) during a 3-year follow-up (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93–0.98). All the components of CV events including all-cause death, cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke occurred more frequently in the CCB group. With multivariable models adjusting age, sex, income, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and Charlson comorbidity index, the primary endpoints less frequently developed in the ARB group than in the CCB group (HR 0.957, 95% CI 0.933–0.983, p < 0.001). After the propensity-score matching, baseline characteristics were similar and still showed significantly better primary endpoints in ARB group than CCB group (5.3% vs. 5.8%, p < 0.001). In this nationwide population-based simple hypertension study, administration of ARBs showed superior protection against CV events than CCBs during a 3-year follow-up. Our results suggest that ARBs could be preferred over CCBs as the initial choice of antihypertensive treatment regardless of age in real-world practice.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#231

 

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Name
Description The clinical utility of serum immunoglobulin free light chains (sFLC) in IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is unknown. Herein we evaluated their association with clinical phenotypes, serology and activity in patients with IgG4-RD. Cross-sectional study that included 45 patients with IgG4-RD, and as controls 25 with Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) and 15 with sarcoidosis. IgG4-RD patients were classified in clinical phenotypes: pancreato-hepato-biliary, retroperitoneum/aorta, head/neck-limited and Mikulicz/systemic; as well as proliferative vs. fibrotic phenotypes. We assessed the IgG4-RD Responder Index (IgG4-RD RI) at recruitment and measured IgG1, IgG4, κ and λ sFLC serum levels by turbidometry. sFLC levels were similar among IgG4-RD, SS and sarcoidosis groups. Regarding the IgG4-RD patients, the mean age was 49 years, 24 (53.3%) were men and 55.5% had activity. Eight (17.7%) belonged to pancreato-hepato-biliary, 6 (13.3%) to retroperitoneum/aorta, 14 (31.1%) to head/neck-limited, 16 (35.5%) to Mikulicz/systemic phenotypes, whereas 36 (80%) to proliferative and 9 (20%) to fibrotic phenotypes. High κ sFLC, λ sFLC and κ/λ ratio were present in 29 (64.4%), 13 (28.9%) and 13 (28.9%) of IgG4-RD patients, respectively. There were no differences in sFLC among IgG4-RD phenotypes. κ sFLC and κ/λ ratio correlated positively with the number of involved organs and IgG4-RD RI. Patients with renal involvement had higher κ sFLC and λ sFLC. The AUC for κ sFLC and λ sFLC, for renal involvement was 0.78 and 0.72, respectively. Active IgG4-RD had higher levels of κ sFLC and more frequently a high κ/λ ratio. The AUC for κ sFLC and κ/λ ratio for predicting active IgG4-RD was 0.67 and 0.70, respectively. sFLC correlated positively with IgG1 and IgG4 levels. sFLC may be useful as a biomarker of disease activity as well as multiorgan and renal involvement. In particular, a high κ/λ ratio may identify patients with active disease.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#232

 

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Name
Description Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine which is frequently corrected with the implantation of instrumentation with generally good or excellent clinical results; mechanical post-operative complications such as implant loosening and breakage are however relatively frequent. The rate of complications is associated with a lack of consensus about the surgical decision-making process; choices about the instrumentation length, the anchoring implants and the degree of correction are indeed mostly based on personal views and previous experience of the surgeon. In this work, we performed an in silico clinical trial on a large number of subjects in order to clarify which factors have the highest importance in determining the risk of complications by quantitatively analysing the mechanical stresses and loads in the instrumentation after the correction maneuvers. The results of the simulations highlighted the fundamental role of the curve severity, also in its three-dimensional aspect, and of the instrumentation strategy, whereas the length of the fixation had a lower importance.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#233

 

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Name
Description To explore the value, and influencing factors, of D-dimer on the prognosis of patients with COVID-19. A total of 1,114 patients with confirmed COVID-19 who were admitted to three designated COVID-19 hospitals in Wuhan, China from January 18, 2020, to March 24, 2020, were included in this study. We examined the relationship between peripheral blood levels of D-dimer, and clinical classification and prognosis, as well as its related influencing factors. D-dimer levels were found to be related to the clinical classification and the prognosis of clinical outcome. D-dimer levels were more likely to be abnormal in severely and critically ill patients compared with mild and ordinary cases, while D-dimer levels of patients who had died were significantly higher than those of surviving patients according to the results of the first and last lab tests. The results from ROC analyses for mortality risk showed that the AUCs of D-dimer were 0.909, YI was 0.765 at the last lab test, and a D-dimer value of 2.025 mg/L was regarded to be the optimal probability cutoff for a prognosis of death. In addition, we found that patients with advanced age, male gender, dyspnea symptoms, and some underlying diseases have a higher D-dimer value (p < 0.05). In short, D-dimer is related to the clinical classification and can be used to evaluate the prognosis of COVID-19 patients. The D-dimer value of 2.025 mg/L was the optimal probability cutoff for judging an outcome of death. Advanced age, male gender, dyspnea symptoms, and some underlying diseases are influencing factors for D-dimer levels, which impacts the prognosis of patients.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#234

 

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Name
Description Maintenance of plasma membrane integrity is essential for normal cell viability and function. Thus, robust membrane repair mechanisms have evolved to counteract the eminent threat of a torn plasma membrane. Different repair mechanisms and the bio-physical parameters required for efficient repair are now emerging from different research groups. However, less is known about when these mechanisms come into play. This review focuses on the existence of membrane disruptions and repair mechanisms in both physiological and pathological conditions, and across multiple cell types, albeit to different degrees. Fundamentally, irrespective of the source of membrane disruption, aberrant calcium influx is the common stimulus that activates the membrane repair response. Inadequate repair responses can tip the balance between physiology and pathology, highlighting the significance of plasma membrane integrity. For example, an over-activated repair response can promote cancer invasion, while the inability to efficiently repair membrane can drive neurodegeneration and muscular dystrophies. The interdisciplinary view explored here emphasises the widespread potential of targeting plasma membrane repair mechanisms for therapeutic purposes.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#235

 

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Name
Description This study was conducted to investigate the impact of genetic variants of immune checkpoint genes on the treatment outcome in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In the present study, 261 platinum doublet-treated SCLC patients were enrolled. A total of 96 polymorphisms in 33 immune checkpoint-related genes were selected, and their association with chemotherapy response and survival outcomes were analyzed. Among the polymorphisms studied, CD155 rs1058402G > A (Ala67Thr, A67T) and CD226 rs763361C > T (Gly307Ser, G307S) were significantly associated with SCLC treatment outcome. The rs1058402G > A had a worse chemotherapy response and overall survival (under a dominant model, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.27–0.99, P = 0.05; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.12–2.14, P = 0.01, respectively). The rs763361C > T had better chemotherapy response and overall survival (under a dominant model, aOR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.10–3.75, P = 0.02; aHR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.51–0.94, P = 0.02, respectively). When the rs1058402GA/AA and rs763361CC genotypes were combined, the chemotherapy response and overall survival were significantly decreased as the number of bad genotypes increased (aOR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.33–0.81, Ptrend = 0.004; aHR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.19–1.84, Ptrend = 4 × 10−4, respectively). The 3-D structural model showed that CD155 A67T created a new hydrogen bond and structural change on CD155. These changes resulted in extending the distance and losing the hydrogen bonds between CD155 and CD226, thus weakening CD155/CD226 binding activity. In conclusion, CD155 rs1058402G > A and CD226 rs763361C > T may be useful for predicting the clinical outcomes of SCLC patients after chemotherapy.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#236

 

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Name
Description Nephrocalcinosis is present in up to 43% of kidney allograft biopsies at one-year after transplantation and is associated with inferior graft function and poor graft survival. We studied [18F]-sodium fluoride ([18F]-NaF) imaging of microcalcifications in donor kidneys (n = 7) and explanted kidney allografts (n = 13). Three µm paraffin-embedded serial sections were used for histological evaluation of calcification (Alizarin Red; Von Kossa staining) and ex-vivo [18F]-NaF autoradiography. The images were fused to evaluate if microcalcification areas corresponded with [18F]-NaF uptake areas. Based on histological analyses, tubulointerstitial and glomerular microcalcifications were present in 19/20 and 7/20 samples, respectively. Using autoradiography, [18F]-NaF uptake was found in 19/20 samples, with significantly more tracer activity in kidney allograft compared to deceased donor kidney samples (p = 0.019). Alizarin Red staining of active microcalcifications demonstrated good correlation (Spearman’s rho of 0.81, p < 0.001) and Von Kossa staining of consolidated calcifications demonstrated significant but weak correlation (0.62, p = 0.003) with [18F]-NaF activity. This correlation between ex-vivo [18F]-NaF uptake and histology-proven microcalcifications, is the first step towards an imaging method to identify microcalcifications in active nephrocalcinosis. This may lead to better understanding of the etiology of microcalcifications and its impact on kidney transplant function.

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#237

 

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Name
Description We have found a stable spin-structure of N $$=$$ 3 system in which three spin-3 atoms are trapped and coupled to total spin S $$=$$ 3. We have proved that a pair of this structure is nearly an exact solution for N $$=$$ 6 systems in a very broad district in the parameter-space. Comparing with the well-known singlet pairs, this pair is a more promising candidate to serve as a building block for large N systems with spin-3 atoms. This is because the spin-structure of the latter can be modified depending on the interactions to reduce the energy while the singlet pairs can not. In fact, we have proved that, for a specific set of strengths (a point in the parameter-space) the product state based on this pair is an exact solution of the N-body Hamiltonian. Thus, in the neighborhood of this point, the product state will appear as an approximate solution. However, how broad this neighborhood would be remains to be clarified.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#238

 

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Name
Description Biomarker tests of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are invasive and expensive. Recent developments in optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) have enabled noninvasive, cost-effective characterization of retinal layer vasculature and thickness. Using OCTA and OCT, we characterized retinal microvascular changes in the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage of AD and assessed their correlation with structural changes in each retinal neuronal layer. We also evaluated the effect of the APOE-ε4 genotype on retinal microvasculature and layer thickness. Retinal layer thickness did not differ between MCI patients (40 eyes) and controls (37 eyes, all p > 0.05). MCI patients had lower vessel density (VD) (p = 0.003) of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and larger foveal avascular zone area (p = 0.01) of the deep capillary plexus (DCP) than those of controls. VD of the SCP correlated with the ganglion cell layer (r = 0.358, p = 0.03) and inner plexiform layer thickness (r = 0.437, p = 0.007) in MCI patients. APOE-ε4-carrying MCI patients had a lower VD of the DCP than non-carriers (p = 0.03). In conclusion, retinal microvasculature was reduced in patients with AD-associated MCI, but retinal thickness was not changed; these changes might be affected by the APOE genotype. OCTA of the retinal microvasculature may be useful to detect vascular changes in AD.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#239

 

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Name
Description Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is one of the most common hereditary heart diseases and can be classified into an obstructive (HOCM) and non-obstructive (HNCM) form. Major characteristics for HCM are the hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and development of cardiac fibrosis. Patients with HCM have a higher risk for sudden cardiac death compared to a healthy population. In the present study, we investigated the abundancy of selected proteins as potential biomarkers in patients with HCM. We included 60 patients with HCM and 28 healthy controls and quantitatively measured the rate of a set of 92 proteins already known to be associated with cardiometabolic processes via protein screening using the proximity extension assay technology in a subgroup of these patients (20 HCM and 10 healthy controls). After validation of four hits in the whole cohort of patients consisting of 88 individuals (60 HCM patients, 28 healthy controls) we found only one candidate, c-KIT, which was regulated significantly different between HCM patients and healthy controls and thus was chosen for further analyses. c-KIT is a tyrosine-protein kinase acting as receptor for the stem cell factor and activating several pathways essential for cell proliferation and survival, hematopoiesis, gametogenesis and melanogenesis. Serum protein levels of c-KIT were significantly lower in patients with HCM than in healthy controls, even after adjusting for confounding factors age and sex. In addition, c-KIT levels in human cardiac tissue of patients with HOCM were significant higher compared to controls indicating high levels of c-KIT in fibrotic myocardium. Furthermore, c-KIT concentration in serum significantly correlated with left ventricular end-diastolic diameter in HOCM, but not HCM patients. The present data suggest c-KIT as a novel biomarker differentiating between patients with HCM and healthy population and might provide further functional insights into fibrosis-related processes of HOCM.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#240

 

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Name
Description Osteoporosis is a systemic-skeletal disorder characterized by enhanced fragility of bones leading to increased rates of fractures and morbidity in large number of populations. Probiotics are known to be involved in management of various-inflammatory diseases including osteoporosis. But no study till date had delineated the immunomodulatory potential of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR) in bone-health. In the present study, we examined the effect of probiotic-LR on bone-health in ovariectomy (Ovx) induced postmenopausal mice model. In the present study, we for the first time report that LR inhibits osteoclastogenesis and modulates differentiation of Treg-Th17 cells under in vitro conditions. We further observed that LR attenuates bone loss under in vivo conditions in Ovx mice. Both the cortical and trabecular bone-content of Ovx+LR treated group was significantly higher than Ovx-group. Remarkably, the percentage of osteoclastogenic CD4+Rorγt+Th17 cells at distinct immunological sites such as BM, spleen, LN and PP were significantly reduced, whereas the percentage of anti-osteoclastogenic CD4+Foxp3+Tregs and CD8+Foxp3+Tregs were significantly enhanced in LR-treated group thereby resulting in inhibition of bone loss. The osteoprotective role of LR was further supported by serum cytokine data with a significant reduction in osteoclastogenic cytokines (IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α) along with enhancement in anti-osteoclastogenic cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ) in LR treated-group. Altogether, the present study for the first time establishes the osteoprotective role of LR on bone health, thus highlighting the immunomodulatory potential of LR in the treatment and management of various bone related diseases including osteoporosis.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#241

 

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Description Although dual antiplatelet therapy is essential for patients who undergo percutaneous coronary interventions, the risk of bleeding remains an unsolved problem, and there is limited information on the potential relationship between genetic variants and major bleeding. We analyzed the correlations between four major single nucleotide polymorphisms (CYP2C19, ABCB1, PON1, and P2Y12 G52T polymorphisms) and clinical outcomes in 4489 patients from a prospective multicenter registry. The primary endpoint was major bleeding, defined as a Bleeding Academic Research Consortium ≥ 3 bleeding event. The allelic frequencies of ABCB1, PON1, and both individual and combined CYP2C19 variants did not differ significantly between patient groups with and without major bleeding. However, the allelic frequency of the P2Y12 variant differed significantly between the two groups. Focusing on the P2Y12 G52T variant, patients in the TT group had a significantly higher rate of major bleeding (6.4%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08–5.84; p = 0.033) than patients in the other groups (GG [2.9%] or GT [1.9%]). Therefore, the TT variant of the P2Y12 G52T polymorphism may be an independent predictor of major bleeding. Trial registration: NCT02707445 ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02707445?term=02707445&draw=2&rank=1 ).

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#242

 

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Description Inter-joint coordination and gait variability in knee osteoarthritis (KOA) has not been well investigated. Hip-knee cyclograms can visualize the relationship between the hip and knee joint simultaneously. The aim of this study was to elucidate differences in inter-joint coordination and gait variability with respect to KOA severity using hip-knee cyclograms. Fifty participants with KOA (early KOA, n = 20; advanced KOA, n = 30) and 26 participants (≥ 50 years) without KOA were recruited. We analyzed inter-joint coordination by hip-knee cyclogram parameters including range of motion (RoM), center of mass (CoM), perimeter, and area. Gait variability was assessed by the coefficient of variance (CV) of hip-knee cyclogram parameters. Knee RoM was significantly reduced and total perimeter tended to be decreased with KOA progression. KOA patients (both early and advanced) had reduced stance phase perimeter, swing phase area, and total area than controls. Reduced knee CoM and swing phase perimeter were observed only in advanced KOA. Both KOA groups had a greater CV for CoM, knee RoM, perimeter (stance phase, swing phase and total) and swing phase area than the controls. Increased CV of hip RoM was only observed in advanced KOA. These results demonstrate that hip-knee cyclograms can provide insights into KOA patient gait.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#243

 

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Description Goldfish is an ornamental fish with diverse phenotypes. However, the limited genomic resources of goldfish hamper our understanding of the genetic basis for its phenotypic diversity. To provide enriched genomic resources and infer possible mechanisms underlying skin pigmentation, we performed a large-scale transcriptomic sequencing on 13 adult goldfish tissues, larvae at one- and three-days post hatch, and skin tissues with four different color pigmentation. A total of 25.52 Gb and 149.80 Gb clean data were obtained using the PacBio and Illumina platforms, respectively. Onto the goldfish reference genome, we mapped 137,674 non-redundant transcripts, of which 5.54% was known isoforms and 78.53% was novel isoforms of the reference genes, and the remaining 21,926 isoforms are novel isoforms of additional new genes. Both skin-specific and color-specific transcriptomic analyses showed that several significantly enriched genes were known to be involved in melanogenesis, tyrosine metabolism, PPAR signaling pathway, folate biosynthesis metabolism and so on. Thirteen differentially expressed genes across different color skins were associated with melanogenesis and pteridine synthesis including mitf, ednrb, mc1r, tyr, mlph and gch1, and xanthophore differentiation such as pax7, slc2a11 and slc2a15. These transcriptomic data revealed pathways involved in goldfish pigmentation and improved the gene annotation of the reference genome.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021

#244

 

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Description This study suggests that m6A methylation promotes the clearance of reactive endogenous retrovirus-derived mRNA species.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 January 2021