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#1

 

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Description PTRH2 deficiency is associated with an extremely rare disease, infantile-onset multisystem neurologic, endocrine, and pancreatic disease (IMNEPD). We report the first Iranian patient with IMNEPD. We detected a pathogenic variant in the PTRH2 gene (NM_016077.5: c.68T > C, p.V23A). The proband has myopia, spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, urolithiasis, and a history of seizures.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 June 2021

#2

 

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Description The Gibco™ CTS™ Rotea™ Counterflow Centrifugation System is an automated cell processing device developed for manufacturing cell therapy products. The developer (Scinogy Pty Ltd) collaborated with Thermo Fisher Scientific to successfully launch the product in late 2020, completing product development from concept to international sales in <3years. This article describes the origin story of the Rotea system and how a chance meeting between a co-inventor of the Rotea system and an academic cell biologist took the invention from a garage workshop to the world stage. We describe the contribution of academic research to the innovation value chain and importance of academic institutions being industry-ready to support such collaborations.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 June 2021

#3

 

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Description To flourish, cancers greatly depend on their surrounding tumor microenvironment (TME), and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in TME are critical for cancer occurrence and progression because of their versatile roles in extracellular matrix remodeling, maintenance of stemness, blood vessel formation, modulation of tumor metabolism, immune response, and promotion of cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and therapeutic resistance. CAFs are highly heterogeneous stromal cells and their crosstalk with cancer cells is mediated by a complex and intricate signaling network consisting of transforming growth factor-beta, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin, mitogen-activated protein kinase, Wnt, Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription, epidermal growth factor receptor, Hippo, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, etc., signaling pathways. These signals in CAFs exhibit their own special characteristics during the cancer progression and have the potential to be targeted for anticancer therapy. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of these signaling cascades in interactions between cancer cells and CAFs is necessary to fully realize the pivotal roles of CAFs in cancers. Herein, in this review, we will summarize the enormous amounts of findings on the signals mediating crosstalk of CAFs with cancer cells and its related targets or trials. Further, we hypothesize three potential targeting strategies, including, namely, epithelial–mesenchymal common targets, sequential target perturbation, and crosstalk-directed signaling targets, paving the way for CAF-directed or host cell-directed antitumor therapy.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 June 2021

#4

 

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Description Sleep expert, professor of neuroscience and author of Why we sleep Dr Matthew Walker explores the ways sleep can benefit our brains and health.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 June 2021

#5

 

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Description The deficiency of protein C (PROC) can be partly rescued by Rex shunt through restoring portal blood flow in children with extra-hepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO). However, the decline of PROC is still found in some patients with a normal portal blood flow after Rex shunt. The aim of this study was to identify the candidate miRNAs involving in the decline of PROC and their mechanism. The protein level of PROC was detected by the ELISA assay, and was compared between sick and healthy groups. The expressions of miRNAs and PROC mRNA were measured using qRT-PCR, and were compared between sick and healthy groups. The correlation between PROC and candidate miRNAs was analysed by a Pearson correlation analysis to identify the most significant miRNAs. The expression of PROC mRNA was detected by qRT-PCR in HL-7702 and LX-2 cells tansfected with miRNAs mimics or inhibitors and negative control (NC) mimics, which was compared among the different groups. The rates of liver cells’ proliferation and apoptosis were detected in HL-7702 and LX-2 cells tansfected with miRNAs mimics or inhibitors or with overexpressing PROC and negative control mimics by CKK8 assay and flow cytometry, which were compared among the different groups. The expressions of COX-2 and VEGF were measured by qRT-PCR, and were compared between the miRNAs groups and NC group. Western blot was assayed for detecting the protein levels of PROC, COX-2, VEGF, Bcl-2 and Bax, which were compared between the miRNAs groups and NC group. The expression of PROC mRNA was lower, and the expressions of miR-506-3p and miR-124-3p were higher in children with EHPVO than healthy group. PROC mRNA was negatively correlated with the expression of miR-506-3p and miR-124-3p. Compared to the NC group, the transcription activity of PROC was lower after exposure of miR-506 and miR-124 mimics in HL-7702 and LX-2 cells, but this phenomenon was reversed after inhibiting miR-506 and miR-124. The rate of cell proliferation was lower after exposure of miR-506 and miR-124 than the NC group, which was increased after inhibiting miR-506 and miR-124 in HL-7702 cells and overexpressing PROC in LX-2 cells. The apoptotic rate was higher after exposure of miR-506 and miR-124 than the NC group, which was decreased after inhibiting miR-506 and miR-124 in HL-7702 cells and overexpressing PROC in LX-2 cells. The mRNA levels of COX-2 and VEGF were significantly higher after exposure of miR-506 and miR-124 mimics than those in the NC group. The protein levels of PROC and Bcl-2 were down-regulated, and the levels of COX-2, Bax and VEGF were up-regulated after exposure of miR-506 and miR-124 in HL-7702 cells, but this phenomenon was reversed after inhibiting miR-506 and miR-124. MiR-506-3p and miR-124-3p may involve in the decline of PROC in protein and transcriptional level, in which the anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis role of miR-506-3p and miR-124-3p for liver cells may involve in this mechanism.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 June 2021

#6

 

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Description The endothelial glycocalyx (eGC) is considered a key regulator of several mechanisms that prevent vascular injury and disease. Degradation of this macromolecular layer may be associated with post-transplant graft dysfunction. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the benefits of eGC protection via heparanase inhibition on graft quality. We established rat models of lung grafts with damaged or preserved eGC using ischemic insult and transplanted the grafts into recipients. Lung grafts were also subjected to normothermic ex vivo lung perfusion for detailed assessment under isolated conditions. Physiologic parameters and eGC-associated cellular events were assessed in grafts before and after reperfusion. Structurally degraded eGC and highly activated heparanase were confirmed in lungs with ischemic insult. After transplant, lungs with damaged eGC exhibited impaired graft function, inflammation, edema, and inflammatory cell migration. Increased eGC shedding was evident in the lungs after reperfusion both in vivo and ex vivo. These reperfusion-related deficiencies were significantly attenuated in lungs with preserved eGC following heparanase inhibition. Our studies demonstrated that eGC plays a key role in maintaining lung graft quality and function. Heparanase inhibition may serve as a potential therapeutic to preserve eGC integrity, leading to improved post-transplant outcomes.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 June 2021

#7

 

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Description Body image disturbance (BID) is a core feature of eating disorders, for which there are few objective markers. We examined the feasibility of a novel digital tool, “Somatomap”, to index BID related to anorexia nervosa (AN) severity. Fifty-five AN inpatients and 55 healthy comparisons (HC) outlined their body concerns on a 2-Dimensional avatar. Next, they indicated sizes/shapes of body parts for their current and ideal body using sliders on a 3-Dimensional avatar. Physical measurements of corresponding body parts, in cm, were collected for reference. We evaluated regional differences in BID using proportional z-scores to generate statistical body maps, and multivariate analysis of covariance to assess perceptual discrepancies for current body, ideal body, and body dissatisfaction. The AN group demonstrated greater regional perceptual inaccuracy for their current body than HC, greater discrepancies between their current and ideal body, and higher body dissatisfaction than HCs. AN body concerns localized disproportionately to the chest and lower abdomen. The number of body concerns and perceptual inaccuracy for individual body parts was strongly associated with Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (Global EDE-Q) scores across both groups. Somatomap demonstrated feasibility to capture multidimensional aspects of BID. Several implicit measures were significantly associated with illness severity, suggesting potential utility for identifying objective BID markers.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 June 2021

#8

 

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Name
Description Microscopic colitis (MC) is an inflammatory bowel disease that causes persistent watery diarrhoea. This PrimeView highlights the epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis and management of MC.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 June 2021

#9

 

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Description Vaccine hesitancy is prevalent in all demographic groups and settings; however, it remains vastly understudied in low-income and middle-income regions. Successful strategies to address hesitancy require an understanding of regional, cultural, and economic factors, and tailored training of health-care professionals. Vaccine confidence crises should be addressed swiftly. Further research is needed to optimize approaches. Vaccine hesitancy is considered a threat to global health and has been rising worldwide, particularly in resource-limited settings. This Comment discusses this issue and highlights the multiple strategies that can be implemented to address it.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 June 2021

#10

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 June 2021

#12

 

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Description We tested the hypothesis that a particular immune activation profile might be correlated with insulin resistance in a general population. By measuring 43 markers of immune, endothelial, and coagulation activation, we have previously shown that five different immune activation profiles may be distinguished in 150 volunteers. One of these profiles, Profile 2, characterized by CD4+ T cell senescence, inflammation, monocyte, B cell, and endothelial activation, presented elevated insulinemia, glycemia, triglyceridemia, and γ-glutamyl transferase, a marker of liver injury, in comparison with other profiles. Our data are compatible with a model in which a particular immune activation profile might favor the development of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. In this hypothesis, identification of this profile, that is feasible with only 3 markers with an error rate of 5%, might allow to personalize the screening and prevention of metabolic syndrome-driven morbidities as liver steatosis.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 June 2021

#13

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 June 2021

#14

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 June 2021

#15

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 June 2021

#16

 

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Description Researchers from North Carolina State University have turned a longstanding challenge in DNA data storage into a tool, using it to offer users previews of stored data files—such as thumbnail versions of image files.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 June 2021

#17

 

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Description Tata Memorial Hospital and IIT Bombay collaborated for the first Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy, a type of gene therapy for blood cancer treatment, in India, which was conducted on Friday, June 4 in Mumbai.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 June 2021

#18

 

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Description The risk is far lower than the risk of serious illness or death from coronavirus, researchers say.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 June 2021

#19

 

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Name
Description Researchers from Singapore have developed a CRISPR/Cas9-base gene editor capable of correcting single-letter mutations in our DNA sequence.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 June 2021

#20

 

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Description New drugs are rarely tested in pregnant people, leaving harmful gaps in our medical knowledge, but the tide of opinion on including them in trials is starting to change

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#21

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#22

 

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Name
Description Findings from combination studies support measures to stretch supplies, avoid side effects

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#23

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#24

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#25

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#26

 

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Description More than 90% of the human genome is transcribed into noncoding RNAs, but their functional characterization has lagged behind. A major bottleneck in the understanding of their functions and mechanisms has been a dearth of systematic methods for identifying interacting protein partners. There now exist several methods, including identification of direct RNA interacting proteins (iDRiP), chromatin isolation by RNA purification (ChIRP), and RNA antisense purification, each previously applied towards identifying a proteome for the prototype noncoding RNA, Xist. iDRiP has recently been modified to successfully identify proteomes for two additional noncoding RNAs of interest, TERRA and U1 RNA. Here we describe the modified protocol in detail, highlighting technical differences that facilitate capture of various noncoding RNAs. The protocol can be applied to short and long RNAs in both cultured cells and tissues, and requires ~1 week from start to finish. Here we also perform a comparative analysis between iDRiP and ChIRP. We obtain partially overlapping profiles, but find that iDRiP yields a greater number of specific proteins and fewer mitochondrial contaminants. With an increasing number of essential long noncoding RNAs being described, robust RNA-centric protein capture methods are critical for the probing of noncoding RNA function and mechanism. This protocol describes how to identify direct protein targets of noncoding RNAs—Xist, TERRA and U1—and outlines modifications specific to each noncoding RNA and its partners.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#27

 

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Description How dynamic activity in neural circuits gives rise to behavior is a major area of interest in neuroscience. A key experimental approach for addressing this question involves measuring extracellular neuronal activity in awake, behaving animals. Recently developed Neuropixels probes have provided a step change in recording neural activity in large tissue volumes with high spatiotemporal resolution. This protocol describes the chronic implantation of Neuropixels probes in mice and rats using compact and reusable 3D-printed fixtures. The fixtures facilitate stable chronic in vivo recordings in freely behaving rats and mice. They consist of two parts: a covered main body and a skull connector. Single-, dual- and movable-probe fixture variants are available. After completing an experiment, probes are safely recovered for reimplantation by a dedicated retrieval mechanism. Fixture assembly and surgical implantation typically take 4–5 h, and probe retrieval takes ~30 min, followed by 12 h of incubation in probe cleaning agent. The duration of data acquisition depends on the type of behavioral experiment. Since our protocol enables stable, chronic recordings over weeks, it enables longitudinal large-scale single-unit data to be routinely obtained in a cost-efficient manner, which will facilitate many studies in systems neuroscience. This protocol describes the implantation of Neuropixels probes for chronic recording of neural activity in rats and mice using 3D-printed fixtures. The fixtures enable routine probe reuse, and single-, dual- and movable-probe variants are described.

#Medicine & Human body;#Hardware & Devices
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#28

 

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Description Proteins undergoing liquid–liquid phase separation are being discovered at an increasing rate. Since at the high concentrations present in the cell most proteins would be expected to form a liquid condensed state, this state should be considered to be a fundamental state of proteins along with the native state and the amyloid state. Here we discuss the generic nature of the liquid-like and solid-like condensed states, and describe a wide variety of biological functions conferred by these condensed states. In this Perspective, Fuxreiter and Vendruscolo discuss the fundamental nature of the droplet and amyloid states of proteins, the regulatory mechanisms controlling their formation, and the cellular functions associated with these condensed states.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#29

 

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Description COVID-19 has led to a global pandemic, but the long-term immunological effects of the infection are only partially understood. A new study now provides important new clues by describing the transcriptional and epigenetic processes behind the immune memory of both adaptive and innate immune cells in individuals who have recovered from COVID-19.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#30

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#31

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#32

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#33

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#34

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#35

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#36

 

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Description On a spring day in 2020, residents of El Paso, Texas, saw their phones light up with a text message: "Avoid parks/family gatherings this Easter. Stay home, stay safe. Do it for your loved ones."

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#37

 

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Name
Description Research suggests the Oxford/AstraZeneca coronavirus vaccine is associated with a slightly increased risk of some bleeding disorders, but its benefits continue to outweigh the risks

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#38

 

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Name
Description The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#39

 

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Description PowerDot 2.0 is basically a portable electrical muscle stimulation device that uses NMES and TENS treatments to speed up muscle recovery and treat pain.

#Medicine & Human body;#Psychology
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#40

 

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Name
Description When dealing with cancer, finding the most effective treatments as early on as possible can be vital. A new blood test could help doctors determine just that.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#41

 

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Description We examined the safety and efficacy of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUC-MSC) infusion for immune non-responder (INR) patients with chronic HIV-1 infection, who represent an unmet medical need even in the era of efficient antiretroviral therapy (ART). Seventy-two INR patients with HIV were enrolled in this phase II randomized, double-blinded, multicenter, placebo-controlled, dose-determination trial (NCT01213186) from May 2013 to March 2016. They were assigned to receive high-dose (1.5 × 106/kg body weight) or low-dose (0.5 × 106/kg body weight) hUC-MSC, or placebo. Their clinical and immunological parameters were monitored during the 96-week follow-up study. We found that hUC-MSC treatment was safe and well-tolerated. Compared with baseline, there was a statistical increase in CD4+ T counts in the high-dose (P < 0.001) and low-dose (P < 0.001) groups after 48-week treatment, but no change was observed in the control group. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed a higher cumulative probability of achieving an immunological response in the low-dose group compared with the control group (95.8% vs. 70.8%, P = 0.004). However, no significant changes in CD4/CD8+ T counts and CD4/CD8 ratios were observed among the three groups. In summary, hUC-MSC treatment is safe. However, the therapeutic efficacy of hUC-MSC treatment to improve the immune reconstitution in INR patients still needs to be further investigated in a large cohort study.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#42

 

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Description Drug resistance has been partly driven by the overuse of antimicrobials in agricultural animal feed. Better understanding of antibiotic resistance in bovine gut is needed to assess its potential effects based on metagenomic approach and analysis. In this study, we collected 40 fecal samples to explore drug resistance derived from antibiotic use in the bacterial community by an analysis of the diversities and differences of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) in the gut microbiota from yak, beef, and dairy cattle. Overall, 1688 genes were annotated, including 734 ARG subtypes. The ARGs were related to tetracyclines, quinolones, β-lactam, and aminoglycosides, in accordance with the antibiotics widely used in the clinic for humans or animals. The emergence, prevalence, and differences in resistance genes in the intestines of yaks, beef, and dairy cattle may be caused by the selective pressure of different feeding patterns, where yaks were raised without antibiotics for growth promotion. In addition, the abundance of ARGs in yak was lower than in beef and dairy cattle, whereas the abundance of integron, a kind of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) was higher in yaks than those in beef and dairy cattle. Furthermore, the results of this study could provide the basis for a comprehensive profile of various ARGs among yak, beef, and dairy cattle in future.

#Medicine & Human body;#Theoretical sciences
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#43

 

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Name
Description Trial of Wolbachia-infected insects draws praise for new disease control method

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#44

 

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Name
Description Regulatory agency allowed Sputnik V use with restrictions to “minimize risk”

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#45

 

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Name
Description Public health experts struggle to be heard by government set on holding games

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#46

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#47

 

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Description Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) is a potential transfusion method for platelets, as well as for red blood cells. However, previous studies have shown that whole blood storage in ANH decreases platelet aggregability by 14.7–76.3% and that this decrease is not recovered by reinfusion. We investigated whether a new whole blood storage method for 6 h using a polyolefin bag, based on the platelet concentrates storage method, would maintain platelet function better than the conventional method using a polyvinyl chloride bag. We demonstrated that storage of whole blood in a polyolefin bag maintained ADP-induced aggregation rates at more than twofold higher than those in a polyvinyl chloride bag, and also significantly suppressed P-selectin expression, a platelet activation marker (ADP-induced aggregation rates: 24.6 ± 5.1% vs. 51.7 ± 11.5%, p = 0.002; P-selectin expression; 50.3 ± 8.4MFI vs. 31.6 ± 9.3MFI, p = 0.018). These results could be attributed to the high gas permeability of polyolefin, which lowered PCO2 and maintained a high pH with or without agitation. There were no significant changes in platelet count and red blood cell parameters due to the storage methods. Our results suggest that ANH using polyolefin bags is advantageous in improving hemostatic function compared to the conventional method.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#48

 

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Name
Description In MS, pathogenic memory B cells infiltrate the brain and develop into antibody-secreting cells. Chemokine receptors not only define their brain-infiltrating capacity, but also assist in their maturation in germinal centers. How this corresponds to pregnancy, as a naturally occurring modifier of MS, is underexplored. Here, we aimed to study the impact of pregnancy on both ex vivo and in vitro B-cell differentiation in MS. The composition and outgrowth of peripheral B cells were compared between 19 MS pregnant patients and 12 healthy controls during the third trimester of pregnancy (low relapse risk) and postpartum (high relapse risk). Transitional, and not naive mature, B-cell frequencies were found to drop in the third trimester, which was most prominent in patients who experienced a pre-pregnancy relapse. Early after delivery, these frequencies raised again, while memory B -cell frequencies modestly declined. CXCR4 was downregulated and CXCR5, CXCR3 and CCR6 were upregulated on postpartum memory B cells, implying enhanced recruitment into germinal center light zones for interaction with T follicular helper (TFH) cells. Postpartum memory B cells of MS patients expressed higher levels of CCR6 and preferentially developed into plasma cells under TFH-like in vitro conditions. These findings imply that memory B- cell differentiation contributes to postpartum relapse risk in MS.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#49

 

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Description Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for axillary lymph node staging in early breast cancer has been widely recognized. The combination of radio-colloids and dye method is the best method recognized. The reagents and equipment required in the process of the combined method are complex and expensive, so there are certain restrictions in the use of primary medical institutions. As a new tracer, fluorescent tracer technology has attracted much attention. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of fluorescein for SLNB in breast cancer. In this study, a total of 123 patients with breast cancer were divided into group A (n = 67) and group B (n = 56). The efficacy of Indocyanine green (ICG) combined with methylene blue (group A) and fluorescein combined with methylene blue (group B) in SLNB of breast cancer was compared, complications were observed at the same time. No local or systemic reactions were observed in the two groups. In group A, Sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer were detected in 63 patients, with a detection rate of 94.0% (63/67), a false-negative rate of 7.5% (4/53). In group B, Sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer were detected in 52 patients, with a detection rate of 92.9% (52/56), a false-negative rate of 7.5% (3/40). There was no significant difference in biopsy results between the two groups. This prospective clinical study suggests that SLNB using fluorescein and ultraviolet LED light is feasible in breast cancer patients. No adverse reactions were observed in this study, but larger studies are needed to properly assess the adverse reaction rate.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#50

 

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Description They have two weeks to become fully vaccinated or they face termination.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#51

 

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Description High intra-patient variability (IPV) of tacrolimus trough concentrations is increasingly recognized as a predictor of poor long-term outcomes in kidney transplant. However, there is a lack of information regarding the association between tacrolimus IPV and graft outcomes according to immunological risk. We analyzed tacrolimus IPV using the coefficient of variability from months 6–12 after transplantation in 1080 kidney transplant recipients. Patients were divided into two immunological risk groups based on pre-transplant panel reactive antibodies and donor-specific antibodies. High immunological risk was defined as panel reactive antibodies ≥ 20% or the presence of donor-specific antibodies. The effects of tacrolimus IPV on graft outcomes were significantly different between low and high immunological risk patients. A multivariable Cox regression model confirmed that high tacrolimus IPV was an independent risk factor for graft failure in the high risk group (HR, 2.90; 95% CI, 1.42–5.95, P = 0.004). In the high risk group, high tacrolimus IPV was also significantly associated with increased risk of antibody-mediated rejection (P = 0.006). In contrast, death-censored graft survival and antibody-mediated rejection in the low immunological risk group was not significantly different by tacrolimus IPV. High tacrolimus IPV significantly increases the risk of graft failure and antibody-mediated rejection in patients with high immunological risk.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#52

 

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Name
Description To determine whether there are differences in measures of cognitive function between second and third trimester pregnant women compared to non-pregnant controls. This prospective study comprised 40 pregnant and 40 non-pregnant women, 20–40 years old, native-Hebrew speakers who were recruited from the outpatient clinics during a period of nearly 2 years. The patients underwent cognitive and affective evaluation. The performance on the three following tests: difficult and total items of Verbal Paired Associates, the Digit Span—forward and the Naming Objects and Fingers test scores were significantly better among non- pregnant women. All the other test results were similar between the two groups, including the depression scores. On multivariate linear regression analysis, after adjusting for age and years of education , Verbal Paired Associates total score (p = 0.04), and Naming Objects and Fingers (p = 0.01) remained significantly associated with pregnancy, but not Digit Span (p = 0.09). Our study demonstrates an impairment in memory among pregnant women. Furthermore language skills, particularly naming, were also impaired, a finding which has not been previously described.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#53

 

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Description The purpose of this study was to design a convenient, small-scale dissolution test for extracting potential substandard and falsified (SF) medicines that require full pharmacopoeial analysis. The probability of metronidazole samples complying with the US Pharmacopoeia (USP) dissolution test for immediate-release tablet formulations was predicted from small-scale dissolution test results using the following criteria: (1) 95% confidence interval lower limit (95% CIlow) of the average dissolution rate of any n = 3 of n = 24 units of each sample, and (2) average and minimum dissolution rates for any n = 3 of n = 24 units. Criteria values were optimized via bootstrap sampling with Thinkeye data-mining software. Compliant metronidazole samples in the USP first-stage and second-stage dissolution test showed complying probabilities of 99.7% and 81.0%, respectively, if the average dissolution rate of n = 3 units is equal to or greater than the monograph-specified amount of dissolved drug (Q; 85% of labeled content for metronidazole). The complying probabilities were 100.0% and 79.0%, respectively, if the average dissolution rate of n = 3 units is 91% or higher and the minimum dissolution rate is 87% or higher. Suitable compliance criteria for the small-scale dissolution test are: average dissolution rate of n = 3 units is Q + 6% or more and minimum dissolution rate is Q + 2% or more.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#54

 

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Description Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a form of infectious uveitis caused by alpha herpesviruses, including herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). We previously found that the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) U90926 is upregulated in murine retinal photoreceptor cells following HSV-1 infection, leading to host cell death. However, to date, an orthologous transcript has not been identified in humans. We investigated U90926 orthologous transcript in humans and examined its utility as a prognostic marker for visual acuity in patients with ARN. We identified two human orthologous transcripts (1955 and 592 bases) of lncRNA U90926. The amount of the longer human U90926 transcript was approximately 30- and 40-fold higher in the vitreous fluid of patients with ARN than in those with sarcoidosis and intraocular lymphoma, respectively. Furthermore, the expression of the longer human U90926 transcript in the vitreous fluid was highly correlated with the final best-corrected logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity in patients with ARN (r = 0.7671, p = 0.0079). This suggests higher expression of the longer human U90926 transcript in the vitreous fluid results in worse visual prognosis; therefore, expression of the longer human U90926 transcript is a potential negative prognostic marker for visual acuity in patients with ARN.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#55

 

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Name
Description The number of therapies for heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction has nearly doubled in the past decade. In addition, new therapies for HF caused by hypertrophic and infiltrative disease are emerging rapidly. Indeed, we are on the verge of a new era in HF in which insights into the biology of myocardial disease can be matched to an understanding of the genetic predisposition in an individual patient to inform precision approaches to therapy. In this Review, we summarize the biology of HF, emphasizing the causal relationships between genetic contributors and traditional structure-based remodelling outcomes, and highlight the mechanisms of action of traditional and novel therapeutics. We discuss the latest advances in our understanding of both the Mendelian genetics of cardiomyopathy and the complex genetics of the clinical syndrome presenting as HF. In the phenotypic domain, we discuss applications of machine learning for the subcategorization of HF in ways that might inform rational prescribing of medications. We aim to bridge the gap between the biology of the failing heart, its diverse clinical presentations and the range of medications that we can now use to treat it. We present a roadmap for the future of precision medicine in HF. In this Review, Weldy and Ashley summarize the biology of heart failure (HF), the mechanisms of action of HF drugs, and both the Mendelian genetics of cardiomyopathies and the complex genetics of HF. Finally, they present a roadmap for the future of precision medicine in HF.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#56

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#57

 

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Name
Description Acute appendicitis is a rare gastrointestinal complication of anti-cancer chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Among a cohort of 2341 hemato-oncologic patients at a pediatric tertiary care cancer center, we identified 21 patients (0.9%) with 23 episodes of acute appendicitis, based on pathological imaging of the appendix and clinical findings. Median age at diagnosis was 10.21 years. Types of underlying disease included acute leukemias (n = 15), solid tumors (n = 4), and aplastic anemia (n = 2). Clinical symptoms seen in > 1 case were recorded for all 23 episodes as follows: abdominal pain, n = 22; abdominal tenderness, n = 4; fever, n = 7; nausea, n = 2; emesis; n = 2; diarrhea, n = 5; and constipation, n = 2. Median leukocyte count at diagnosis was 0.5 × 109/L, with a median of 0.1 × 109/L for the absolute neutrophil count (ANC). All patients received broad-spectrum antibiotics and 18/23 (78%) patients underwent uneventful appendectomy after a median of 5 days and with a median ANC of 0.7 × 109/L. Median duration until continuation of chemotherapy was 17 days for the 20 cases of appendicitis occurring during the patients’ disease course. Overall, 5/21 (19%) patients died including one related to the appendicitis itself which progressed to a typhlitis and was due to a fungal infection. The other fatalities were transplant- (n = 2) and leukemia-related (n = 2). Acute appendicitis is a rare and usually not life-threatening event in pediatric hemato-oncologic patients, which, if managed by prompt administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics (and antimycotics), can be safely followed by an elective (delayed) appendectomy, even before complete recovery of the neutrophils is achieved.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#58

 

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Name
Description Low-dose computed tomography screening can be used to diagnose lung cancer at a younger age compared to no screening. Real-world studies observing mortality after lung cancer diagnosis are subject to lead-time bias. This study developed a method using a nationwide cancer registry and stage shift from trial for the adjustment of lead-time bias. 78,897 Taiwanese nationwide lung cancer patients aged 55–82 were matched with 788,820 referents randomly selected from the general population at a ratio of 1:10 by age, sex, calendar year, and comorbidities, to estimate the pathology- and stage-specific life expectancy (LE). Loss-of-LE is the difference between the LE of cancer patients and that of referents. By multiplying LE and loss-of-LE by the pathology and stage shift in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), we compared the effectiveness of cancer screening measured by LE gained and loss-of-LE saved. The mean LEs of stage IA and IV adenocarcinoma were 14.5 and 1.9 years, respectively, indicating a LE gain of 12.6 years. However, the mean loss-of-LEs of stage IA and IV adenocarcinoma were 3.7 and 15.1 years, respectively, with a saving of only 11.4 years, implying an adjustment of different distributions of age, sex, and calendar year of diagnosis from stage shift and a reduction in lead-time bias. Applying such estimations on the results of 10,000 participants with the same pathology and stage shift in the NLST, the benefit of screening using LE gained would be 410.3 (95% prediction interval: 328.4 to 503.3) years. It became 297.1 (95% prediction interval: 187.8 to 396.4) years when using loss-of-LE saved, indicating the former approach would overestimate the effectiveness by 38%. Our approach of multiplying loss-of-LE by pathology and stage shift to estimate loss-of-LE saved could adjust for different distributions of age, sex, and calendar year at early diagnosis and reduce lead-time bias.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#59

 

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Name
Description Despite remarkable advances, research into neurodegeneration and Alzheimer Disease (AD) has nonetheless been dominated by inconsistent and conflicting theory. Basic questions regarding how and why the brain changes over time remain unanswered. In this work, we lay novel foundations for a consistent, integrated view of the aging brain. We develop neural economics—the study of the brain’s infrastructure, brain capital. Using mathematical modeling, we create ABC (Aging Brain Capital), a simple linear simultaneous-equation model that unites aspects of neuroscience, economics, and thermodynamics to explain the rise and fall of brain capital, and thus function, over the human lifespan. Solving and simulating this model, we show that in each of us, the resource budget constraints of our finite brains cause brain capital to reach an upper limit. The thermodynamics of our working brains cause persistent pathologies to inevitably accumulate. With time, the brain becomes damaged causing brain capital to depreciate and decline. Using derivative models, we suggest that this endogenous aging process underpins the pathogenesis and spectrum of neurodegenerative disease. We develop amyloid–tau interaction theory, a paradigm that bridges the unnecessary conflict between amyloid- and tau-centered hypotheses of AD. Finally, we discuss profound implications for therapeutic strategy and development.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#60

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#61

 

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Name
Description Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive breast cancer (BrC) subtype lacking effective therapeutic targets currently. The development of multi-omics databases facilities the identification of core genes for TNBC. Using TCGA-BRCA and METABRIC datasets, we identified CT83 as the most TNBC-specific gene. By further integrating FUSCC-TNBC, CCLE, TCGA pan-cancer, Expression Atlas, and Human Protein Atlas datasets, we found CT83 is frequently activated in TNBC and many other cancers, while it is always silenced in non-TNBC, 120 types of normal non-testis tissues, and 18 types of blood cells. Notably, according to the TCGA-BRCA methylation data, hypomethylation on chromosome X 116,463,019 to 116,463,039 is significantly correlated with the abnormal activation of CT83 in BrC. Using Kaplan–Meier Plotter, we demonstrated that activated CT83 is significantly associated with unfavorably overall survival in BrC and worse outcomes in some other cancers. Furthermore, GSEA suggested that the abnormal activation of CT83 in BrC is probably oncogenic by triggering the activation of cell cycle signaling. Meanwhile, we also noticed copy number variations and mutations of CT83 are quite rare in any cancer type, and its role in immune infiltration is not significant. In summary, we highlighted the significance of CT83 for TNBC and presented a comprehensive bioinformatics strategy for single-gene analysis in cancer.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#62

 

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Name
Description Endothelial cells (ECs) play a crucial role in the development and propagation of the severe COVID-19 stage as well as multiorgan dysfunction. It remains, however, controversial whether COVID-19-induced endothelial injury is caused directly by the infection of ECs with SARS-CoV-2 or via indirect mechanisms. One of the major concerns is raised by the contradictory data supporting or denying the presence of ACE2, the SARS-CoV-2 binding receptor, on the EC surface. Here, we show that primary human pulmonary artery ECs possess ACE2 capable of interaction with the viral Spike protein (S-protein) and demonstrate the crucial role of the endothelial glycocalyx in the regulation of the S-protein binding to ACE2 on ECs. Using force spectroscopy method, we directly measured ACE2- and glycocalyx-dependent adhesive forces between S-protein and ECs and characterized the nanomechanical parameters of the cells exposed to S-protein. We revealed that the intact glycocalyx strongly binds S-protein but screens its interaction with ACE2. Reduction of glycocalyx layer exposes ACE2 receptors and promotes their interaction with S-protein. These results indicate that the susceptibility of ECs to COVID-19 infection may depend on the glycocalyx condition.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#63

 

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Name
Description A retrospective cohort study provides further insight into the 6-month outcomes of children with MIS-C, highlighting the importance of physical and mental rehabilitation.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#64

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#65

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#66

 

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Name
Description Nitrous oxide, also known as laughing gas, is used as a pain reliever and recreationally. Now a study has found that it reduces symptoms of depression for two weeks when inhaled for one hour

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#67

 

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Name
Description The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), which developed 2-Deoxy-D- Glucose (2-DG), a drug used for treatment of Covid-19 patients, has called for Expression of Interest (EoI) to transfer the technology to Indian pharmaceutical industries for production.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 June 2021

#68

 

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Name
Description Prescription drug market has proven hard to change.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#69

 

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Name
Description Effective treatments targeting disease etiology are urgently needed for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although candidate AD genes have been identified and altering their levels may serve as therapeutic strategies, the consequence of such alterations remain largely unknown. Herein, we analyzed CRISPR knockout/RNAi knockdown screen data for over 700 cell lines and evaluated cellular dependencies of 104 AD-associated genes previously identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and gene expression network studies. Multiple genes showed widespread cell dependencies across tissue lineages, suggesting their inhibition may yield off-target effects. Meanwhile, several genes including SPI1, MEF2C, GAB2, ABCC11, ATCG1 were identified as genes of interest since their genetic knockouts specifically affected high-expressing cells whose tissue lineages are relevant to cell types found in AD. Overall, analyses of genetic screen data identified AD-associated genes whose knockout or knockdown selectively affected cell lines of relevant tissue lineages, prioritizing targets for potential AD treatments.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#70

 

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Name
Description To evaluate depth of field (DOF) provided by different presbyopia-correcting intraocular lens (IOL) designs, comparing the results obtained using different criteria for defining the defocus tolerance. A total of 150 eyes undergoing cataract surgery were enrolled and divided into 6 groups depending on the IOL implanted: AT.LISA Tri (Carl Zeiss Meditec), FineVision (PhysIOL), PanOptix (Alcon Laboratories), Tecnis Symfony (Johnson & Johnson Vision), Miniwell (SIFI MedTech) and Tecnis Synergy (Johnson & Johnson Vision). Subjective DOF was obtained from defocus curves with absolute and relative criteria of tolerance of 0.1 logMAR. Aberrometry was also measured and the visual strehl optical transference function (VSOTF) with percentage of degradation of 90%, 80% and 60% was used to quantify objectively the DOF. Tecnis Symfony, Tecnis Synergy and Panoptix IOL groups showed better subjective and objective DOF compared to the rest of IOL groups, being these differences statistically significant differences (p < 0.001). Comparison between subjective and objective DOF showed that subjective measures were higher for all IOLs, being also these differences statistically significant for all groups (p < 0.001). A moderate significant correlation was found between absolute subjective criteria and VSOTF60% (r = 0.73, p < 0.05). Objective and subjective measures of DOF are not comparable due to differences in methodologies and criterions to define the level of degradation tolerance. Nevertheless, both objective and subjective measures showed a trend to a greater DOF for Tecnis Symfony and Tecnis Synergy IOLs compared to most of trifocal diffractive designs, with the exception of PanOptix.

#Medicine & Human body;#Hardware & Devices
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#71

 

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Name
Description To compare the long-term effectiveness of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment for pachychoroid neovasculopathy (PNV), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy/aneurysmal type 1 neovascularization (PCV/AT1), and typical neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Forty-one eyes with PNV, 68 eyes with PCV/AT1, and 56 eyes with typical nAMD were retrospectively included for analysis. All patients were treatment-naïve and received a three-monthly loading injection of anti-VEGF, followed by further injections, as required. The visual and anatomical outcomes after treatment were evaluated up to 36 months from baseline. No significant intergroup difference was found in terms of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and changes in central foveal thickness at 12, 24, and 36 months after the baseline. In addition, no significant difference was found between the groups regarding the proportions of improved or worsened (increased or decreased more than 3-lines) visual acuity. However, the PNV group participants received significantly fewer anti-VEGF injections (11.7 ± 6.9) than those in the PCV/AT1 (12.4 ± 7.0; P = 0.031) and typical nAMD groups (13.2 ± 7.4; P = 0.016). The incidence of macular atrophy (MA) development was also significantly lower for the PNV (4/41 eyes, 9.8%) than the typical nAMD (15/56 eyes, 26.8%; P = 0.033) eyes. There was no significant difference between PNV, PCV/AT1, and typical nAMD regarding visual acuity improvement after anti-VEGF treatment over 36 months. However, the number of injections for PNV was significantly lower compared to that for PCV/AT1 and typical nAMD, and the incidence of MA development was significantly lower than in typical nAMD.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#72

 

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Name
Description Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia characterized by the abnormal accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain. Aβ misfolding is associated with neuroinflammation and synaptic dysfunction, leading to learning and memory deficits. Therefore, Aβ production and aggregation have been one of the most popular drug targets for AD. Failures of drug candidates regulating the aforementioned Aβ cascade stimulated development of immunotherapy agents for clearance of accumulated Aβ in the brain. Here, we report that quinacrine, a blood–brain barrier penetrating antimalarial chemical drug, dissociates Aβ plaques in the brain of AD transgenic mice. When co-incubated with pre-formed Aβ fibrils, quinacrine decreased thioflavin T-positive β-sheets in vitro, on top of its inhibitory function on the fibril formation. We confirmed that quinacrine induced dissociation of high-molecular-weight Aβ aggregates into low-molecular-weight species by dot blots in association with size cut-off filtrations. Quinacrine was then administered to adult 5XFAD transgenic mice via weekly intravenous injections for 6 weeks, and we found a significant reduction of Aβ plaques and astrocytosis in their cortex and hippocampus. In western blots of quinacrine-administered mouse brains, amelioration of AD-related biomarkers, glial fibrillary acidic protein, postsynaptic protein 95, phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein, phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase were observed. Lastly, quinacrine-stimulated dissociation of misfolded aggregates induced recovery of synaptic function associated with Aβ in excitatory post-synaptic current recordings of primary rat cortical neurons treated with Aβ aggregates and quinacrine. Collectively, quinacrine can directly dissociate Aβ fibrils and alleviate decreased synaptic functions.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#73

 

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Name
Description To assess fosfomycin (FOS) elimination in patients with sepsis and acute kidney injury (AKI) undergoing slow-extended daily dialysis (SLEDD) with the Genius system in a prospective observational study. After ethics committee approval ten patients with sepsis and AKI stage 3 underwent daily SLEDD sessions of eight hours. FOS was applied i.v. at doses of 3 × 5 g per day. FOS serum levels were measured pre- and post hemofilter before, during, and after SLEDD sessions, and instantaneous clearance was calculated. In five of the patients, we analyzed FOS levels after the first dose, in the other five patients serum levels were measured during ongoing therapy. FOS was eliminated rapidly via the hemofilter. FOS clearance decreased from 152 ± 10 mL/min (start of SLEED session) to 43 ± 38 mL/min (end of SLEDD session). In 3/5 first-dose patients after 4–6 h of SLEDD the FOS serum level fell below the EUCAST breakpoint of 32 mg/L for Enterobacterales and Staphylococcus species. In all patients with ongoing fosfomycin therapy serum levels were high and above the breakpoint at all times. FOS toxicity or adverse effects were not observed. FOS serum concentrations exhibit wide variability in critically ill patients with sepsis and AKI. FOS is eliminated rapidly during SLEDD. A loading dose of 5 g is not sufficient to achieve serum levels above the EUCAST breakpoint for common bacteria in all patients, considering that T > MIC > 70% of the dosing interval indicates sufficient plasma levels. We thus recommend a loading dose of 8 g followed by a maintenance dose of 5 g after a SLEDD session in anuric patients. We strongly recommend therapeutic drug monitoring of FOS levels in critically ill patients with AKI and dialysis therapy.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#74

 

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Name
Description Evidence suggests that tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) compete for glucose in the tumor microenvironment and that tumor metabolic parameters correlate with localized immune markers in several solid tumors. We investigated the relationship of the standardized uptake value (SUV) of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET-CT) with stromal TIL levels in breast cancer. We included 202 patients who underwent preoperative 18F-FDG-PET-CT and had a tumor measuring ≥ 1 cm. Maximum SUV (SUVmax) was determined using 18F-FDG-PET-CT. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors related to high TIL levels (≥ 40%). All tumors were treatment naïve. A significant and weak correlation existed between continuous SUVmax and continuous TIL levels (p = 0.002, R = 0.215). Tumors with high SUVmax (≥ 4) had higher mean TIL levels than those with low SUVmax (< 4). In multivariable analysis, continuous SUVmax was an independent factor associated with high TIL levels; each 1-unit increment in SUVmax corresponded to an odds ratio of 1.14 (95% confidence interval: 1.01–1.29) for high TIL levels. Our study implies that SUV is associated with TILs in breast cancer and provides clinical evidence that elevated glucose uptake by breast tumors can predict the immune system-activated tumor micromilieu.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#75

 

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Name
Description Criminal gangs divulged plans for moving drug shipments and carrying out killings on a messaging app secretly run by the FBI, law enforcement agencies said Tuesday, as they unveiled a global sting operation they said dealt an "unprecedented blow" to organized crime in countries around the world.

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#76

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#77

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#78

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#79

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#80

 

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Name
Description Criminal gangs divulged plans for moving drug shipments and carrying out killings on a messaging app secretly run by the FBI, law enforcement agencies said Tuesday, as they unveiled a global sting operation they said dealt ...

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#81

 

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Name
Description Ahead of the G7 summit in the UK this week, celebrities including Billie Eilish and Claudia Schiffer are urging rich nations not to wait until they have vaccinated their populations before donating vaccines elsewhere

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#82

 

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Name
Description The diagnostic and clinical benefits of genomic sequencing are being increasingly demonstrated across multiple rare genetic conditions. Despite the expanding clinical literature, there is a significant paucity of health economics evidence to inform the prioritization and implementation of genomic sequencing. This study aims to evaluate whether genomic sequencing for pediatric-onset mitochondrial disorders (MDs) is cost-effective and cost-beneficial relative to conventional care from an Australian healthcare system perspective. Two independent and complementary health economic modeling approaches were used. Approach 1 used a decision tree to model the costs and outcomes associated with genomic sequencing and conventional care. Approach 2 used a discrete-event simulation to incorporate heterogeneity in the condition and clinical practice. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Genomic sequencing was less costly and more effective compared with conventional care, saving AU$1997 (Approach 1) to AU$8823 (Approach 2) per child tested, while leading to an additional 11 (Approach 1) to 14 (Approach 2) definitive diagnoses per 100 children tested. The mean monetary value of the incremental benefits of genomic sequencing was estimated at AU$5890 (95% CI: AU$5730−$6046). Implementation of genomic sequencing for MDs in Australia could translate to an annual cost-saving of up to AU$0.7 million. Genomic sequencing is cost-saving relative to traditional investigative approaches, while enabling more diagnoses to be made in a timely manner, offering substantial personal benefits to children and their families. Our findings support the prioritization of genomic sequencing for children with MDs.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#83

 

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Name
Description Late diurnal preference has been linked to poorer mental health outcomes, but the understanding of the causal role of diurnal preference on mental health and wellbeing is currently limited. Late diurnal preference is often associated with circadian misalignment (a mismatch between the timing of the endogenous circadian system and behavioural rhythms), so that evening people live more frequently against their internal clock. This study aims to quantify the causal contribution of diurnal preference on mental health outcomes, including anxiety, depression and general wellbeing and test the hypothesis that more misaligned individuals have poorer mental health and wellbeing using an actigraphy-based measure of circadian misalignment. Multiple Mendelian Randomisation (MR) approaches were used to test causal pathways between diurnal preference and seven well-validated mental health and wellbeing outcomes in up to 451,025 individuals. In addition, observational analyses tested the association between a novel, objective measure of behavioural misalignment (Composite Phase Deviation, CPD) and seven mental health and wellbeing outcomes. Using genetic instruments identified in the largest GWAS for diurnal preference, we provide robust evidence that early diurnal preference is protective for depression and improves wellbeing. For example, using one-sample MR, a twofold higher genetic liability of morningness was associated with lower odds of depressive symptoms (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.97). It is possible that behavioural factors including circadian misalignment may contribute in the chronotype depression relationship, but further work is needed to confirm these findings.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#84

 

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Name
Description MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate diverse cancer hallmarks through sequence-specific regulation of gene expression, so genetic variability in their seed sequences or target sites could be responsible for cancer initiation or progression. While several efforts have been made to predict the locations of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) at miRNA target sites and associate them with cancer risk and susceptibility, there have been few direct assessments of SNVs in both mature miRNAs and their target sites to assess their impact on miRNA function in cancers. Using genome-wide target capture of miRNAs and miRNA-binding sites followed by deep sequencing in prostate cancer cell lines, here we identified prostate cancer-specific SNVs in mature miRNAs and their target binding sites. SNV rs9860655 in the mature sequence of miR-570 was not present in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) tissue or cell lines but was detectable in clinical prostate cancer tissue samples and adjacent normal tissue. SLC45A3 (prostein), a putative oncogene target of miR-1178, was highly upregulated in PC3 cells harboring an miR-1178 seed sequence SNV. Finally, systematic assessment of losses and gains of miRNA targets through 3′UTR SNVs revealed SNV-associated changes in target oncogene and tumor suppressor gene expression that might be associated with prostate carcinogenesis. Further work is required to systematically assess the functional effects of miRNA SNVs.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#85

 

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Name
Description Numerous studies have revealed that hyperglycemia is a pivotal driver of diabetic vascular complications. However, the mechanisms of hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction in diabetes remain incompletely understood. This study aims to expound on the underlying mechanism of the endothelial dysfunction induced by hyperglycemia from the perspective of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA). In this study, a downregulation of SNHG15 was observed in the ischemic hind limb of diabetic mice and high glucose (HG)-treated HUVECs. Functionally, the overexpression of SNHG15 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation, and suppressed cell apoptosis in HG-treated HUVECs. Mechanistically, SNHG15 reduced thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) expression by enhancing ITCH-mediated ubiquitination of TXNIP. TXNIP overexpression abrogated the protective effect of lncRNA SNHG15 overexpression on HG-induced endothelial dysfunction. The following experiment further confirmed that SNHG15 overexpression promoted angiogenesis of the ischemic hind limb in diabetic mice. In conclusion, SNHG15 is a novel protector for hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction via decreasing TXNIP expression. Hyperglycemia is a pivotal driver of vascular complications in diabetes. The present study shows that the long non-coding RNA SNHG15 is downregulated under hyperglycemic conditions. Its overexpression improves hyperglycemia-impaired endothelial dysfunction via reduced expression TXNIP, a thioredoxin-interacting protein. As a novel regulator of endothelial function in diabetes, SNHG15 is a potential therapeutic target for diabetic endothelial dysfunction.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#86

 

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Name
Description Twitter is learnt to have approached the government seeking more time to comply with the new IT rules. According to sources, the micro-blogging site has said that it intends to comply with the rules but needs more time due to the pandemic situation in India.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#87

 

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Name
Description Apple announced that the Health App on the iPhone will give users the ability to share their data with their family members and doctors.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#88

 

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Name
Description There is no consensus on which parental socioeconomic indicators should be used to define adolescents’ socioeconomic status (SES). Utilising the data for 3154 parent-adolescent pairs obtained from the sample of the Survey of Lifestyle Value of Parents and Children 2011 conducted by the Cabinet Office in Japan, the associations between adolescent’s subjective economic status, parental SES (i.e. education, occupation, and household income), and child health-related outcomes (i.e. self-rated health, dietary and oral health behaviours) were analysed using multilevel mixed-effects ordered logistic regression to investigate heterogeneity in these relationships across SES indicators and health outcome measures. Results demonstrated that income was the strongest predictor of adolescent health outcomes, suggesting that adolescents in the middle- or high-income groups tended to report better health status compared to the low-income group, have a higher frequency of having breakfast, and more likely to regularly brush their teeth by 24% (OR 1.24, 95% CI [1.06–1.46]) to 66% (OR 1.66, 95% CI [1.30–2.12]). Parental education was also related to child health-related behaviours, with higher levels of habitual healthy behaviours being observed in the middle- and high-education groups than in the low-education group by 15% (OR 1.15, 95% CI [1.01–1.32]) to 63% (OR 1.63, 95% CI [1.31–2.03]). Future studies regarding health disparities among children/adolescents should carefully choose an SES indicator, taking multiple pathways between each SES indicator and health/health behaviours into consideration.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#89

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#90

 

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Name
Description One of the main health problems in many societies is the increased opium abuse, which was found to be correlated with many problems like cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation of opium use with blood lipoproteins as the risk factor of CVD. This was a cross-sectional study conducted on participants of the first phase of the PERSIAN Cohort study who were aged between 35 and 70 years old. Demographic characteristics; history of smoking, alcohol, and opium consumption; medical history; and medications were asked and the related checklists were filled out. The levels of physical activity and fat intake were also registered. As well, lipoprotein profiles were investigated by blood sampling. The linear and logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between opium and lipid profile and the statistical significant level was considered as < 0.05. Among 9300 participants with a mean age of 48.06 ± 9.44 years old, 49.6% of them were men. About 24.1% of the participants used opium. In the linear regression models, unlike TG (β = 2.2, p = 0.36), total cholesterol (β = − 2.5, p = 0.02), LDL (β = − 2.0, p = 0.04), and HDL (β = − 1.0, p = 0.04) were significantly lower in people who used opium compared to the others. In the logistic regression models, abnormal level of LDL (OR = 0.78, p = 0.003) and total cholesterol (OR = 0.82, p = 0.008) were less in people who used opium compared to the others. This study showed that there is a correlation between opium usage and lower levels of total cholesterol and LDL; however, the lower level of HDL in normal range was seen in opium users. Considering the current evidences, most of them showed the increased risks of ischemic heart disease, heart attack, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, and cancer in opium users. Therefore, Healthcare providers and patients should be noticed about the deleterious effects of opium consumption on various vascular events. In addition, it is necessary for managers and policy makers of the health care system to take the necessary measures to raise the level of awareness and health literacy of the general public about the high-risk side effects of opium use and to take necessary and effective strategies to prevent and reduce its use.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#91

 

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Name
Description Severe extracranial carotid stenosis (SECS) patients may present with nonspecific neurological symptoms that require intracranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and time-of-flight (TOF)-MR angiography (MRA) to exclude intracranial pathology. Recognition of SECS on intracranial TOF-MRA findings is beneficial to provide a prompt carotid imaging study and aggressive stroke prevention. Patients with SECS (January 2016 to May 2019) undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTAS) were included. Differences in normalized signal intensities (SRICA) and diameters (DICA) between bilateral petrous internal carotid arteries (ICAs) were calculated 1 cm from the orifice. A hypothesized criterion describing the opacification grades (GOPH) of bilateral ophthalmic arteries was proposed. We correlated SRICA (p = 0.041), DICA (p = 0.001) and GOPH (p = 0.012), with the severity of extracranial carotid stenosis on digital subtractive angiography (DSA) in the examined group (n = 113), and all showed statistical significance in predicting percentages of ICA stenosis. The results were further validated in another patient group with SECS after radiation therapy (n = 20; p = 0.704 between the actual and predicted stenosis grades). Our findings support the evaluation of the signal ratio and diameter of intracranial ICA on TOF-MRA to achieve early diagnosis and provide appropriate management of SECS.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#92

 

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Description To explore the application of computed tomography (CT)-enhanced radiomics for the risk-grade prediction of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). GIST patients (n = 292) confirmed by surgery or endoscopic pathology during June 2013–2019 were reviewed and categorized into low-grade (very low to low risk) and high-grade (medium to high risk) groups. The tumor region of interest (ROI) was depicted layer by layer on each patient’s enhanced CT venous phase images using the ITK-SNAP. The texture features were extracted using the Analysis Kit (AK) and then randomly divided into the training (n = 205) and test (n = 87) groups in a ratio of 7:3. After dimension reduction by the least absolute shrinkage and the selection operator algorithm (LASSO), a prediction model was constructed using the logistic regression method. The clinical data of the two groups were statistically analyzed, and the multivariate regression prediction model was constructed by using statistically significant features. The ROC curve was applied to evaluate the prediction performance of the proposed model. A radiomics-prediction model was constructed based on 10 characteristic parameters selected from 396 quantitative feature parameters extracted from the CT images. The proposed radiomics model exhibited effective risk-grade prediction of GIST. For the training group, the area under curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy rate were 0.793 (95%CI: 0.733–0.854), 83.3%, 64.3%, and 72.7%, respectively; the corresponding values for the test group were 0.791 (95%CI: 0.696–0.886), 84.2%, 69.3%, and 75.9%, respectively. There were significant differences in age (t value: − 3.133, P = 0.008), maximum tumor diameter (Z value: − 12.163, P = 0.000) and tumor morphology (χ2 value:10.409, P = 0.001) between the two groups, which were used to establish a clinical prediction model. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the clinical model was 0.718 (95%CI: 0.659–0.776). The proposed CT-enhanced radiomics model exhibited better accuracy and effective performance than the clinical model, which can be used for the assessment of risk grades of GIST.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#93

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#94

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#95

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#96

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#97

 

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Name
Description The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#98

 

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Description Exercise mimetics are a proposed class of therapeutics that specifically mimic or enhance the therapeutic effects of exercise. Increased physical activity has demonstrated positive effects in preventing and ameliorating a wide range of diseases, including brain disorders such as Alzheimer disease and dementia, cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This article discusses the molecular mechanisms and signalling pathways associated with the beneficial effects of physical activity, focusing on effects on brain function and cognitive enhancement. Emerging therapeutic targets and strategies for the development of exercise mimetics, particularly in the field of central nervous system disorders, as well as the associated opportunities and challenges, are discussed. Physical activity has demonstrated positive effects in preventing and ameliorating a broad range of diseases, particularly central nervous system disorders. Accordingly, strategies to therapeutically mimic the effects of exercise are gaining interest. Here, Gubert and Hannan focus on the molecular and cellular effects of physical activity in the central nervous system, assessing opportunities for the development of therapeutic exercise mimetics.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#99

 

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Description Cattle have brains around 26 per cent smaller than the extinct aurochs, which may be their wild ancestor – and they are even smaller among dairy cows that spend more time with humans

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#100

 

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Description The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has created global health and economic emergencies. SARS-CoV-2 viruses promote their own spread and virulence by hijacking human proteins, which occurs through viral protein recognition of human targets. To understand the structural basis for SARS-CoV-2 viral-host protein recognition, here we use cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to determine a complex structure of the human cell junction protein PALS1 and SARS-CoV-2 viral envelope (E) protein. Our reported structure shows that the E protein C-terminal DLLV motif recognizes a pocket formed exclusively by hydrophobic residues from the PDZ and SH3 domains of PALS1. Our structural analysis provides an explanation for the observation that the viral E protein recruits PALS1 from lung epithelial cell junctions. In addition, our structure provides novel targets for peptide- and small-molecule inhibitors that could block the PALS1-E interactions to reduce E-mediated virulence. SARS-CoV-2 viruses are known to hijack human proteins in order to facilitate their own virulence and replication. In this study, Liu and colleagues present structural analysis of how this phenomenon occurs between SARS-CoV-2 viral envelope protein and human PALS1. The findings provide insights in to viral-host recognition.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#101

 

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Name
Description Docile dairy and beef cows have smaller brains than aggressive bullfighting breeds

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#102

 

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Name
Description Even the FDA's own advisors and statisticians didn't think the drug should be approved.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#103

 

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Description Apple announced the next version of its operating system for iPhones, iPads and Apple Watch— iOS 15, iPadOS 15, watchOS 8 respectively at its ongoing annual developer conference -- WWDC 2021. Along with latest operating system versions, the company also previewed some advanced consumer health and wellness insights for users.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#104

 

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Description US tech giant Amazon plans to invest 2.5 billion euros ($3.04 billion) in new data centres in the Spanish northern region of Aragon that will open in mid 2022, the company said on one of its websites.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#105

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#106

 

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Description Amazon plans to invest EUR 2.5 billion (roughly Rs. 22,175 crores) in new data centres in the Spanish northern region of Aragon that will open in mid-2022, the company said on one of its websites.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#107

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#108

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#109

 

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Description The bureau worked with Australian and European law enforcement to monitor plots to kill people and to sell drugs and guns. Then they swooped in.

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 June 2021

#110

 

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Description Apple Health is getting updated with the release of iOS 15 for more detailed tracking to help manage health concerns, data sharing, and much more.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#111

 

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Name
Description Vipre Antivirus Ultimate Security Bundle is $100 off right now and offers you both antivirus and VPN protection for a great low price

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#112

 

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Description There is paucity of data regarding the diagnostic yield and safety of skin biopsies in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), though skin eruptions are common in these patients. We evaluated 216 patients treated in our hemato-oncology unit at a tertiary medical center between 2007 and 2018 and identified 35 patients who underwent 37 skin biopsies. The majority of biopsies were performed during induction treatment for AML (n = 26, 70%), whereas the remainder of biopsies were done prior to induction initiation (n = 8, 22%) or during consolidation chemotherapy (n = 3, 8%). Pathology findings were inconclusive in 13 cases (35%), while diagnostic biopsies were positive for drug eruptions (24%), leukemia cutis (16%), infections (11%), reactive processes (8%) and Sweet syndrome (5.5%). In almost half of cases (16/37) tissue cultures were performed. Of those, only a quarter (4/16) were positive. Histopathology and tissue culture results altered immediate patient care in 3 cases (8%), yet information obtained from biopsies had potential to affect long term patient care in 8 additional cases (21.6%). Although most skin biopsies were performed while patients had severe thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, only one patient had a complication due to the biopsy (fever and local bleeding). With the limitation of a retrospective analysis, our study suggests that skin biopsies in patients treated for AML are relatively safe. Although biopsy results infrequently alter immediate patient management, long term effect on patient care expand the potential diagnostic yield of skin biopsies.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#113

 

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Name
Description Concomitant maxillofacial and cervical spine injuries occur in 0.8–12% of the cases. We examined the relation of injury localization and the probability of cervical spine fracture. A retrospective study was conducted on patients that have been treated at Dortmund General Hospital for injuries both to the maxillofacial region and to the cervical spine between January 1st, 2007 and December 31th, 2017. Descriptive statistical methods were used to describe the correlation of cervical spine injuries with gender, age as well as maxillofacial injury localization. 7708 patients were hospitalized with maxillofacial injury, among them 173 were identified with cervical spine injury. The average ages for both genders lie remarkably above the average of all maxillofacial trauma patients (36.2 y.o. in male and 50.9 y.o. in female). In the group of men, most injuries were found between the ages of 50 and 65. Whereas most injuries among women occurred after the age of 80. The relative ratio of cervical spine injuries (CSI) varies between 1.1 and 5.26% of the maxillofacial injuries (MFI), being highest in the soft tissue injury group, patients with forehead fractures (3.12%) and patients with panfacial fractures (2.52%). Further, nasal, Le Fort I and II, zygomatic complex and mandibular condyle fractures are often associated with CSI. Fractures next to the Frankfurt horizontal plane represent 87.7% of all MFI with concomitant CSI. Patients in critical age groups with a high-energy injury are more likely to suffer both, MFI and CSI injuries. Our findings help to avoid missing the diagnosis of cervical spine injury in maxillofacial trauma patients.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#114

 

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Description Although favourable surgical outcomes for myelopathy caused by cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) have been reported, factors significantly associated with post-operative neck pain attenuation still remain unclear. The primary aim of the present study was to determine factors significantly associated with post-operative neck pain attenuation in patients with cervical OPLL using a prospective multi-centre registry of surgically treated cervical OPLL. Significant postoperative neck pain reduction (50% reduction of neck pain) was achieved in 31.3% of patients. There was no significant difference in neck pain attenuation between surgical procedures. Statistical analyses with univariate analyses followed by stepwise logistic regression revealed neurological recovery as a factor having a significant positive association with post-operative neck pain attenuation (p = 0.04, odds ratio 5.68 (95% confidence interval: 1.27–22.2)). In conclusion, neurological recovery was an independent factor having a significant positive association with post-operative neck pain attenuation in patients with cervical myelopathy caused by OPLL who underwent cervical spine surgery.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#115

 

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Description Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections and a frequent cause for hospitalization in the elderly. The aim of our study was to analyse epidemiological, microbiological, therapeutic, and prognostic of elderly hospitalised patients with and to determine independent risk factors for multidrug resistance and its outcome implications. A single-centre observational prospective cohort analysis of 163 adult patients hospitalized for suspected symptomatic UTI in the Departments of Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Short-Stay Medical Unit of a tertiary hospital was conducted. Most patients currently admitted to hospital for UTI are elderly and usually present high comorbidity and severe dependence. More than 55% met sepsis criteria but presented with atypical symptoms. Usual risk factors for multidrug resistant pathogens were frequent. Almost one out of five patients had been hospitalized in the 90 days prior to the current admission and over 40% of patients had been treated with antibiotic in the previous 90 days. Infection by MDR bacteria was independently associated with the previous stay in nursing homes or long-term care facilities (LTCF) (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.17–29.00), permanent bladder catheter (OR 3.55, 95% CI 1.00–12.50) and urinary incontinence (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.04–6.68). The degree of dependence and comorbidity, female sex, obesity, and bacteraemia were independent predictors of longer hospital stay. The epidemiology and presentation of UTIs requiring hospitalisation is changing over time. Attention should be paid to improve management of urinary incontinence, judicious catheterisation, and antibiotic therapy.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#116

 

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Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#117

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#118

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#119

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#120

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#121

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#123

 

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Description Biden aimed to have 70% of adults immunized by July 4. The country may fall short.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#124

 

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Name
Description The sebaceous gland (SG) is involved in different inflammatory, infectious and neoplastic processes of the skin and can be related to specific diseases, e.g., diabetes mellitus. Sometimes, the histological diagnosis requires complementary tests due to the ability of diseases to mimic other tumors. We evaluated the sebaceous gland density in Non-obese diabetic mice to analyze the N-acetylcystein effects and swimming exercise treatment in sebaceous glands healing, using specific staining in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry reactions in the identification of the lipid expression in the sebaceous gland. We investigated the intracytoplasmic lipid expression and analysis of gland density from SG in dorsal skin samples from the Non-obese diabetic (NOD mice) and diabetic animals submitted to antioxidant treatment and physical exercise. For histological analysis of the sebaceous glands, specific staining in histochemistry with sudan black and immunohistochemistry reaction with adipophilin were used in the evaluation. Statistical analysis showed significant proximity between the values of the control group and the diabetic group submitted to the swimming exercise (DS group) and similar values between the untreated diabetic group (UD group) and diabetic group treated with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (DNa group), which did not prevent possible differences where p < 0.01. Adipophilin (ADPH) immunohistochemistry permitted more intense lipid staining in SGs, the preservation of the SG in the control group, and a morphological deformed appearance in the UD and DNa groups. However, weak morphological recovery of the SG was observed in the DS-Na group, being more expressive in the DS group. In conclusion, the groups submitted to physical exercises showed better results in the recovery of the analyzed tissue, even being in the physiological conditions caused by spontaneous diabetes.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#125

 

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Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#126

 

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Description Facebook owned online chatting app WhatsApp is getting a new feature for voice messaging that will let you speed up the voice messages playback.

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#127

 

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Description While cases had been concentrated in Taipei and neighbouring New Taipei, health authorities are now trying to stop an outbreak at two chip packagers in Miaoli, King Yuan and Greatek Electronics, as well as ethernet switch maker Accton Technology Corp.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#128

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#129

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#130

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#131

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#132

 

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Name
Description A team including researchers at Google took a cubic millimetre of a woman's brain, sliced it incredibly thin and scanned it to create the most detailed map yet of the connections within our brain

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#133

 

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Name
Description People who travel to countries with a higher prevalence of antibiotic resistance are unwittingly bringing genes for resistance home in their gut bacteria

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#134

 

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Name
Description UK TINDER users will be able to display a badge on their profile to show if they've had their Covid-19 vaccine.Users of Match, Hinge, Bumble, Badoo, P

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#135

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#136

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#137

 

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Name
Description The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation will now decide whether children should get the jab.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#138

 

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Name
Description When deprived of protein, specialized cells in our gut release a hormone telling our brain to crave food containing essential amino acids.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#139

 

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Name
Description Scientists question the usefulness and validation of a saliva-based genetic test now sold in the United States

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#140

 

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Name
Description Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is essential for the type I interferon response induced by microbial DNA from virus or self-DNA from mitochondria/nuclei. In response to emergence of such DNAs in the cytosol, STING translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi, and activates TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Activated TBK1 then phosphorylates STING at Ser365, generating an interferon regulatory factor 3-docking site on STING. How this reaction proceeds specifically at the TGN remains poorly understood. Here we report a cell-free reaction in which endogenous STING is phosphorylated by TBK1. The reaction utilizes microsomal membrane fraction prepared from TBK1-knockout cells and recombinant TBK1. We observed agonist-, TBK1-, “ER-to-Golgi” traffic-, and palmitoylation-dependent phosphorylation of STING at Ser365, mirroring the nature of STING phosphorylation in vivo. Treating the microsomal membrane fraction with sphingomyelinase or methyl-β-cyclodextrin, an agent to extract cholesterol from membranes, suppressed the phosphorylation of STING by TBK1. Given the enrichment of sphingomyelin and cholesterol in the TGN, these results may provide the molecular basis underlying the specific phosphorylation reaction of STING at the TGN.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#141

 

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Name
Description Recent studies suggested that ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, developed for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, may prevent NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages, IL-1β secretion and subsequent development of inflammation and organ fibrosis. The role of NLRP3 has been underlined in the various causes of acute kidney injury (AKI), a pathology characterized by high morbimortality and risk of transition toward chronic kidney disease (CKD). We therefore hypothesized that the BTK-inhibitor ibrutinib could be a candidate drug for AKI treatment. Here, we observed in both an AKI model (glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis) and a model of rapidly progressive kidney fibrosis (unilateral ureteral obstruction), that ibrutinib did not prevent inflammatory cell recruitment in the kidney and fibrosis. Moreover, ibrutinib pre-exposure led to high mortality rate owing to severer rhabdomyolysis and AKI. In vitro, ibrutinib potentiated or had no effect on the secretion of IL-1β by monocytes exposed to uromodulin or myoglobin, two danger-associated molecule patterns proteins involved in the AKI to CKD transition. According to these results, ibrutinib should not be considered a candidate drug for patients developing AKI.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#142

 

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Name
Description In acute ischemic stroke, the only FDA-approved drug; recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is limited by restricted time-window due to an enhanced risk of hemorrhagic transformation which is thought to be caused by metalloproteinase (MMP). In experimental stroke inhibitors of the mitogen–activated protein kinase kinase extracellular signal–regulated kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2 pathways reduce the MMPs. This study evaluated whether a MEK1/2 inhibitor in combination with rt-PA can prevent the detrimental effects of delayed rt-PA therapy in stroke. Thromboembolic stroke was induced in C57 black/6J mice and the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 was administrated 3.5 h and rt-PA 4 h post stroke-onset. Treatment with rt-PA demonstrated enhanced MMP-9 protein levels and hemorrhagic transformation which was prevented when U0126 was given in conjunction with rt-PA. By blocking the MMP-9 with U0126 the safety of rt-PA administration was improved and demonstrates a promising adjuvant strategy to reduce the harmful effects of delayed rt-PA treatment in acute ischemic stroke.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#143

 

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Name
Description In this paper we sought to develop and assess the reproducibility of an updated 6-point grading system for lumbar foraminal stenosis based on the widely used Lee classification that more accurately describes lumbar foraminal stenosis as seen on high-resolution MRI. Grade A indicates absence of foraminal stenosis. Grades B, C, D and E indicate presence of foraminal stenosis with contact of the nerve root with surrounding anatomical structures (on one, two, three or four sides for B, C, D and E respectively) yet without morphological change of the nerve root. To each grade, a number code indicating the location of contact between the nerve root and surrounding anatomical structure(s) is appended. 1, 2, 3 and 4 indicate contact of the nerve root at superior, posterior, inferior and anterior position of the borders of the lumbar foramen. Grade F indicates presence of foraminal stenosis with morphological change of the nerve root. Three readers graded the lumbar foramina of 101 consecutive patients using high-resolution T2w (and T1w) MR images with a spatial resolution of beyond 0.5 mm3. Interreader agreement was excellent (Cohen’s Kappa = 0.866–1). Importantly, 30.6%/31.6%/32.2% (reader 1/reader 2/ reader 3) of foramina were assigned grades that did not appear in the original Lee grading system (grades B and D). The readers found no foramen that could not be described accurately with the updated grading system. Thus, an updated 6-point grading system for lumbar foraminal stenosis is reproducible and comprehensively describes lumbar foraminal stenosis as seen on high-resolution MRI.

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#144

 

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Name
Description Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic multisystem disorder. Clinicians must be aware of the diverse clinical features of this disorder in order to provide optimal care for it. We have set up an NF1 in-hospital medical care network of specialists regardless of patient age, launching a multidisciplinary approach to the disease for the first time in Japan. From January 2014 to December 2020, 246 patients were enrolled in the NF1 patient list and medical records. Mean age was 26.0 years ranging from 3 months to 80 years. The number of patients was higher as age at first visit was lower. There were 107 males (41%) and 139 females. After 2011, the number of patients has increased since the year when the medical care network was started. Regarding orthopedic signs, scoliosis was present in 60 cases (26%), and bone abnormalities in the upper arm, forearm, and tibia in 8 cases (3.5%). Neurofibromas other than cutaneous neurofibromas were present in 90 cases (39%), and MPNST in 17 cases (7.4%). We launched a multidisciplinary NF1 clinic system for the first time in Japan. For patients with NF1, which is a hereditary and systemic disease associated with a high incidence of malignant tumors, it will be of great benefit when the number of such clinics in Japan and the rest of Asia is increased.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#145

 

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Name
Description NLRP3-associated autoinflammatory disease (NLRP3-AID) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder involving multiple systems. We aim to assess the ocular manifestations of Chinese adult patients with NLRP3-AID. Twelve adult patients (> 18 years old) were diagnosed as NLRP3-AID at the Department of Rheumatology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital. All patients underwent ophthalmologic evaluation by an ophthalmologist. Clinical and genetic features of these patients were collected and compared with those from Caucasian population. A total of 7 NLRP3-AID patients (58%) 14 eyes had ocular manifestations. Five NLRP3 variants were identified, and 3 patients (43%) with severe ocular damages were all found to have the NLRP3 T348M variant. The incidences of papilledema and optic atrophy in the Chinese adult NLRP3-AID patients of moderate type were similar to those in the Caucasian NLRP3-AID patients of severe type. This is the first cohort of Chinese adult NLRP3-AID patients with ocular involvement. Ocular manifestations were diverse and even severe in NLRP3-AID, particularly in patients with the moderate phenotype, and may have relationship with genotypes. Awareness of these manifestations by rheumatologists and ophthalmologists could help to avoid the irreversible ocular damages.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#146

 

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Name
Description To evaluate the clinical impact of preoperative glycemic status upon oncological and functional outcomes after radical prostatectomy in patients with localized prostate cancer, we analyzed the data of 2664 subjects who underwent radical prostatectomy with preoperative measurement of hemoglobin A1c within 6 months before surgery. The possible association between high hemoglobin A1c (≥ 6.5 ng/dL) and oncological/functional outcomes was evaluated. Among all subjects, 449 (16.9%) were categorized as the high hemoglobin A1c group and 2215 (83.1%) as the low hemoglobin A1c group. High hemoglobin A1c was associated with worse pathological outcomes including extra-capsular extension (HR 1.277, 95% CI 1.000–1.630, p = 0.050) and positive surgical margin (HR 1.302, 95% CI 1.012–1.674, p = 0.040) in multi-variate regression tests. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed statistically shorter biochemical recurrence-free survival in the high hemoglobin A1c group (p < 0.001), and subsequent multivariate Cox proportional analyses revealed that high hemoglobin A1c is an independent predictor for shorter BCR-free survival (HR 1.135, 95% CI 1.016–1.267, p = 0.024). Moreover, the high hemoglobin A1c group showed a significantly longer incontinence-free survival than the low hemoglobin A1c group (p = 0.001), and high preoperative hemoglobin A1c was also an independent predictor for longer incontinence-free survival in multivariate Cox analyses (HR 0.929, 95% CI 0.879–0.981, p = 0.008). The high preoperative hemoglobin A1c level was independently associated with worse oncological outcomes and also with inferior recovery of urinary continence after radical prostatectomy.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#147

 

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Name
Description The efficacy and safety of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in treating coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is disputed. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine the efficacy and safety of HCQ in addition to standard of care (SOC) in COVID-19. PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of sciences, and medRxiv were searched up to March 15, 2021. Clinical studies registry databases were also searched for identifying potential clinical trials. The references list of the key studies was reviewed to identify additional relevant resources. The quality of the included studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration tool and Jadad checklist. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan software (version 5.3). Eleven randomized controlled trials with a total number of 8161 patients were identified as eligible for meta-analysis. No significant differences were observed between the two treatment groups in terms of negative rate of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Risk ratio [RR]: 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90, 1.08; P = 0.76), PCR negative conversion time (Mean difference [MD]: − 1.06, 95% CI − 3.10, 0.97; P = 0.30), all-cause mortality (RR: 1.09, 95% CI 1.00, 1.20; P = 0.06), body temperature recovery time (MD: − 0.64, 95% CI − 1.37, 0.10; P = 0.09), length of hospital stay (MD: − 0.17, 95% CI − 0.80, 0.46; P = 0.59), use of mechanical ventilation (RR: 1.12, 95% CI 0.95, 1.32; P = 0.19), and disease progression (RR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.37, 1.85; P = 0.64). However, there was a significant difference between two groups regarding adverse events (RR: 1.81, 95% CI 1.36, 2.42; P < 0.05). The findings suggest that the addition of HCQ to SOC has no benefit in the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Additionally, it is associated with more adverse events.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#148

 

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Description Clonal hematopoiesis can exist as both a driver and a consequence of inflammatory dysregulation.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#149

 

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Description In this instalment of Career pathways, Kivanç Birsoy and Sarah Lessard recount their roads to scientific research and reflect on how each step in their training prepared them for life as a group leader.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#150

 

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Description Human cervical organoids mimic dynamics of cancer and sexually transmitted infections.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#151

 

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Description The role of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in cancer is currently under substantial scrutiny. New data show that ILC2s producing the proinflammatory cytokine GM-CSF coordinate eosinophils’ recruitment and activation to enhance antitumor responses

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#152

 

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Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#153

 

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Description The Indian Space Research Organisation has developed three types of ventilators, and has come forward to transfer the technology to industry forclinical usage as the country battles the second wave of Covid-19 pandemic.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#154

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#155

 

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Description A leading Taiwanese chip testing and packaging company said Monday that all its migrant employees have been suspended from working for around two weeks to contain a coronavirus outbreak.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#156

 

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Description The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#157

 

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Description Bones found in western Iran capture transition from wild to domestic

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#158

 

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Description Pfizer declined to participate in a study involving HIV-infected people and pregnant women and Moderna is balking

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#159

 

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Name
Description FDA breaks from advisers to clear Aduhelm based on reduction of toxic brain plaques

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#160

 

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Description Lipidomics research could provide insights of pathobiological mechanisms in Alzheimer’s disease. This study explores a battery of plasma lipids that can differentiate Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients from healthy controls and determines whether lipid profiles correlate with genetic risk for AD. AD plasma samples were collected from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (MAS) Sydney, Australia (aged range 75–97 years; 51.2% male). Untargeted lipidomics analysis was performed by liquid chromatography coupled–mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). We found that several lipid species from nine lipid classes, particularly sphingomyelins (SMs), cholesterol esters (ChEs), phosphatidylcholines (PCs), phosphatidylethanolamines (PIs), phosphatidylinositols (PIs), and triglycerides (TGs) are dysregulated in AD patients and may help discriminate them from healthy controls. However, when the lipid species were grouped together into lipid subgroups, only the DG group was significantly higher in AD. ChEs, SMs, and TGs resulted in good classification accuracy using the Glmnet algorithm (elastic net penalization for the generalized linear model [glm]) with more than 80% AUC. In general, group lipids and the lipid subclasses LPC and PE had less classification accuracy compared to the other subclasses. We also found significant increases in SMs, PIs, and the LPE/PE ratio in human U251 astroglioma cell lines exposed to pathophysiological concentrations of oligomeric Aβ42. This suggests that oligomeric Aβ42 plays a contributory, if not causal role, in mediating changes in lipid profiles in AD that can be detected in the periphery. In addition, we evaluated the association of plasma lipid profiles with AD-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and polygenic risk scores (PRS) of AD. We found that FERMT2 and MS4A6A showed a significantly differential association with lipids in all lipid classes across disease and control groups. ABCA7 had a differential association with more than half of the DG lipids (52.63%) and PI lipids (57.14%), respectively. Additionally, 43.4% of lipids in the SM class were differentially associated with CLU. More than 30% of lipids in ChE, PE, and TG classes had differential associations with separate genes (ChE-PICALM, SLC24A4, and SORL1; PE-CLU and CR1; TG-BINI) between AD and control group. These data may provide renewed insights into the pathobiology of AD and the feasibility of identifying individuals with greater AD risk.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#161

 

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Description With cybercriminal activity on the rise, protect your devices against spam, phishing, malware, and identity theft with the best antivirus software.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 June 2021

#162

 

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Description India Today Tech got a chance to speak to Kushagra Agarwal, who has designed a few apps. He tells us how a simple colour picking and identifying mobile app is able to make such a big difference for those who need it. From SwiftUI to mindfulness and excitement around WWDC 2021, here's an interesting story of an app developer.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 June 2021

#163

 

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Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 June 2021

#164

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 June 2021

#165

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 June 2021

#166

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 June 2021

#167

 

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Description The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 June 2021

#168

 

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Description The discovery of an asymmetric growth at Earth’s centre is posing new questions about how the planet generated its magnetic protection.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 June 2021

#169

 

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Description Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and their crosstalks with other RNAs have been revealed to be closely related to tumorigenesis and development, but their role in invasive pituitary adenoma (IPA) remains largely unclear. In our study, LINC00473 was identified as the most upregulated lncRNA in IPA by whole transcriptome RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Further, its related signaling pathway LINC00473/miR-502-3p/KMT5A was obtained by constructing a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory network. Their expression in IPA and non-invasive pituitary adenoma (NIPA) tissues was verified by qRT-PCR. Then the effects and mechanisms of LINC00473 and its ceRNA network on the proliferation of pituitary adenoma (PA) cells were confirmed by gene overexpression or silencing techniques combined with CCK-8 assay, EdU staining, flow cytometry assay, and double luciferase reporter gene assay in PA cell lines AtT-20 and GT1-1 in vitro and in a xenograft model in vivo. LINC00473 is overexpressed in IPA and can promote PA cells proliferation. Mechanistically, overexpression of LINC00473 restricts miR-502-3p through the ceRNA mechanism, upregulates KMT5A expression, and promotes the expression of cyclin D1 and CDK2, which is conducive to the cell cycle process, thereby promoting the proliferation of PA cells, involving IPA progression.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 June 2021

#170

 

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Description Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurological and neurodevelopmental childhood-onset disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of inattentiveness, impulsiveness, restlessness, and hyperactivity. These symptoms may continue in 55–66% of cases from childhood into adulthood. Even though the precise etiology of ADHD is not fully understood, it is considered as a multifactorial and heterogeneous disorder with several contributing factors such as heritability, auxiliary to neurodevelopmental issues, severe brain injuries, neuroinflammation, consanguineous marriages, premature birth, and exposure to environmental toxins. Neuroimaging and neurodevelopmental assessments may help to explore the possible role of genetic variations on ADHD neuropsychobiology. Multiple genetic studies have observed a strong genetic association with various aspects of neuropsychobiological functions, including neural abnormalities and delayed neurodevelopment in ADHD. The advancement in neuroimaging and molecular genomics offers the opportunity to analyze the impact of genetic variations alongside its dysregulated pathways on structural and functional derived brain imaging phenotypes in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including ADHD. Recently, neuroimaging genomic studies observed a significant association of brain imaging phenotypes with genetic susceptibility in ADHD. Integrating the neuroimaging-derived phenotypes with genomics deciphers various neurobiological pathways that can be leveraged for the development of novel clinical biomarkers, new treatment modalities as well as therapeutic interventions for ADHD patients. In this review, we discuss the neurobiology of ADHD with particular emphasis on structural and functional changes in the ADHD brain and their interactions with complex genomic variations utilizing imaging genetics methodologies. We also highlight the genetic variants supposedly allied with the development of ADHD and how these, in turn, may affect the brain circuit function and related behaviors. In addition to reviewing imaging genetic studies, we also examine the need for complementary approaches at various levels of biological complexity and emphasize the importance of combining and integrating results to explore biological pathways involved in ADHD disorder. These approaches include animal models, computational biology, bioinformatics analyses, and multimodal imaging genetics studies.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 June 2021

#171

 

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Description There may be sex differences in BMI and blood pressure levels in school-age children, especially in the face of lifestyle changes. This study aimed to explore sex differences in changes in BMI and blood pressure in Chinese school-aged children during the COVID-19 quarantine. The cohort study of 445 school-aged children examined the change of BMI and blood pressure during the five-month quarantine. Multivariable Cox regression models were created to identify potential predictors of overweight, obesity, and elevated blood pressure (EBP). During the COVID-19 quarantine, the proportion of boys with overweight and obesity increased (P = 0.036), and the proportion of both boys and girls with Pre-EBP and EBP increased (P = 0.004 in boys; P < 0.001 in girls). The multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the setting, eating chili, parents’ perception of their child’s size and family doting were associated with overweight, obesity, and EBP. The study showed that BMI was more likely to increase in boys, and blood pressure increased in both boys and girls during the COVID-19 quarantine.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 June 2021

#172

 

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Description Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) is involved in glycolytic and various metabolic events. Dysfunction of PGK may induce metabolic reprogramming and the Warburg effect. In this study, we demonstrated that PGK1, but not PGK2, may play a key role in tumorigenesis and is associated with metastasis. We observed an inverse correlation between PGK1 and the survival rate in several clinical cohorts through bioinformatics statistical and immunohistochemical staining analyses. Surprisingly, we found that PGK1 was significantly increased in adenocarcinoma compared with other subtypes. Thus, we established a PGK1-based proteomics dataset by a pull-down assay. We further investigated HIV-1 Tat Specific Factor 1 (HTATSF1), a potential binding partner, through protein–protein interactions. Then, we confirmed that PGK1 indeed bound to HTATSF1 by two-way immunoprecipitation experiments. In addition, we generated several mutant clones of PGK1 through site-directed mutagenesis, including mutagenesis of the N-terminal region, the enzyme catalytic domain, and the C-terminal region. We observed that even though the phosphoglycerate kinase activity had been inhibited, the migration ability induced by PGK1 was maintained. Moreover, our immunofluorescence staining also indicated the translocation of PGK1 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and its colocalization with HTATSF1. From the results presented in this study, we propose a novel model in which the PGK1 binds to HTATSF1 and exerts functional control of cancer metastasis. In addition, we also showed a nonenzymatic function of PGK1.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 June 2021

#173

 

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Description Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a quick-acting and powerful antidepressant treatment considered to be effective in treating severe and pharmacotherapy-resistant forms of depression. Recent studies have suggested that epigenetic mechanisms can mediate treatment response and investigations about the relationship between the effects of ECT and DNA methylation have so far largely taken candidate approaches. In the present study, we examined the effects of ECT on the methylome associated with response in depressed patients (n = 34), testing for differentially methylated CpG sites before the first and after the last ECT treatment. We identified one differentially methylated CpG site associated with the effect of ECT response (defined as >50% decrease in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score, HDRS), TNKS (q < 0.05; p = 7.15 × 10−8). When defining response continuously (ΔHDRS), the top suggestive differentially methylated CpG site was in FKBP5 (p = 3.94 × 10−7). Regional analyses identified two differentially methylated regions on chromosomes 8 (Šídák’s p = 0.0031) and 20 (Šídák’s p = 4.2 × 10−5) associated with ΔHDRS. Functional pathway analysis did not identify any significant pathways. A confirmatory look at candidates previously proposed to be involved in ECT mechanisms found CpG sites associated with response only at the nominally significant level (p < 0.05). Despite the limited sample size, the present study was able to identify epigenetic change associated with ECT response suggesting that this approach, especially when involving larger samples, has the potential to inform the study of mechanisms involved in ECT and severe and treatment-resistant depression.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 June 2021

#174

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 June 2021

#175

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 June 2021

#176

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 June 2021

#177

 

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Description Experts are investigating after the computer systems of two central Florida hospitals showed signs of unusual activity, an official said.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 June 2021

#178

 

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Description Ashton Gallagher, an Illinois-based artist, has created life-like paintings of Universal Monsters and other iconic pop-culture characters. His third mini-portraits show at Gallery 1988 in Los Angeles was almost sold out in a matter of hours.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 June 2021

#179

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 June 2021

#180

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 June 2021

#181

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 June 2021

#182

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 June 2021