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#1

 

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Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 11 April 2021

#2

 

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Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 11 April 2021

#3

 

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Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 11 April 2021

#4

 

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Description Uber and Lyft are spending millions of dollars to provide drivers with access to COVID-19 vaccines and offering free or discounted rides to vaccination sites for customers in a bid to increase engagement on their platforms.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 April 2021

#5

 

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Description Facebook has announced that it’s converting a part of its Menlo Park headquarters into a vaccination site to help government speed up the vaccination drive in the US.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 April 2021

#6

 

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#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 April 2021

#7

 

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Description Biotech startup Vaccitech Plc, which owns the technology behind the COVID-19 vaccine developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca Plc, filed for a US initial public offering.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 April 2021

#8

 

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Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 April 2021

#9

 

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Description Nearly 4 in 5 dog owners report instances of jealousy from their pooches, and new research suggests those behaviors can be triggered even if a supposed rival for affection and attention is out of sight.

#Medicine & Human body;#Psychology
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 April 2021

#10

 

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Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 April 2021

#11

 

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Description After COVID-19 fears about contamination slowed electric scooter rentals it's time to re-evaluate sharing the devices instead of buying your own e-scooter.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 April 2021

#12

 

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Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 April 2021

#13

 

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Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 April 2021

#14

 

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Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 April 2021

#15

 

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#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 10 April 2021

#16

 

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Description The narrator in the video explains that this 9-year-old macaque monkey, Pager, had a Neuralink implanted about six weeks before the video was shot.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#17

 

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Description Just 20 percent of Johnson & Johnson's Covid-19 vaccine will be delivered next week as New Jersey pharma giant wrestles with manufacturing issues

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#18

 

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Description PD-L1 expression is the most useful predictive biomarker for immunotherapy efficacy on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (CD8+ TILs) play an essential role in the clinical activity of immunotherapy. PD-L1 is found on the exosome’s surface, and PD-L1 expressing exosomes can inhibit antitumor immune responses. This study aimed to analyze tumor PD-L1 expression, serum exosomal PD-L1, and CD8+ TILs to investigate anti-PD-1 response and clinicopathological outcomes in NSCLC. One hundred twenty patients with stage I–III NSCLC were enrolled, and serum samples collected during the initial surgery were pooled. The Human CD274/PD-L1 ELISA kit was used to quantify the exosomal PD-L1. Exosomal PD-L1 levels were significantly correlated with tumor PD-L1 levels (p < 0.001) and the number of CD8+ TILs (p = 0.001). Patients with exosomal PD-L1 ≥ 166 pg/mL tended to have a worse RFS than those with < 166 pg/mL in all stage (p = 0.163) and stage I patients (p = 0.116). Seventeen patients exhibited postoperative recurrences and received anti-PD-1 treatment. The disease control rate of patients with exosomal PD-L1 ≥ 166 pg/mL was 100%. The measurement of serum exosomal PD-L1 as a quantitative factor with tumor PD-L1 status may help predict anti-PD-1 response and clinical outcomes in patients with NSCLC.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#19

 

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Description A major complication with spinal cord injury (SCI) is the development of spasticity, a clinical symptom of hyperexcitability within the spinal H-reflex pathway. We have previously demonstrated a common structural motif of dendritic spine dysgenesis associated with hyperexcitability disorders after injury or disease insults to the CNS. Here, we used an adeno-associated viral (AAV)-mediated Cre-Lox system to knockout Rac1 protein expression in motor neurons after SCI. Three weeks after AAV9-Cre delivery into the soleus/gastrocnemius of Rac1-“floxed” adult mice to retrogradely infect spinal alpha-motor neurons, we observed significant restoration of RDD and reduced H-reflex excitability in SCI animals. Additionally, viral-mediated Rac1 knockdown reduced presence of dendritic spine dysgenesis on motor neurons. In control SCI animals without Rac1 knockout, we continued to observe abnormal dendritic spine morphology associated with hyperexcitability disorder, including an increase in mature, mushroom dendritic spines, and an increase in overall spine length and spine head size. Taken together, our results demonstrate that viral-mediated disruption of Rac1 expression in ventral horn motor neurons can mitigate dendritic spine morphological correlates of neuronal hyperexcitability, and reverse hyperreflexia associated with spasticity after SCI. Finally, our findings provide evidence of a putative mechanistic relationship between motor neuron dendritic spine dysgenesis and SCI-induced spasticity.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#20

 

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Description The aim of this study was to provide definitive reference values for bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers in the general elderly population. Registered citizens of 50 to 89 years old were targeted for this survey. After random sampling from the resident registry of Obuse town, we established eight groups based on age (50 s, 60 s, 70 s, and 80 s) and gender. A total of 411 people were enrolled. We used a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry device to measure and evaluate BMD. The bone formation marker bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was measured as a bone turnover marker. Bone quality marker pentosidine, and bone resorption markers including urinary total deoxypyridinoline (DPD), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), and whole parathyroid hormone (PTH) were also measured as bone turnover markers. Sixty-three people (15.3%) were diagnosed as osteoporosis. BMD decreased with age in the femoral neck and total hip. On the other hand, there was no characteristic change with age in the lumber spine. As for bone markers, pentosidine and DPD increased with aging, although 25(OH)D, whole PTH, and BAP showed no characteristic associations with gender and aging. In terms of the relationship between low BMD and bone markers, there was a significant independent association between low BMD and TRACP-5b in females. In conclusions, hip BMD decreased with aging in men and women. However, there was no characteristic decline with aging in the lumbar spine. All bone markers showed no significant independent characteristics associated with age or gender in a multivariate analysis model, except for a significant association between low BMD and TRACP-5b in females. TRACP-5b was a potentially useful marker for the detection of low BMD.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#21

 

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Description After traumatic brain injury (TBI), an inflammatory response in the brain might affect the immune system. The risk of pulmonary infection reportedly increases in patients with TBI. We aimed to evaluate the risk of tuberculosis (TB) in patients with TBI in Taiwan. All participants were selected from the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients with TBI were defined as patients in ICU with intracranial injury, and comparison cohort were patients in ICU without TBI diagnosis. There was a significant difference in TB risk between the patients with TBI and the comparison cohort according to age and the Charlson’s comorbidity index (CCI) score. Thus, we divided patients based on CCI into three groups for further analysis: mild (CCI = 0), moderate (CCI = 1/2), severe (CCI > 2). Mild-CCI group had a lower TB incidence rate (0.74%) and longer time to TB development (median: 2.43) than the other two groups. Moderate-CCI group had 1.52-fold increased risk of TB infection (p < 0.0001) compared with mild-CCI group. In the severe-CCI group, patients aged ≥ 80 years had 1.91-fold risk of TB compared with mild-CCI group (p = 0.0481). Severe-CCI group had significantly higher mortality than the mild-CCI group (p = 0.0366). Patients with TBI and more comorbidities had higher risk of TB infection with higher mortality rate.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#22

 

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Description Both endovascular repair (EVR) and open repair (OR) surgery of thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms cause spinal cord (SC) injury that can lead to paraparesis or paraplegia. It has been assumed that mechanisms responsible for SC damage after EVR are similar to those after OR. This pilot study compared the pathophysiology of SC injury after EVR versus OR using a newly developed EVR dog model. An increasing number of stents similar to those used in patients were inserted in the aorta of three dogs to ensure thoracic or thoracic plus lumbar coverage. The aorta of OR dogs was cross-clamped for 45 min. Behavior assessment demonstrated unique patterns of proprioceptive ataxia and evolving paraparesis in EVR versus irreversible paraplegia in OR. MRI showed posterior signal in lumbar SC after EVR versus central cord edema after OR. Histopathology showed white matter edema in L3–L5 localized to the dorsal column medial lemniscus area associated with loss of myelin basic protein but not neurons after EVR, versus massive neuronal loss in the gray matter in L3–L5 after OR. Metabolome analysis demonstrates a distinctive chemical fingerprint of cellular processes in both interventions. Our results call for the development of new therapeutics tailored to these distinct pathophysiologic findings.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#23

 

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Description Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a fetal adverse condition, ascribed by limited oxygen and nutrient supply from the mother to the fetus. Management of IUGR is an ongoing challenge because of its connection with increased fetal mortality, preterm delivery and postnatal pathologies. Untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) metabolomics was applied in 84 umbilical cord blood and maternal blood samples obtained from 48 IUGR and 36 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) deliveries. Orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) followed by pathway and enrichment analysis generated classification models and revealed significant metabolites that were associated with altered pathways. A clear association between maternal and cord blood altered metabolomic profile was evidenced in IUGR pregnancies. Increased levels of the amino acids alanine, leucine, valine, isoleucine and phenylalanine were prominent in IUGR pregnancies indicating a connection with impaired amino acid metabolism and transplacental flux. Tryptophan was individually connected with cord blood discrimination while 3-hydroxybutyrate assisted only maternal blood discrimination. Lower glycerol levels in IUGR samples ascribed to imbalance between gluconeogenesis and glycolysis pathways, suggesting poor glycolysis. The elevated levels of branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine) in intrauterine growth restricted pregnancies were linked with increased insulin resistance.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#24

 

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Description Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a type of hemorrhagic stroke that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. New effective treatments are needed to improve outcomes. The pathophysiology of SAH is complex and includes early brain injury and delayed cerebral ischemia, both of which are characterized by blood–brain barrier (BBB) impairment. We isolated brain endothelial cells (BECs) from mice subjected to SAH by injection of blood into the prechiasmatic cistern. We used gene expression profiling to identify 707 unique genes (2.8% of transcripts, 403 upregulated, 304 downregulated, 24,865 interrogated probe sets) that were significantly differentially expressed in mouse BECs after SAH. The pathway involving prostaglandin synthesis and regulation was significantly upregulated after SAH, including increased expression of the Ptgs2 gene and its corresponding COX-2 protein. Celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, limited upregulation of Ptgs2 in BECs. In this study, we have defined the gene expression profiling of BECs after experimental SAH and provide further insight into BBB pathophysiology, which may be relevant to other neurological diseases such as traumatic brain injury, brain tumours, ischaemic stroke, multiple sclerosis, and neurodegenerative disorders.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#25

 

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Description Hybrid lethality is a type of reproductive isolation in which hybrids die before maturation, due to the interaction between the two causative genes derived from each of the hybrid parents. The interspecific hybrid of Nicotiana suaveolens × Nicotiana tabacum is a model plant used in studies on hybrid lethality. While most of the progeny produced from such a cross die, some individuals grow normally and mature. Separately, a technique for producing mature hybrids by artificial culture has been developed. However, the mechanism by which hybrids overcome lethality, either spontaneously or by artificial culture, remains unclear. In the present study, we found that some hybrids that overcome lethality, either spontaneously or by artificial culture, lack the distal part of the Q chromosome, a region that includes the gene responsible for lethality. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results suggested that the distal deletion of the Q chromosome, detected in some hybrid seedlings that overcome lethality, is caused by reciprocal translocations between homoeologous chromosomes. The results showed that chromosomal instability during meiosis in amphidiploid N. tabacum as well as during artificial culturing of hybrid seedlings is involved in overcoming hybrid lethality in interspecific crosses of the genus Nicotiana.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#26

 

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Description Thrombin plays a central role in sepsis pathophysiology. The correlation of thrombin generation (TG) assays with infection severity and prognosis, and whether it can be used as a clinical tool, have been poorly explored and are the subjects of our research. We recruited 130 patients with systemic infection between 2016 and 2019. Patients were divided according to infection severity by using the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) and quickSOFA (qSOFA) scores. The hemostatic state was analyzed by Calibrated Automated Thrombogram. The primary end points were TG values and the secondary end point was in-hospital mortality. Patients with qSOFA ≥ 2 had a longer lag time (5.6 vs. 4.6 min) and time to peak (8 vs. 6.9 min) than those with lower scores (p = 0.014 and 0.01, respectively). SOFA ≥ 2 had a longer lag time (5.2 vs. 4.3 min), time to peak (7.5 vs. 6.7 min) and lower endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) (1834 vs. 2015 nM*min), p = 0.008, 0.019, and 0.048, respectively. Patients who died (11) had lower ETP (1648 vs. 1928 nM*min) and peak height (284 vs. 345 nM), p = 0.034 and 0.012, respectively. In conclusion TG assays may be a valuable tool in predicting infection severity and prognosis.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#27

 

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Description We aimed to investigate the role of the APOE genotype in cognitive and motor trajectories in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Using PD registry data, we retrospectively investigated a total of 253 patients with PD who underwent the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) two or more times at least 5 years apart, were aged over 40 years, and free of dementia at the time of enrollment. We performed group-based trajectory modeling to identify patterns of cognitive change using the MMSE. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was used to investigate the role of the APOE genotype in cognitive and motor progression. Trajectory analysis divided patients into four groups: early fast decline, fast decline, gradual decline, and stable groups with annual MMSE scores decline of − 2.8, − 1.8, − 0.6, and − 0.1 points per year, respectively. The frequency of APOE ε4 was higher in patients in the early fast decline and fast decline groups (50.0%) than those in the stable group (20.1%) (p = 0.007). APOE ε4, in addition to older age at onset, depressive mood, and higher H&Y stage, was associated with the cognitive decline rate, but no APOE genotype was associated with motor progression. APOE genotype could be used to predict the cognitive trajectory in PD.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#28

 

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Description Blastocystis sp. infection, although many remain asymptomatic, there is growing data in recent studies that suggests it is a frequent cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in children and adults. This proposes that treatment against this infection is necessary however metronidazole (MTZ), which is the current choice of treatment, has expressed non-uniformity in its efficacy in combating this infection which has led to the study of alternative treatment. In our previous study, it was established that Tongkat Ali fractions exhibited promising anti-protozoal properties which leads to the current aim of the study, to further narrow down the purification process in order to identify the specific active compound promoting the anti-protozoal effect through HPLC analysis. Based on the data analysis and in-vitro susceptibility assay, the collected Tongkat Ali fraction that demonstrated anti-blastocystis property was shown to contain eurycomanone. Previous studies have suggested that there is a mechanism in Blastocystis sp. that regulates the apoptotic process to produce higher number of viable cells when treated. In reference to this, our current study also aims to investigate the apoptotic response of Tongkat Ali extract and eurycomanone across different subtype groups with comparison to MTZ. Based on our investigation, both Tongkat Ali extract and eurycomanone induced the high apoptotic rate however exhibited a reduction in viable cell count (p < 0.05) when compared to MTZ. This study suggests that there is potential in developing a standardized treatment regardless of subtype variations which makes Tongkat Ali extract a promising anti-protozoal treatment against all Blastocystis sp. subtype groups.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#29

 

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Description High plain water intake (PWI) lowered body weight, reduced total energy intake, and increased fat oxidation and energy consumption. Because such factors are closely linked to metabolic disorders, which are the main risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) onset, it was speculated that higher PWI was associated with a lower risk of NAFLD. However, no prior human studies have examined such relationship. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PWI and newly diagnosed NAFLD in a large-scale adult population. A total of 16,434 participants from 2010 to 2019 in Tianjin, China, were included in this cross-sectional study. PWI was assessed by using a validated self-administered food frequency questionnaire, and it was categorized into three subgroups for analysis: ≤3 cups/day, 4–7 cups/day, and >7 cups/day. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relationship between PWI and NAFLD. Among 16,434 participants, 20.5% (3,364) had newly diagnosed NAFLD. After controlling for demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, and dietary intake, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for having NAFLD across PWI categories were 1.00 (reference) for ≤3 cups/day, 0.84 (0.72, 0.97) for 4–7 cups/day, and 0.77 (0.63, 0.94) for >7 cups/day in males and 1.00 (reference) for ≤3 cups/day, 1.02 (0.81, 1.27) for 4–7 cups/day, and 1.08 (0.78, 1.49) for >7 cups/day in females, respectively. This study is the first to show that higher PWI is independently related to lower newly diagnosed NAFLD among males, but not females. Further studies are needed to explore the causal relationship.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#30

 

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#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#31

 

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Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#32

 

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Description The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#33

 

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Description It's good to be vigilant about potential COVID scams. But governments and companies are relying on digital communications to send digital vaccine records.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#34

 

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Description Modern brains are younger than originally thought, possibly developing as recently as 1.5 million years ago, according to a study published Thursday - after the earliest humans had already begun walking on two feet and had even started fanning out

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#35

 

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Description Some advocates worry about locating new entity at the National Institutes of Health

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#36

 

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Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#37

 

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Description While the advent of GWAS more than a decade ago has ushered in remarkable advances in our understanding of complex traits, the limitations of single-SNP analysis have also led to the development of several other approaches. Simulation studies have shown that the regional heritability mapping (RHM) method, which makes use of multiple adjacent SNPs jointly to estimate the genetic effect of a given region of the genome, generally has higher detection power than single-SNP GWAS. However, thus far its use has been mostly limited to agricultural settings, and its potential for the discovery of new genes in human diseases is yet to be fully exploited. In this study, by applying the RHM method to primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) in the Japanese population, we identified three novel loci (STAT4, ULK4, and KCNH5) at the genome-wide significance level, two of which (ULK4 and KCNH5) have not been found associated with PBC in any population previously. Notably, these genes could not be detected by using conventional single-SNP GWAS, highlighting the potential of the RHM method for the detection of new susceptibility loci in human diseases. These findings thereby provide strong empirical evidence that RHM is an effective and practical complementary approach to GWAS in this context. Also, liver tissue mRNA microarray analysis revealed higher gene expression levels in ULK4 in PBC patients (P < 0.01). Lastly, we estimated the common SNP heritability of PBC in the Japanese population (0.210 ± 0.026).

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#38

 

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Description Oncogenic KRAS has been previously identified to act in a cell-intrinsic manner to modulate multiple biological functions of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we demonstrate a cell-extrinsic role of KRAS, where KRAS engages with the tumor microenvironment by functional reprogramming of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). In human CRC specimens, mutant KRAS positively correlates with the presence of TAMs. Mutationally activated KRAS in tumor cells reprograms macrophages to a TAM-like phenotype via a combination effect of tumor-derived CSF2 and lactate. In turn, KRAS-reprogrammed macrophages were shown to not only promote tumor progression but also induce the resistance of tumor cells to cetuximab therapy. Mechanistically, KRAS drives the production of CSF2 and lactate in tumor cells by stabilizing hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), a transcription factor that controls the expression of CSF2 and glycolytic genes. Mutant KRAS increased the production of reactive oxygen species, an inhibitor of prolyl hydroxylase activity which decreases HIF-1α hydroxylation, leading to enhanced HIF-1α stabilization. This cell-extrinsic mechanism awards KRAS a critical role in engineering a permissive microenvironment to promote tumor malignancy, and may present new insights on potential therapeutic defense strategies against mutant KRAS tumors.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#39

 

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Description YouTube pulls Florida governor's video, says his panel spread Covid-19 misinformation. Supporter cries censorship.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#40

 

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Description Pfizer requested that the FDA authorize its Covid-19 vaccine for children and teens ages 12 to 15. The vaccine is currently available for people ages 16 and up.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#41

 

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Description Russia now says it wants its vaccine back from Slovakia.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#42

 

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Description The BJU International paper by van de Grift and colleagues includes important data outlining the long-term cosmetic and functional outcomes for masculinizing surgery in patients born with differences in sex development. This overview highlights some of the important findings and their context in what can be a controversial subject.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#43

 

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Description The currently licensed mRNA vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 can elicit cross-neutralizing antibodies against B.1.351 variants of the virus, but are less potent against these variants.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#44

 

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Description Backing up his initial claim from 2019, Elon Musk's Neuralink shows off what it claims is a monkey playing "Pong" using only a brain implant as controller.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#45

 

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Description Facebook, Instagram, and WhatsApp were down for thousands of users across the globe on Thursday night.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#46

 

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Description Facebook is launching an effort to get more Americans vaccinated against COVID-19, including converting part of its Menlo Park, Calif., headquarters into a vaccination site.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#47

 

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Description The full neuroscience behind the fear of hole clusters. Find out how many people are trypophobes, and the main theories behind the mental disorder.

#Medicine & Human body;#Psychology
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#48

 

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Description A sweeping meta-analysis of data from the United Kingdom Biobank has found a different genetic basis for chronic pain in women compared to men.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#49

 

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Description First real-world data estimate Chinese vaccine is 50% effective in city where P.1 variant is widespread

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#50

 

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Description The fetus was probably the grandson of 17th-century Swedish Bishop Peder Winstrup.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#51

 

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#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#52

 

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Description Folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 have been associated with digestive system cancers. We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomisation study to assess the causality of these associations. Two, one and 14 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with serum folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 at the genome-wide significance threshold were selected as genetic instruments. Summary-level data for the associations of the vitamin-associated genetic variants with cancer were obtained from the UK Biobank study including 367,561 individuals and FinnGen consortium comprising up to 176,899 participants. Genetically predicted folate and vitamin B6 concentrations were not associated with overall cancer, overall digestive system cancer or oesophageal, gastric, colorectal or pancreatic cancer. Genetically predicted vitamin B12 concentrations were positively associated with overall digestive system cancer (ORSD, 1.12; 95% CI 1.04, 1.21, p = 0.003) and colorectal cancer (ORSD 1.16; 95% CI 1.06, 1.26, p = 0.001) in UK Biobank. Results for colorectal cancer were consistent in FinnGen and the combined ORSD was 1.16 (95% CI 1.08, 1.25, p < 0.001). There was no association of genetically predicted vitamin B12 with any other site-specific digestive system cancers or overall cancer. These results provide evidence to suggest that elevated serum vitamin B12 concentrations are associated with colorectal cancer.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#53

 

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Description Retrospective case series. To compare individuals with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) submitted to transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation (TEDS) or a standard weaning protocol (SWP) according to the following variables: invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) time, ventilator weaning time, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, and overall hospital length of stay. Tertiary university hospital. Clinical Hospital of Campinas State University—UNICAMP—Campinas (SP), Brazil. Retrospective case study investigating ICU patients submitted to tracheostomy due to cervical SCI at a tertiary university hospital (Clinical Hospital of Campinas State University, Brazil). Data were extracted from medical records of patients seen between January 2007 and December 2016. According to medical records, four patients were submitted to TEDS and six to a SWP. Provision of training to patients in the TEDS group was based on consensus medical decision, preference of the physical therapy team and availability of electrostimulation equipment in the ICU. Total IMV time in the TEDS and the SWP group was 33 ± 15 and 60 ± 22 days, respectively. Length of stay in ICU in the TEDS and the SWP group was 31 ± 18 and 63 ± 45 days, respectively. TEDS appears to influence the duration of IMV as well as the length of stay in ICU. This physiotherapeutic intervention may be a potentially promising tool for treatment of patients with SCI. However, randomized clinical trials are warranted to support this assumption.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#54

 

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Description This is a qualitative, phenomenological study. To investigate media portrayal of spinal cord injury (SCI) as perceived by people with SCI and explore its impact on their lived experience. People with SCI living in Australia. Twenty-four participants, recruited using purposive and snowball sampling, completed in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Thematic data analysis followed an inductive, iterative process. Participants perceived media portrayed SCI through a narrow lens, describing how people with SCI were ‘absent’ or portrayed as either ‘pity or pedestal’. Participants said media portrayed an inaccurate picture of their lived experience that perpetuated misunderstandings of SCI. This portrayal fostered unreasonable public expectations and assumptions about living with SCI, which presented in the participant’s lives as uncomfortable interactions and inappropriate remarks. The impact for participants was a burden to explain SCI and justify what it meant for them. People with SCI would like media to portray a broader, more authentic representation of SCI to improve public understanding and to reduce the negative impact on their lives. People with SCI perceived a narrow and inaccurate portrayal of SCI in media that overlooked potential quality of life, overshadowed health and life domains they considered important and reinforced the idea that SCI can be overcome. People with SCI were mostly concerned with what was absent in media portrayal of SCI rather than what was present. Action for change lies in promoting information, expanding narratives and raising awareness to diverse abilities of people with SCI.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#55

 

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#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#58

 

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Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 09 April 2021

#59

 

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Description Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is one of the most important differential diagnosis in patients with thunderclap headache (TCH). We aimed to develop a new scoring system for RCVS in patients with TCH. We retrospectively analyzed 72 patients enrolled in the prospective study of TCH conducted in 2015–2016 (derivation set). We identified possible predictors for the diagnosis of RCVS and constructed a prediction model (RCVS–TCH score) using the multivariable logistic regression model. Diagnostic performance was validated to an independent validation set from our headache registry. The derivation set comprised 41 patients with RCVS and 31 with non-RCVS, and the validation set included 253 patients with TCH (165 with RCVS and 88 with non-RCVS). The RCVS–TCH score (range: 0–12) contained four predictors: recurrent TCHs, female sex, triggering factor for TCH (single or multi) and blood pressure surge. The C-index of RCVS–TCH score was 0.929 (95% CI = 0.874–0.984). The RCVS–TCH score ≥ 7 had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 97% in discriminating RCVS from non-RCVS. In the validation set, RCVS–TCH score showed a C-index of 0.861 (95% CI = 0.815–0.908). In our study, the RCVS–TCH showed good performance, which may aid the diagnosis of RCVS among patients with TCH.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#60

 

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Description Evidence indicates that glucose variation (GV) plays an important role in mortality of critically ill patients. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the coefficient of variation of 24-h venous blood glucose (24-hVBGCV) and mortality among patients with acute respiratory failure. The records of 1625 patients in the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC II) database were extracted. The 24-hVBGCV was calculated as the ratio of the standard deviation (SD) to the mean venous blood glucose level, expressed as a percentage. The outcomes included ICU mortality and in-hospital mortality. Participants were divided into three subgroups based on tertiles of 24-hVBGCV. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between 24-hVBGCV and mortality. Sensitivity analyses were also performed in groups of patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Taking the lowest tertile as a reference, after adjustment for all the covariates, the highest tertile was significantly associated with ICU mortality [odds ratio (OR), 1.353; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.018–1.797] and in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.319; 95% CI, 1.003–1.735), especially in the population without diabetes. The 24-hVBGCV may be associated with ICU and in-hospital mortality in patients with acute respiratory failure in the ICU, especially in those without diabetes.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#61

 

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Description The razor clam Sinonovacula constricta is a commercially important bivalve in Japan. The current distribution of this species in Japan is limited to Ariake Bay, where the fishery stock is declining. It is necessary to understand the genetic population structure of this species in order to restore the fishery stock while preserving the genetic diversity of the clam. Here, we report for the first time the genetic population structure of S. constricta in Ariake Bay, Japan. Paired-end restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) analyzed samples of S. constricta collected from seven mudflats located along Ariake Bay. Two different genetic populations exist in Ariake Bay, one inhabiting wild habitats and the other inhabiting the transplanted area of artificial seedlings. Our results suggest that genetic differentiation occurred between these two populations (Fst value = 0.052), and a high level of genetic differentiation is maintained between the two groups. In the future, monitoring the interbreeding status of the two genetically distinct populations and the genetic differentiation within each population is important for conserving the genetic diversity of S. constricta in Japan.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#62

 

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Description This retrospective comparative study was to evaluate tear osmolarity measured by I-Pen osmolarity system (I-MED Pharma Inc, Dollard-des-Ormeaux, Quebec, Canada) in healthy subjects without dry eye disease (DED) and patients with DED, and its association with other ocular surface parameters. This study comprised 65 eyes of 65 patients. The ocular surface parameters including tear osmolarity with I-Pen osmometer of the patients who visited the refractive surgery center of Samsung Medical Center between January 1, 2020 and May 31, 2020 were retrospectively collected. The subjects were divided as asymptomatic normal group and symptomatic dry eye group. The distribution of tear osmolarity and its association with other ocular surface parameters were evaluated. Total thirty-two patients (32 eyes) were included in the control group, and 33 patients (33 eyes) were included in the DED group. Tear osmolarity was significantly higher in the DED group. Tear osmolarity was negatively correlated with tear break-up time, and the Schirmer test, and was positively correlated with Ocular Surface Disease Index symptom score. The cut-off value of 318 mOsm/L showed a sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 90.6% for diagnosing DED. The I-Pen osmometer can be considered suitable for use in the clinical setting, with good performance in DED diagnosis.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#63

 

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Description Over the last decade, nanoneedle-based systems have demonstrated to be extremely useful in cell biology. They can be used as nanotools for drug delivery, biosensing or biomolecular recognition inside cells; or they can be employed to select and sort in parallel a large number of living cells. When using these nanoprobes, the most important requirement is to minimize the cell damage, reducing the forces and indentation lengths needed to penetrate the cell membrane. This is normally achieved by reducing the diameter of the nanoneedles. However, several studies have shown that nanoneedles with a flat tip display lower penetration forces and indentation lengths. In this work, we have tested different nanoneedle shapes and diameters to reduce the force and the indentation length needed to penetrate the cell membrane, demonstrating that ultra-thin and sharp nanoprobes can further reduce them, consequently minimizing the cell damage.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#64

 

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Description Vitamin D toxicity is associated with accidental overdoses due to manufacturing or intake errors and its secondary hypercalcemia can result in severe morbidity. Although patients with cystic fibrosis are potentially at increased risk for this intoxication as prescription of vitamin D preparations is a common practice in this population, the frequency of such events is currently unknown. We performed a retrospective analysis of all the files of cystic fibrosis patients followed at the Cliniques universitaires Saint-Luc over a 10-year period, recording 25(OH)- and 1,25(OH)2vitamin D levels as well as demographic data, lung function tests, Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and results from pharmacological analysis of magistral liposoluble vitamins preparations. A total of 244 patients were included in the study. 13 patients (5%) had serum vitamin D levels corresponding to vitamin D overdose. Patients who had experienced an overdose were more likely to be F508del homozygous or suffer from exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. 2 patients developed significant hypercalcemia necessitating monitoring and hospitalization. Errors in the preparation of magistral liposoluble vitamin pills were identified in several intoxicated patients. Retrospective assessment of the dosing errors with the local pharmacists showed that trituration and dosing errors were their most frequent causes.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#65

 

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Description Serological testing is emerging as a powerful tool to progress our understanding of COVID-19 exposure, transmission and immune response. Large-scale testing is limited by the need for in-person blood collection by staff trained in venepuncture, and the limited sensitivity of lateral flow tests. Capillary blood self-sampling and postage to laboratories for analysis could provide a reliable alternative. Two-hundred and nine matched venous and capillary blood samples were obtained from thirty nine participants and analysed using a COVID-19 IgG ELISA to detect antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Thirty eight out of thirty nine participants were able to self-collect an adequate sample of capillary blood (≥ 50 µl). Using plasma from venous blood collected in lithium heparin as the reference standard, matched capillary blood samples, collected in lithium heparin-treated tubes and on filter paper as dried blood spots, achieved a Cohen’s kappa coefficient of > 0.88 (near-perfect agreement, 95% CI 0.738–1.000). Storage of capillary blood at room temperature for up to 7 days post sampling did not affect concordance. Our results indicate that capillary blood self-sampling is a reliable and feasible alternative to venepuncture for serological assessment in COVID-19.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#66

 

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Description The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium reports the generation of new mouse mutant strains for more than 5,000 genes, including 2,850 novel null, 2,987 novel conditional-ready and 4,433 novel reporter alleles.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#67

 

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Description Case–case genome-wide association studies (GWAS) within a single genotyped cohort have proven useful in identifying genetic variants explaining different health outcomes, yet they are limited by data availability. A new study by Peyrot and Price proposes a clever statistical method to overcome this problem by inferring case–case GWAS results from a pair of standard case–control GWAS summary statistics that need not be from the same cohort.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#68

 

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Description The risk of cardiovascular disease is increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with the general population owing to the influence of traditional and non-traditional risk factors. Inflammation has a pivotal contribution and can accelerate the atherosclerotic process. Although dampening inflammation with DMARDs should theoretically abrogate this process, evidence suggests that these drugs can also promote atherosclerosis directly and indirectly, hence adding to an increased cardiovascular burden. However, the extent and direction of the effects largely differ across drugs. Understanding how these drugs influence endothelial damage and vascular repair mechanisms is key to understanding these outcomes. NSAIDs and glucocorticoids can increase the cardiovascular risk. Conversely, conventional, biologic and targeted DMARDs control inflammation and reduce this risk, although some of these drugs can also aggravate traditional factors or thrombotic events. Given these data, the fundamental objective for clinicians should be disease control, in an individualized approach that considers the most appropriate drug for each patient, taking into account joint and cardiovascular outcomes. This Review provides a comprehensive analysis of the effects of DMARDs and other approved drugs on cardiovascular involvement in rheumatoid arthritis, from a clinical and mechanistic perspective, with a roadmap to inform the research agenda. Various drugs used in rheumatoid arthritis management have anti-inflammatory effects that can hinder atherosclerosis development and progression. However, these drugs can also concurrently have different pro-atherogenic effects, complicating the relationship between these drugs and cardiovascular involvement in rheumatoid arthritis.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#69

 

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Description Data from several trials support the efficacy of first-line tyrosine-kinase inhibitors combined with immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. However, whether combining these drugs is preferable to using them sequentially remains unclear. Here, we assess the implications for patients and payers of limited access to second-line ICIs in the control arms of trials.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#70

 

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Description Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence among individuals age younger than 50 years continues to rise with etiologies unknown. Synchronously, early-onset CRC disparities have grown more pronounced. As translational research across diverse populations has been limited, we advocate for mechanistic studies that address this challenge to mitigate CRC disparities among young adults. The incidence of early-onset colorectal cancer (EOCRC) continues to rise and disproportionately affects people of African descent. This Comment advocates for mechanistic studies that can help mitigate EOCRC disparities.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#71

 

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#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#72

 

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Description Redox cofactors are essential for the metabolic reactions that support cell proliferation. NADPH is important both to combat oxidative stress and to facilitate reductive reactions in biosynthesis. In this issue, Tran et al. find that the enzyme that produces mitochondrial NADPH is critical in enabling proline synthesis to support cell proliferation when environmental proline is limited.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#73

 

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Description Guided Open Access is a new publishing option offered at Nature Genetics. Authors can submit once and be simultaneously considered by three journals. Editorial collaboration and a single submission system combine to make the publication process easier and faster.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#74

 

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Description Cells resembling human fetal adrenal neuroblasts have been identified as major neuroblastoma cancer cells through single-cell mRNA comparison. Tumor risk stratification correlates with the differentiation of neuroblast-like neuroblastoma cells.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#75

 

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Description Sunil Laxman highlights the 1987 discovery of cyclic-di-GMP, which prompted scientists to rethink the concept of ‘unicellular’ and the impact of cell signalling.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#76

 

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#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#77

 

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Description Anxiety is something that has become a part of people’s lives in the last 12 months or so. First, there was anxiety about when vaccines for Covid-19 would be developed and now there’s anxiety about when one can actually get vaccinated. Or some people may be anxious to know how many people have got vaccinated in their areas. If you belong to the last category then Microsoft Bing’s tracker — launched last year — has now been updated.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#78

 

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Description Anxiety is something that has become a part of people’s lives in the last 12 months or so. First, there was anxiety about when vaccines for Covid-19 would be developed and now there’s anxiety about when one can actually get vaccinated. Or some people may be anxious to know how many people have got vaccinated in their areas. If you belong to the last category then Microsoft Bing’s tracker — launched last year — has now been updated.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#79

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#80

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#81

 

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Description When you try to hear someone talking in a noisy crowd, your brain helps out by filling in what you missed, based on expectations built from past experiences.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#82

 

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Description Amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation in the brain is a pivotal event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and its clearance from the brain is impaired in sporadic AD. Previous studies suggest that approximately half of the Aβ produced in the brain is cleared by transport into the periphery. However, the mechanism and pathophysiological significance of peripheral Aβ clearance remain largely unknown. The kidney is thought to be responsible for Aβ clearance, but direct evidence is lacking. In this study, we investigated the impact of unilateral nephrectomy on the dynamic changes in Aβ in the blood and brain in both humans and animals and on behavioural deficits and AD pathologies in animals. Furthermore, the therapeutic effects of the diuretic furosemide on Aβ clearance via the kidney were assessed. We detected Aβ in the kidneys and urine of both humans and animals and found that the Aβ level in the blood of the renal artery was higher than that in the blood of the renal vein. Unilateral nephrectomy increased brain Aβ deposition; aggravated AD pathologies, including Tau hyperphosphorylation, glial activation, neuroinflammation, and neuronal loss; and aggravated cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice. In addition, chronic furosemide treatment reduced blood and brain Aβ levels and attenuated AD pathologies and cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice. Our findings demonstrate that the kidney physiologically clears Aβ from the blood, suggesting that facilitation of Aβ clearance via the kidney represents a novel potential therapeutic approach for AD.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#83

 

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Description Mood disorders (depression, bipolar disorders) are prevalent and disabling. They are also highly co-morbid with other psychiatric disorders. Currently there are no objective measures, such as blood tests, used in clinical practice, and available treatments do not work in everybody. The development of blood tests, as well as matching of patients with existing and new treatments, in a precise, personalized and preventive fashion, would make a significant difference at an individual and societal level. Early pilot studies by us to discover blood biomarkers for mood state were promising [1], and validated by others [2]. Recent work by us has identified blood gene expression biomarkers that track suicidality, a tragic behavioral outcome of mood disorders, using powerful longitudinal within-subject designs, validated them in suicide completers, and tested them in independent cohorts for ability to assess state (suicidal ideation), and ability to predict trait (future hospitalizations for suicidality) [3–6]. These studies showed good reproducibility with subsequent independent genetic studies [7]. More recently, we have conducted such studies also for pain [8], for stress disorders [9], and for memory/Alzheimer’s Disease [10]. We endeavored to use a similar comprehensive approach to identify more definitive biomarkers for mood disorders, that are transdiagnostic, by studying mood in psychiatric disorders patients. First, we used a longitudinal within-subject design and whole-genome gene expression approach to discover biomarkers which track mood state in subjects who had diametric changes in mood state from low to high, from visit to visit, as measured by a simple visual analog scale that we had previously developed (SMS-7). Second, we prioritized these biomarkers using a convergent functional genomics (CFG) approach encompassing in a comprehensive fashion prior published evidence in the field. Third, we validated the biomarkers in an independent cohort of subjects with clinically severe depression (as measured by Hamilton Depression Scale, (HAMD)) and with clinically severe mania (as measured by the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS)). Adding the scores from the first three steps into an overall convergent functional evidence (CFE) score, we ended up with 26 top candidate blood gene expression biomarkers that had a CFE score as good as or better than SLC6A4, an empirical finding which we used as a de facto positive control and cutoff. Notably, there was among them an enrichment in genes involved in circadian mechanisms. We further analyzed the biological pathways and networks for the top candidate biomarkers, showing that circadian, neurotrophic, and cell differentiation functions are involved, along with serotonergic and glutamatergic signaling, supporting a view of mood as reflecting energy, activity and growth. Fourth, we tested in independent cohorts of psychiatric patients the ability of each of these 26 top candidate biomarkers to assess state (mood (SMS-7), depression (HAMD), mania (YMRS)), and to predict clinical course (future hospitalizations for depression, future hospitalizations for mania). We conducted our analyses across all patients, as well as personalized by gender and diagnosis, showing increased accuracy with the personalized approach, particularly in women. Again, using SLC6A4 as the cutoff, twelve top biomarkers had the strongest overall evidence for tracking and predicting depression after all four steps: NRG1, DOCK10, GLS, PRPS1, TMEM161B, GLO1, FANCF, HNRNPDL, CD47, OLFM1, SMAD7, and SLC6A4. Of them, six had the strongest overall evidence for tracking and predicting both depression and mania, hence bipolar mood disorders. There were also two biomarkers (RLP3 and SLC6A4) with the strongest overall evidence for mania. These panels of biomarkers have practical implications for distinguishing between depression and bipolar disorder. Next, we evaluated the evidence for our top biomarkers being targets of existing psychiatric drugs, which permits matching patients to medications in a targeted fashion, and the measuring of response to treatment. We also used the biomarker signatures to bioinformatically identify new/repurposed candidate drugs. Top drugs of interest as potential new antidepressants were pindolol, ciprofibrate, pioglitazone and adiphenine, as well as the natural compounds asiaticoside and chlorogenic acid. The last 3 had also been identified by our previous suicidality studies. Finally, we provide an example of how a report to doctors would look for a patient with depression, based on the panel of top biomarkers (12 for depression and bipolar, one for mania), with an objective depression score, risk for future depression, and risk for bipolar switching, as well as personalized lists of targeted prioritized existing psychiatric medications and new potential medications. Overall, our studies provide objective assessments, targeted therapeutics, and monitoring of response to treatment, that enable precision medicine for mood disorders.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#84

 

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Description Retinal degenerative disorders, including age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa (RP), are characterized by the irreversible loss of photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells; however, the long-term effect of implanting both human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived RPE and photoreceptor for retinal regeneration has not yet been investigated. In this study, we evaluated the long-term effects of hiPSC-derived RPE and photoreceptor cell transplantation in Pde6b knockout rats to study RP; cells were injected into the subretinal space of the right eyes of rats before the appearance of signs of retinal degeneration at 2–3 weeks of age. Ten months after transplantation, we evaluated the cells using fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, and histological evaluation, and no abnormal cell proliferation was observed. A relatively large number of transplanted cells persisted during the first 4 months; subsequently, the number of these cells decreased gradually. Notably, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the hiPSC-derived retinal cells showed characteristics of both RPE cells and photoreceptors of human origin after transplantation. Functional analysis of vision by scotopic electroretinogram revealed significant preservation of vision after transplantation. Our study suggests that the transplantation of hiPSC-derived retinal cells, including RPE cells and photoreceptors, has a potential therapeutic effect against irreversible retinal degenerative diseases. Cells with the potential to regenerate retinal cells could become a useful treatment for serious eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. The retina has only limited self-regenerating potential. Joo Yong Lee and colleagues at the University of Ulsan in Seoul, South Korea, studied the long-term effects of implanting cells derived from human stem cells into the eyes of rats that had been genetically modified to act as a model of retinal degenerative disease. The implanted cells have the features of the photoreceptor cells that detect light and those cells that generate a layer of the retina called the retinal pigment epithelium. A substantial population of the cells persisted for at least four months, significantly preserving the animals’ vision. The results justify further exploration of the therapeutic possibilities.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#85

 

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Description As more young people get vaccinated, vaccine-related trends are appearing on TikTok. One of the first major trends is vaccine rivalries.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#86

 

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Description Precision Health Research, Singapore (PRECISE) is set to take Singapore’s National Precision Medicine strategy to new heights.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#87

 

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Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#88

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#89

 

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Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#90

 

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Description This study investigated associations between cardiometabolic diseases, frailty, and healthcare utilization and expenditure among Chinese older adults. The participants were 5204 community-dwelling adults aged at least 60 years from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Five cardiometabolic diseases were assessed including hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, cardiac diseases and stroke. Frailty status was based on five criteria: slowness, weakness, exhaustion, inactivity, and shrinking. Participants were deemed frailty if they met at least three criteria. As the number of cardiometabolic diseases increased, so did the prevalence of frailty, and the proportion of healthcare utilization, including outpatient visit and inpatient visit. Moreover, the total healthcare expenditure and the odds of catastrophic health expenditure were increased with the number of cardiometabolic disorders. After adjusting for covariates, cardiometabolic diseases were positively associated with higher odds of frailty, incurring outpatient and inpatient visit. And individuals with 2 or more cardiometabolic diseases had a higher odds of catastrophic health expenditure than persons with non-cardiometabolic disease. Participants who were frailty were more likely to report higher odds of healthcare utilization. These findings suggest that both cardiometabolic diseases and frailty assessment may improve identification of older adults likely to require costly, extensive healthcare.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#91

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#92

 

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Description Efforts to contain the spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD), a fatal, contagious prion disease of cervids, would be aided by the availability of additional diagnostic tools. RT-QuIC assays allow ultrasensitive detection of prion seeds in a wide variety of cervid tissues, fluids and excreta. The best documented antemortem diagnostic test involving RT-QuIC analysis targets lymphoid tissue in rectal biopsies. Here we have tested a more easily accessed specimen, ear pinna punches, using an improved RT-QuIC assay involving iron oxide magnetic extraction to detect CWD infections in asymptomatic mule and white-tailed deer. Comparison of multiple parts of the ear pinna indicated that a central punch spanning the auricular nerve provided the most consistent detection of CWD infection. When compared to results obtained from gold-standard retropharyngeal lymph node specimens, our RT-QuIC analyses of ear samples provided apparent diagnostic sensitivity (81%) and specificity (91%) that rivaled, or improved upon, those observed in previous analyses of rectal biopsies using RT-QuIC. These results provide evidence that RT-QuIC analysis of ear pinna punches may be a useful approach to detecting CWD infections in cervids.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#93

 

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Description Image inpainting is a computer vision technique in which pixels missing from an image are filled in. It is often used to remove unwanted objects from an image or to recreate missing regions of occluded images. Inpainting ...

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#94

 

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Description This PrimeView highlights the epidemiology of pneumonia, a respiratory infection that can be caused by pathogens whose prevalence varies depending on the geographical area and the site of acquisition (community or healthcare settings).

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#95

 

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Description In the global health emergency caused by the COVID-19, clinical trial management has proven to be critical for the pharmaceutical industry, sponsors, and healthcare professionals. Our experience as a sponsor managing interventional oncology clinical studies has provided us with some data and insights. Though limited by sample size, our data emphasize the importance of quickly adopting measures that first prioritize patient safety and data validity, then consider contingency measures such as telemedicine, virtual medical review, and remote monitoring. Successful adaptations of healthcare and patient management in response to COVID-19 have been fundamental to ensuring continuing clinical cancer research.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#96

 

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Description The discovery of compounds and proteins from plants has greatly contributed to modern medicine. Vernonia amygdalina Del. (Compositae) is used by humans and primates for a variety of conditions including parasitic infection. This paper describes the serendipitous discovery that V. amygdalina extract was able to bind to, and functionally inhibit, active TGFβ1. The binding agent was isolated and identified as chlorophyll a-b binding protein AB96. Given that active TGFβ1 contributes to the pathology of many infectious diseases, inhibiting these processes may explain some of the benefits associated with the ingestion of this species. This is the first plant-derived cytokine-neutralizing protein to be described and paves the way for further such discoveries.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#97

 

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Description Grapevine cultivars are clonally propagated to preserve their varietal attributes. However, genetic variations accumulate due to the occurrence of somatic mutations. This process is anthropically influenced through plant transportation, clonal propagation and selection. Malbec is a cultivar that is well-appreciated for the elaboration of red wine. It originated in Southwestern France and was introduced in Argentina during the 1850s. In order to study the clonal genetic diversity of Malbec grapevines, we generated whole-genome resequencing data for four accessions with different clonal propagation records. A stringent variant calling procedure was established to identify reliable polymorphisms among the analyzed accessions. The latter procedure retrieved 941 single nucleotide variants (SNVs). A reduced set of the detected SNVs was corroborated through Sanger sequencing, and employed to custom-design a genotyping experiment. We successfully genotyped 214 Malbec accessions using 41 SNVs, and identified 14 genotypes that clustered in two genetically divergent clonal lineages. These lineages were associated with the time span of clonal propagation of the analyzed accessions in Argentina and Europe. Our results show the usefulness of this approach for the study of the scarce intra-cultivar genetic diversity in grapevines. We also provide evidence on how human actions might have driven the accumulation of different somatic mutations, ultimately shaping the Malbec genetic diversity pattern.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#98

 

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Description The main objective of this pilot clinical trial was to evaluate outcome measures for the assessment of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) robenacoxib in cats with degenerative joint disease-associated pain (DJD-pain). Otherwise healthy cats (n = 109) with DJD-pain entered a parallel group, randomized, blinded clinical trial. Cats received placebo (P) or robenacoxib (R) for two consecutive 3-week periods. Treatment groups were PP, RR, and RP. Actimetry and owner-assessment data were collected. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects and generalized mixed-effects linear models. Activity data showed high within-cat and between-cat variability, and 82.4% of the values were zero. Compared to placebo, mean total activity was higher (5.7%) in robenacoxib-treated cats (p = 0.24); for the 80th percentile of activity, more robenacoxib-treated cats had a > 10% increase in activity after 3 (p = 0.046) and 6 weeks (p = 0.026). Robenacoxib treatment significantly decreased owner-assessed disability, (p = 0.01; 49% reduction in disability; effect size ~ 0.3), and improved temperament (p = 0.0039) and happiness (p = 0.021) after 6 weeks. More robenacoxib-treated cats were successes at 6 weeks (p = 0.018; NNT: 3.8). Adverse effect frequencies were similar across groups. Results identified suitable endpoints for confirmatory studies, while also indicating efficacy of robenacoxib in cats with DJD-pain.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#99

 

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Description We propose a mechanism underlying polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat expansion diseases, in which the translation of expanded CAG codon repeats leads to translation stress. The stress is generated by depletion of the cognate glutaminyl-tRNA pool, which could cause ribosome frameshifting and lead to mistranslation of transcripts with specific characteristics. Michele Vendruscolo and colleagues propose that polyglutamine repeat expansion diseases could be caused by glutaminyl-tRNA depletion, leading to ribosome frameshifting and mistranslation of transcripts with specific characteristics.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#100

 

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Description The tool essentially creates a "watch list" of newly discovered animal viruses that pose the greatest threat to human health.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#101

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#102

 

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Description Microsoft is bringing MS Paint and Snipping Tool to Microsoft Store. The move is a part of the preview build 21354. Microsoft also said that it will not be including Paint 3D and 3D Viewer with the new build. However, they will still be available on the Microsoft Store.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 08 April 2021

#103

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#104

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#105

 

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Name
Description New car sales in Germany posted their worst first-quarter performance since national reunification in 1990 owing to the coronavirus pandemic, official data showed Wednesday.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#106

 

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Name
Description The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#108

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#110

 

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Description Tests on 133 dead bald eagles and golden eagles from across the US show that 80 per cent of them had rat poison in their body, which could affect their reproduction or lead to death

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#111

 

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Name
Description For the first time, researchers have collected animal DNA from mere air samples.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#112

 

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Name
Description Calamu Protect makes data immune to ransomware by breaking it up into several fragments striped across multiple cloud providers.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#113

 

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Name
Description For any one of the 2.8 million people around the world living with the autoimmune disorder multiple sclerosis (MS), life changes in ways that can be hard to predict.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#114

 

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Name
Description Microcirculatory dysfunction occurs early in cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. Acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a late consequence of CVD. The conjunctival microcirculation is readily-accessible for quantitative assessment and has not previously been studied in MI patients. We compared the conjunctival microcirculation of acute MI patients and age/sex-matched healthy controls to determine if there were differences in microcirculatory parameters. We acquired images using an iPhone 6s and slit-lamp biomicroscope. Parameters measured included diameter, axial velocity, wall shear rate and blood volume flow. Results are for all vessels as they were not sub-classified into arterioles or venules. The conjunctival microcirculation was assessed in 56 controls and 59 inpatients with a presenting diagnosis of MI. Mean vessel diameter for the controls was 21.41 ± 7.57 μm compared to 22.32 ± 7.66 μm for the MI patients (p < 0.001). Axial velocity for the controls was 0.53 ± 0.15 mm/s compared to 0.49 ± 0.17 mm/s for the MI patients (p < 0.001). Wall shear rate was higher for controls than MI patients (162 ± 93 s−1 vs 145 ± 88 s−1, p < 0.001). Blood volume flow did not differ significantly for the controls and MI patients (153 ± 124 pl/s vs 154 ± 125 pl/s, p = 0.84). This pilot iPhone and slit-lamp assessment of the conjunctival microcirculation found lower axial velocity and wall shear rate in patients with acute MI. Further study is required to correlate these findings further and assess long-term outcomes in this patient group with a severe CVD phenotype.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#115

 

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Name
Description Decreases in masticatory function are believed to be related to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) through inappropriate nutritional intake. This study focused on maximum bite force (MBF), which is an objective, quantitative index of masticatory function, and its association with the development of CVD (stroke and coronary heart disease) was investigated. The subjects were 1547 participants of the Suita study with no history of CVD who underwent medical and dental health examinations between June 2008 and June 2013. In addition to undergoing a basic physical examination at baseline, their MBF was measured. They subsequently underwent follow-up surveys for the development of CVD (mean follow-up, 3.5 years). The association between baseline MBF and the development of CVD was investigated by multivariate adjustment using a Cox proportional hazards model. CVD developed in 32 subjects during follow-up. The trend test showed a significant association between baseline MBF and CVD in a model that combined men and women. When analysed by sex, the trend test found a significant association between baseline MBF and CVD in women. Low MBF, which is an objective and quantitative index of masticatory function, may be a risk factor for the development of CVD.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#116

 

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Name
Description Chronic low back pain (cLBP) rates among younger individuals are rising. Although pain and disability are often less severe, underlying changes in trunk behavior may be responsible for recurrence. We examine the biomarker capacity of a simple Trunk Compliance Index (TCI) to distinguish individuals with and without cLBP. A random subset (n = 49) of the RELIEF RCT were matched to healthy controls for sex, age, height and weight. We measured TCI (as displacement/ weight-normalized perturbation force) using anthropometrically-matched, suddenly-applied pulling perturbations to the trunk segment, randomized across three planes of motion (antero-posterior, medio-lateral, and rotational). Mean differences between cLBP, sex and perturbation direction were assessed with repeated-measures analysis of variance. Discriminatory accuracy of TCI was assessed using Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Baseline characteristics between groups were equivalent (x̅ [range]): sex (57% female / group), age (23.0 [18–45], 22.8 [18–45]), height, cm (173.0 [156.5–205], 171.3 [121.2–197], weight, kg (71.8 [44.5–116.6], 71.7 [46.8–117.5]) with cLBP associated with significantly lower TCI for 5 of 6 directions (range mean difference, − 5.35: − 1.49, range 95% CI [− 6.46: − 2.18 to − 4.35: − 0.30]. Classification via ROC showed that composite TCI had high discriminatory potential (area under curve [95% CI], 0.90 [0.84–0.96]), driven by TCI from antero-posterior perturbations (area under curve [95% CI], 0.99 [0.97–1.00]). Consistent reductions in TCI suggests global changes in trunk mechanics that may go undetected in classic clinical examination. Evaluation of TCI in younger adults with mild pain and disability may serve as a biomarker for chronicity, leading to improved preventative measures in cLBP. Trial Registration and Funding RELIEF is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01854892) and funded by the NIH National Center for Complementary & Integrative Health (R01AT006978).

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#117

 

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Name
Description The relevance of pregestational body mass index (BMI) on adverse pregnancy outcomes remained unclear in Southwest China. This study aimed to investigate the overall and age-category specific association between pre-gestational BMI and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, preterm delivery, stillbirth, macrosomia, and small-for-gestational age (SGA) or large-for-gestational age (LGA) neonates in Southwest China. Furthermore, it explores the relative importance of influence of pregravid BMI and maternal age on pregnancy outcomes. 51,125 Chinese singleton pregnant women were recruited as study subjects. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the influence of pre-pregnancy BMI on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Gradient boosting machine was used to evaluate the relative importance of influence of pregravid BMI and maternal age on pregnancy outcomes. It is found that women who were overweight or obese before pregnancy are at higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes except for SGA neonates, while pre-pregnancy underweight is a protective factor for GDM, preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, macrosomia and LGA, but not SGA. Younger mothers are more susceptible to GDM and macrosomia neonates, while older mothers are more prone to preeclampsia. Pre-pregnancy BMI has more influence on various pregnancy outcomes than maternal age. To improve pregnancy outcomes, normal BMI weight as well as relatively young maternal ages are recommended for women in child-bearing age.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#118

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#120

 

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Name
Description The role of sex, race, and suicide method on recent increases in suicide mortality in the United States remains unclear. Estimating the age, period, and cohort effects underlying suicide mortality trends can provide important insights for the causal hypothesis generating process. We generated updated age-period-cohort effect estimates of recent suicide mortality rates in the US, examining the putative roles of sex, race, and method for suicide, using data from all death certificates in the US between 1999 and 2018. After designating deaths as attributable to suicide according to ICD-10 underlying cause of death codes X60-X84, Y87.0, and U03, we (i) used hexagonal grids to describe rates of suicide by age, period, and cohort visually and (ii) modeled sex-, race-, and suicide method-specific age, period, and cohort effects. We found that, while suicide mortality increased in the US between 1999 and 2018 across age, sex, race, and suicide method, there was substantial heterogeneity in age and cohort effects by method, sex, and race, with a first peak of suicide risk in youth, a second peak in older ages—specific to male firearm suicide, and increased rates among younger cohorts of non-White individuals. Our findings should prompt discussion regarding age-specific clinical firearm safety interventions, drivers of minoritized populations’ adverse early-life experiences, and racial differences in access to and quality of mental healthcare.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#121

 

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Name
Description Solute carrier organic anion transporter 1B3 (SLCO1B3) is an important liver primarily highly expressed gene, its encoded protein (OATP1B3) involved in the transport of multi-specific endogenous and exogenous substances. We previously reported that an EAV-HP inserted mutation (IM+) in the 5ʹ flanking region of SLCO1B3 was the causative mutation of chicken blue eggs, and a further research showed that IM+ significantly reduced the expression of SLCO1B3 in liver. Herein, we confirmed a cholate response element (IR-1) played an important role in activating SLCO1B3 and in vitro experiments showed that the activation of IR-1 can be significantly reduced by the EAV-HP IM+ . We performed transcriptome and proteomic analysis using the same set of IM+ and IM− liver tissues from Yimeng hens (a Chinese indigenous breed) to study the effect of SLCO1B3 and OATP1B3 expression reduction on chicken liver function. The results showed that common differential expression pathways were screened out from both transcriptome and proteome, in which fatty acid metabolism and drug metabolism—cytochrome P450 were significantly enriched in the KEGG analysis. The lipid-related metabolism was weakened in IM+ group, which was validated by serum biochemical assay. We unexpectedly found that EAV-HP fragment was highly expressed in the liver of the IM+ chickens. We cloned the EAV-HP full-length transcript and obtained the complete open reading frame. It is worth noting that there was some immune related differential expressed genes, such as NFKBIZ, NFKBIA, and IL1RL1, which were higher expressed in the IM+ group, which may due to the high expression of EAV-HP. Our study showed that EAV-HP IM+ reduced the expression of SLCO1B3 in liver, resulting in the decrease of fatty metabolism and exogenous substance transport capacity. The mutation itself also expressed in the liver and may be involved in the immune process. The mechanism needs further study.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#122

 

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Name
Description Human gammaherpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) consists of six major clades (A–F) based on the genetic sequence of the open reading frame (ORF)-K1. There are a few conflicting reports regarding the global distribution of the different HHV-8 genotypes. This study aimed to determine the global distribution of the different HHV-8 genotypes based on phylogenetic analysis of the ORF-K1 coding region using sequences published in the GenBank during 1997–2020 and construct a phylogenetic tree using the maximum likelihood algorithm with the GTR + I + G nucleotide substitution model. A total of 550 sequences from 38 countries/origins were analysed in this study. Genotypes A and C had similar global distributions and were prevalent in Africa and Europe. Genotype B was prevalent in Africa. Of the rare genotypes, genotype D was reported in East Asia and Oceania and genotype E in South America, while genotype F was prevalent in Africa. The highest genotypic diversity was reported in the American continent, with Brazil housing five HHV-8 genotypes (A, B, C, E, and F). In this study, we present update of the global distribution of HHV-8 genotypes, providing a basis for future epidemiological and evolutionary studies of HHV-8.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#123

 

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Description New research published in Immunity suggests that the increased rigidity of cancer cells during metastasis can result in a biophysical vulnerability to killing by cytotoxic lymphocytes through a form of mechanosurveillance.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#124

 

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Name
Description A recent study from Sun et al. reveals a polygenic architecture for pan-cancer tumour mutational burden (TMB) and shows the identification of genes underpinning the associations between germline genetic variants and TMB in specific cancer types. Here we discuss the main findings of the Sun et al. study and the implications for further studies.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#125

 

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Name
Description Link throws fate of AZ’s vaccine into question—and casts dark shadow over J&J’s vaccine.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#126

 

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Name
Description Facebook-owned online chat platform WhatsApp has launched a Covid-19 themed sticker pack.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#127

 

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Name
Description Twitter is taking a hard-line stance on the banned @realDonaldTrump account.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#128

 

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Name
Description We are starting to vaccinate our way out of the pandemic, but we shouldn't let that make us complacent about the underlying problems, writes Graham Lawton

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#129

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#130

 

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Name
Description Guidance in the UK now says healthy people under 30 should be offered a different vaccine – here's everything you need to know

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#131

 

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Name
Description Over six years, a study following thousands of adults over 58 found that those who started to lose their vision and their hearing were more likely to develop dementia

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#132

 

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Description The U.S. reached a milestone in its vaccination efforts Wednesday, with new data showing that 25 percent of adults in the country have been fully vaccinated.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#133

 

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Description WhatsApp has brought a new sticker pack called Vaccines for All to encourage its users to get COVID-19 vaccine and show their appreciation for healthcare workers around the globe. WhatsApp has also partnered with more than 150 national, state, and local governments, as well as organisations including the WHO and UNICEF to offer authenticated COVID-19 information and resources.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#134

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#135

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#136

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#137

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#138

 

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Name
Description The U.K. variant of the coronavirus, known as B.1.1.7, is now the most dominant strain circulating in the United States, health officials said.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#139

 

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Description AstraZeneca vaccine side effects of unusual blood clots are "very rare" and should be listed on the doses, the European Medicines Agency said Wednesday.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#140

 

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Name
Description The benefits of the vaccine still outweigh the possible risks of side effects, says the European Medicines Agency.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#141

 

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Name
Description Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), an intermediate in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis, is recently attracting much attention for its pharmacological and anti-aging efficacies. However, current commercial products containing NMN are very high-priced because efficient and facile methods for industrial NMN production are limited. In this study, aiming for its nutraceutical application, we attempted to screen lactic acid bacteria for intracellular and/or extracellular NMN production. Using a bioassay system with an auxotrophic yeast that requires nicotinamide riboside (NR; dephosphorylated NMN), three candidates were obtained from a library of 174 strains of facultative anaerobic lactic acid bacteria. All three candidates belonged to the genus Fructobacillus and produced NR in the culture media (0.8–1.5 mg/l). Lactic acid bacteria of the genus Fructobacillus are known to use d-fructose as an electron acceptor in anaerobic lactic acid fermentation; addition of d-fructose to the medium caused intracellular accumulation of NMN and NR, but no extracellular production of these compounds was observed. Draft genome sequencing for one of the candidates suggested that nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, which exists commonly in mammals but is less reported in microorganisms, is a key enzyme for NMN and NR production in the fructophilic bacteria.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#142

 

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Name
Description We evaluated the performance of 11 SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests using a reference set of heat-inactivated samples from 278 unexposed persons and 258 COVID-19 patients, some of whom contributed serial samples. The reference set included samples with a variation in SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody titers, as determined by an in-house immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The five evaluated rapid diagnostic tests had a specificity of 99.0% and a sensitivity that ranged from 56.3 to 81.6% and decreased with low IFA IgG titers. The specificity was > 99% for five out of six platform-based tests, and when assessed using samples collected ≥ 22 days after symptom onset, two assays had a sensitivity of > 96%. These two assays also detected samples with low IFA titers more frequently than the other assays. In conclusion, the evaluated antibody tests showed a heterogeneity in their performances and only a few tests performed well with samples having low IFA IgG titers, an important aspect for diagnostics and epidemiological investigations.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#143

 

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Name
Description Temperature control is a process that is used by biological systems to maintain a stable internal state for survival. People have an individually variable physiological temperature of about 36.6 °C, which can be modified by many undesirable factors. Based on an analysis of a time series of extracellular ionic fluxes that were obtained using the non-invasive solute-semiconductor interface technique, I show that this extremely specific (critical) temperature is encoded by a local minimum in the dynamic entropy of an isolated drop of human blood. Moreover, a dynamic zeroth-order normal fluid/“superfluid” nonequilibrium phase transition, which was reflected by a spontaneous symmetry breaking that occurred in the phase space, was revealed. The critical scaling of the dynamic measures for the covariates such as the spectral signature and Lyapunov exponent was also determined.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#144

 

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Name
Description Sub-diffraction or super-resolution fluorescence imaging allows the visualization of the cellular morphology and interactions at the nanoscale. Statistical analysis methods such as super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) obtain an improved spatial resolution by analyzing fluorophore blinking but can be perturbed by the presence of non-stationary processes such as photodestruction or fluctuations in the illumination. In this work, we propose to use Whittaker smoothing to remove these smooth signal trends and retain only the information associated to independent blinking of the emitters, thus enhancing the SOFI signals. We find that our method works well to correct photodestruction, especially when it occurs quickly. The resulting images show a much higher contrast, strongly suppressed background and a more detailed visualization of cellular structures. Our method is parameter-free and computationally efficient, and can be readily applied on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional data.

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#145

 

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Name
Description Prostate cancer remains the most common non-cutaneous malignancy among men in the United States. To discover potential serum-based biomarkers for high-risk prostate cancer, we performed a high-multiplex immunoassay utilizing patient-matched pre-operative and post-operative serum samples from ten men with high-grade and high-volume prostate cancer. Our study identified six (CASP8, MSLN, FGFBP1, ICOSLG, TIE2 and S100A4) out of 174 proteins that were significantly decreased after radical prostatectomy. High levels of CASP8 were detected in pre-operative serum samples when compared to post-operative serum samples and serum samples from patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). By immunohistochemistry, CASP8 protein was expressed at higher levels in prostate cancer tissues compared to non-cancerous and BPH tissues. Likewise, CASP8 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in prostate cancer when compared to benign prostate tissues in four independent clinical datasets. In addition, mRNA levels of CASP8 were higher in patients with recurrent prostate cancer when compared to patients with non-recurrent prostate cancer and high expression of CASP8 was associated with worse disease-free survival and overall survival in renal cancer. Together, our results suggest that CASP8 may potentially serve as a biomarker for high-risk prostate cancer and possibly renal cancer.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#146

 

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Name
Description MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are mRNA suppressors that regulate a variety of cellular and physiological processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, triglyceride synthesis, fat formation, and lipolysis, by post-transcriptional processing. In previous studies, we isolated and sequenced miRNAs from mammary epithelial cells from Chinese Holstein cows with high and low milk fat percentages. MiR-485 was one of the significantly differentially expressed miRNAs that were identified. In the present study, the relationship between the candidate target gene DTX4 and miR-485 was validated by bioinformatics and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot (WB) analyses in bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs). The results indicated that miR-485 negatively regulated the mRNA expression of the target gene DTX4. Furthermore, an shRNA interference vector for the target gene DTX4 was constructed successfully, and it increased the triglyceride content and reduced the cholesterol content of transfected cells. These results suggest that miR-485 may affect the contents of triglycerides (TGs) and cholesterol (CHOL) by targeting the DTX4 gene. This study indicates that miR-485 has a role in regulating milk fat synthesis and that miR-485 targets the DTX4 gene to regulate lipid metabolism in bMECs. These findings contribute to the understanding of the functional significance of miR-485 in milk fat synthesis.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#147

 

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Name
Description This study aimed to investigate the accuracy of cup placement and determine the predictive risk factors for inaccurate cup positioning in robot-assisted total hip arthroplasty (THA). We retrospectively analyzed 115 patients who underwent robot-assisted THA between August 2018 and November 2019. Acetabular cup alignment and three-dimensional (3D) position were measured using pre- or postoperative computed tomography (CT) data. Absolute differences in cup inclination, anteversion, and 3D position were assessed, and their relation to preoperative factors was evaluated. The average measurement of the absolute differences was 1.8° ± 2.0° (inclination) and 1.9° ± 2.3° (anteversion). The average absolute difference in the 3D cup position was 1.1 ± 1.2 mm (coronal plane) and 0.9 ± 1.0 mm (axial plane). Multivariate analysis revealed that a posterior pelvic tilt [odds ratio (OR, 1.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00–1.23] and anterior surgical approach (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.69–15.38) were predictive factors for inaccurate cup positioning with robot-assisted THA. This is the first study to demonstrate the predictive risk factors (posterior pelvic tilt and anterior surgical approach) for inaccurate cup position in robot-assisted THA.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#148

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#149

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#150

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#151

 

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Name
Description Biological sex is increasingly being recognized as an important variable in cardiovascular health and disease and, consequently, in cardiovascular research. Three new studies highlight the influence of sex hormones in pulmonary arterial hypertension, arterial senescence and abdominal aortic aneurysms.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#152

 

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Description A cardiac organoid approach combined with phosphoproteomics and single nuclei RNA-sequencing identifies bromodomain and extraterminal family inhibitors as promising candidates to prevent COVID-19 mediated cardiac damage.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#153

 

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Description A healthy lifestyle that includes physical activity has numerous positive effects on the mother and child during and after pregnancy. In this context physical activity plays a central role due to its influence on body composition. While visceral fatty tissue has a pro-inflammatory effect via so-called adipokines, myokines seem to have a more anti-inflammatory effect and thus prevent numerous diseases such as gestational hypertension or gestational diabetes. However, many women show a decreased level of physical activity during pregnancy when compared to pre-gestation levels. The reasons underlying this change are manifold and include concern about the effects of physical exertion on the unborn child. Gynaecologists and midwives are also often uncertain about what specific advice to give regarding physical activity. The present review describes, besides the underlying mechanisms, current physical activity recommendations and corresponding evidence with a focus on weight development in terms of obesity, gestational diabetes and foetal outcome.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#154

 

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Name
Description KIN-CLIP allows determination of binding and dissociation kinetics of RNA-binding proteins in cells.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#155

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#156

 

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Name
Description Unexpected high levels of recurrent DNA single-strand break repair were detected in enhancer regions of post-mitotic neurons.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 07 April 2021

#157

 

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Name
Description The president wants all US adults to be eligible for a shot by April 19.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#158

 

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Name
Description Biomarkers that predict conversion from isolated REM sleep behaviour disorder to Parkinson disease are urgently needed. A new study finds that detection of misfolded α-synuclein in the cerebrospinal fluid is a good marker of conversion risk, but an inability to predict the timeline of progression might limit its utility.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#160

 

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Name
Description Carbamazepine (CBZ)-induced Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) are strongly associated with the HLA-B*15:02 allele. Screening HLA-B*15:02 before CBZ administration might prevent CBZ-induced SJS/TEN by enabling clinicians to prescribe alternative therapy for positive patients. Similar to other Southeastern Asian countries, HLA-B*15:02 is highly prevalent in Indonesia. Therefore, we assessed the economic value of HLA-B*15:02 screening before CBZ prescription to patients with epilepsy in Indonesia. A generic cost-effectiveness model and decision support tool, developed to enable users to perform an initial cost-effectiveness analysis from a healthcare provider/payer perspective, were used to assess the value of HLA-B*15:02 genotyping. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of adopting universal HLA-B*15:02 screening was 656,444,671 Indonesian Rupiah (IDR)/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained for patients compared with 2,634,975,574 IDR/QALY gained for providing valproic acid (alternative drug) without screening. Thus, neither HLA-B*15:02 screening nor substitution with VPA meets the Indonesian threshold for cost effectiveness. However, the improved outcomes with this test in other Asian countries may inform the desirability of implementation in Indonesia even with suboptimal cost-effectiveness.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#161

 

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Description Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics of respiratory tract infections that produce a wide spectrum of clinical disease severity in humans. The novel betacoronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 2019 and has since caused a pandemic. Both viral and host factors determine the extent and severity of virus-induced lung damage. The host’s response to viral infection is necessary for viral clearance but may be deleterious and contribute to severe disease phenotypes. Similarly, tissue repair mechanisms are required for recovery from infection across the spectrum of disease severity; however, dysregulated repair responses may lead to chronic lung dysfunction. Understanding of the mechanisms of immunopathology and tissue repair following viral lower respiratory tract infection may broaden treatment options. In this Review, we discuss the pathogenesis, the contribution of the host response to severe clinical phenotypes and highlight early and late epithelial repair mechanisms following influenza virus infection, each of which has been well characterized. Although we are still learning about SARS-CoV-2 and its disease manifestations in humans, throughout the Review we discuss what is known about SARS-CoV-2 in the context of this broad knowledge of influenza virus, highlighting the similarities and differences between the respiratory viruses. In this Review, Schultz-Cherry, Thomas and colleagues discuss the pathogenesis of influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the human respiratory tract, the contribution of the host response to severe disease, epithelial repair mechanisms following infection, and current and potential future therapies for influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 infections.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#162

 

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Name
Description Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a clinical syndrome caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Patients with severe disease show hyperactivation of the immune system, which can affect multiple organs besides the lungs. Here, we propose that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a process known as immunothrombosis, in which activated neutrophils and monocytes interact with platelets and the coagulation cascade, leading to intravascular clot formation in small and larger vessels. Microthrombotic complications may contribute to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and other organ dysfunctions. Therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing immunothrombosis may therefore be useful. Several antithrombotic and immunomodulating drugs have been proposed as candidates to treat patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The growing understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection pathogenesis and how it contributes to critical illness and its complications may help to improve risk stratification and develop targeted therapies to reduce the acute and long-term consequences of this disease. Here, the authors propose that SARS-CoV-2 induces a prothrombotic state, with dysregulated immunothrombosis in lung microvessels and endothelial injury, which drive the clinical manifestations of severe COVID-19. They discuss potential antithrombotic and immunomodulating drugs that are being considered in the treatment of patients with COVID-19.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#163

 

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Description In terms of biological aging, the body seems to shift gears three times during our lifespans, research from 2019 suggests – with 34 years, 60 years, and 78 years being the key thresholds.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#164

 

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Description The UK government says covid-19 vaccine passports are likely to become a “feature of our lives,” despite mounting political opposition

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#165

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#166

 

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Name
Description The politicization of "vaccine passports" could aggravate Republicans' hesitancy, experts warn.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#167

 

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Name
Description Digital health interventions (DHIs) have the potential to improve the accessibility and effectiveness of palliative care but heterogeneity amongst existing systematic reviews presents a challenge for evidence synthesis. This meta-review applied a structured search of ten databases from 2006 to 2020, revealing 21 relevant systematic reviews, encompassing 332 publications. Interventions delivered via videoconferencing (17%), electronic healthcare records (16%) and phone (13%) were most frequently described in studies within reviews. DHIs were typically used in palliative care for education (20%), symptom management (15%), decision-making (13%), information provision or management (13%) and communication (9%). Across all reviews, mostly positive impacts were reported on education, information sharing, decision-making, communication and costs. Impacts on quality of life and physical and psychological symptoms were inconclusive. Applying AMSTAR 2 criteria, most reviews were judged as low quality as they lacked a protocol or did not consider risk of bias, so findings need to be interpreted with caution.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#168

 

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Name
Description The Covid-19 vaccine first dose can help prevent infection, but a second vaccine shot is essential. What can you expect after you get your first Covid vaccine shot?

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#169

 

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Name
Description Junctophilin-3 belongs to a triprotein junctional complex implicated in the regulation of neuronal excitability and involved in the formation of junctional membrane structures between voltage-gated ion channels and endoplasmic (ryanodine) reticular receptors. A monoallelic trinucleotide repeat expansion located within the junctophilin-3 gene (JPH3) has been implicated in a rare autosomal dominant (AD) late-onset (and progressive) disorder clinically resembling Huntington disease (HD), and known as HD-like 2 (HDL2; MIM# 606438). Although the exact molecular mechanisms underlying HDL2 has not yet been fully elucidated, toxic gain-of-function of the aberrant transcript (containing the trinucleotide repeat) and loss of expression of (full-length) junctophilin-3 have both been implicated in HDL2 pathophysiology. In this study, we identified by whole exome sequencing (WES) a JPH3 homozygous truncating variant [NM_020655.4: c.17405dup; p.(Val581Argfs*137)]. in a female individual affected with genetically undetermined neurodevelopmental anomalies (including delayed motor milestones, abnormal social communication, language difficulties and borderline cognitive impairment) and paroxysmal attacks of dystonia since her early infancy. Our study expands the JPH3-associated mutational spectrum and clinical phenotypes, implicating the loss of Junctophilin-3 in heterogeneous neurodevelopmental phenotypes and early-onset paroxysmal movement disorders.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#170

 

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Name
Description High quality, well-validated antibodies are needed to mitigate irreproducibility and clarify conflicting data in science. We describe an epitope-directed monoclonal antibody (mAb) production method that addresses issues of antibody quality, validation and utility. The workflow is illustrated by generating mAbs against multiple in silico-predicted epitopes on human ankyrin repeat domain 1 (hANKRD1) in a single hybridoma production cycle. Antigenic peptides (13–24 residues long) presented as three-copy inserts on the surface exposed loop of a thioredoxin carrier produced high affinity mAbs that are reactive to native and denatured hANKRD1. ELISA assay miniaturization afforded by novel DEXT microplates allowed rapid hybridoma screening with concomitant epitope identification. Antibodies against spatially distant sites on hANKRD1 facilitated validation schemes applicable to two-site ELISA, western blotting and immunocytochemistry. The use of short antigenic peptides of known sequence facilitated direct epitope mapping crucial for antibody characterization. This robust method motivates its ready adoption for other protein targets. Liew et al. describe an efficient monoclonal antibody (mAb) production method and as a proof-of-concept, develop mAbs against multiple epitopes on hANKRD1 in a single hybridoma production cycle. With rapid screening and validation techniques, this pipeline shows promise of general applicability for antibody panel generation.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#171

 

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Name
Description Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a widespread, debilitating problem with poorly understood immunology. Here, we assess the host response to middle ear infection over the course of a month post-infection in a mouse model of CSOM and in human subjects with the disease. Using multiparameter flow cytometry and a binomial generalized linear machine learning model, we identified Ly6G, a surface marker of mature neutrophils, as the most informative factor of host response driving disease in the CSOM mouse model. Consistent with this, neutrophils were the most abundant cell type in infected mice and Ly6G expression tracked with the course of infection. Moreover, neutrophil-specific immunomodulatory treatment using the neutrophil elastase inhibitor GW 311616A significantly reduces bacterial burden relative to ofloxacin-only treated animals in this model. The levels of dsDNA in middle ear effusion samples are elevated in both humans and mice with CSOM and decreased during treatment, suggesting that dsDNA may serve as a molecular biomarker of treatment response. Together these data strongly implicate neutrophils in the ineffective immune response to P. aeruginosa infection in CSOM and suggest that immunomodulatory strategies may benefit drug-tolerant infections for chronic biofilm-mediated disease.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#172

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#173

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#174

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#175

 

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Name
Description A new Google doodle has been released to urge people to wear masks, to prevent the spread of COVID-19. It says, &ldquo;Wear a mask. Save lives.&rdquo; Once you click on the Google doodle, you&rsquo;ll also see detailed results about COVID-19 prevention.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#176

 

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Name
Description The new jab “significantly cuts” the COVID-19 infection risk for cancer patients by reducing the amount of time they have to spend in hospital.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#177

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#178

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#179

 

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Name
Description If you have experienced unwanted weight gain or weight loss during the pandemic, you are not alone. According to a poll by the American Psychological Association, 61 percent of US adults reported undesired weight change since the pandemic began.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#180

 

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Name
Description Vaccine trial participants call for review of EpiVacCorona after study they ran found they had no virus-blocking antibodies

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#181

 

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Name
Description China is a populous country but lacks epidemiological data on keratoconus (KC). The present study aimed to investigate the clinical data, demographic data, and visual function (VF) data of KC patients in Central China. A total of 524 KC eyes in 307 KC patients (217 bilateral and 90 unilateral) from Henan Eye Hospital were included in the current study. Demographic and VF data were assessed with questionnaires administered by well-trained staff during face-to-face interviews. Visual acuity value was examined by a qualified optometrist, and the clinical data were measured by professional clinicians. The distributions of sex, residence and education level of KC patients were compared by Chi-square tests, and the ratios of people wearing glasses and rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses were compared by McNemar tests. General linear models/Chi-squared tests were used to compare the clinical and demographic data according to KC severity. Spearman’s correlation analysis was used to test the associations between the data and KC severity. The mean age at diagnosis was 20.98 ± 6.06 years, and males had a higher ratio of KC than females (P < 0.001). Patients in rural areas had a higher rate of KC than those in urban areas (P = 0.039), and the proportion of KC patients with a higher education level (above high school) was high (P < 0.001). A total of 68.40% of the patients reported eye rubbing and 3.52% had a positive family history. The percentage of people wearing glasses was higher than that of patients wearing RGP lenses (P < 0.001). The total VF score of KC patients was 69.35 ± 15.25. The thinnest corneal thickness (TCT) and stiffness parameter at the first applanation (SP-A1) values were inversely correlated with KC severity (P < 0.05). The mean, steep, and max keratometry (Km, Ks and Kmax) values, the RGP lens use and keratoplasty were positively correlated with KC severity (all P < 0.05). The total VF score of the eye with better VA decreased as the severity increased (r = − 0.21, P = 0.002). The present study comprehensively describes various associated features of KC patients from a tertiary hospital in Central China, providing a reference for understanding the characteristics of KC patients in China.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#182

 

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Name
Description Fenneropenaeus chinensis is one of the most important aquaculture species in China. Research on its genomic and genetic structure not only helps us comprehend the genetic basis of complex economic traits, but also offers theoretical guidance in selective breeding. In the present study, a genome survey sequencing was performed to generate a rough reference genome utilized for groping preliminary genome characteristics and facilitate linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Linkage mapping was conducted using a reduced-representation sequencing method 2b-RAD. In total, 36,762 SNPs were genotyped from 273 progenies in a mapping family, and a high-resolution linkage map was constructed. The consensus map contained 12,884 markers and spanned 5257.81 cM with an average marker interval of 0.41 cM, which was the first high-resolution genetic map in F. chinensis to our knowledge. QTL mapping and association analysis were carried out in 29 characters including body size, sex and disease resistance. 87 significant QTLs were detected in several traits and they were also evaluated by association analysis. Results of this study provide us valuable suggestions in genetic improvement and breeding of new varieties and also lay a basic foundation for further application of cloning of economic genes in selective breeding program and marker-assisted selection.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#183

 

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Name
Description The continuously growing number of COVID-19 cases pressures healthcare services worldwide. Accurate short-term forecasting is thus vital to support country-level policy making. The strategies adopted by countries to combat the pandemic vary, generating different uncertainty levels about the actual number of cases. Accounting for the hierarchical structure of the data and accommodating extra-variability is therefore fundamental. We introduce a new modelling framework to describe the pandemic’s course with great accuracy and provide short-term daily forecasts for every country in the world. We show that our model generates highly accurate forecasts up to seven days ahead and use estimated model components to cluster countries based on recent events. We introduce statistical novelty in terms of modelling the autoregressive parameter as a function of time, increasing predictive power and flexibility to adapt to each country. Our model can also be used to forecast the number of deaths, study the effects of covariates (such as lockdown policies), and generate forecasts for smaller regions within countries. Consequently, it has substantial implications for global planning and decision making. We present forecasts and make all results freely available to any country in the world through an online Shiny dashboard.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#184

 

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Name
Description Rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) and bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) is a globally distributed freshwater fish disease caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum. In spite of its importance, an effective vaccine is not still available. Manipulation of the microbiome of skin, which is a primary infection gate for pathogens, could be a novel countermeasure. For example, increasing the abundance of specific antagonistic bacteria against pathogens in fish skin might be effective to prevent fish disease. Here, we combined cultivation with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to obtain insight into the skin microbiome of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and searched for skin bacteria antagonistic to F. psychrophilum. By using multiple culture media, we obtained 174 isolates spanning 18 genera. Among them, Bosea sp. OX14 and Flavobacterium sp. GL7 respectively inhibited the growth of F. psychrophilum KU190628-78 and NCIMB 1947T, and produced antagonistic compounds of < 3 kDa in size. Sequences related to our isolates comprised 4.95% of skin microbial communities, and those related to strains OX14 and GL7 respectively comprised 1.60% and 0.17% of the skin microbiome. Comparisons with previously published microbiome data detected sequences related to strains OX14 and GL7 in skin of other rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#185

 

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Name
Description Surgical site infection (SSI) is a serious complication following spine surgery and is correlated with significant morbidities, poor clinical outcomes, and increased healthcare costs. Accurately identifying risk factors can help develop strategies to reduce this devastating consequence; however, few multicentre studies have investigated risk factors for SSI following posterior cervical spine surgeries. Between July 2010 and June 2015, we performed an observational cohort study on deep SSI in adult patients who underwent posterior cervical spine surgery at 10 research hospitals. Detailed patient- and procedure-specific potential risk variables were prospectively recorded using a standardised data collection chart and were reviewed retrospectively. Among the 2184 consecutive adult patients enrolled, 28 (1.3%) developed postoperative deep SSI. Multivariable regression analysis revealed 2 statistically significant independent risk factors: occipitocervical surgery (P < 0.001) and male sex (P = 0.024). Subgroup analysis demonstrated that occipitocervical surgery (P = 0.001) was the sole independent risk factor for deep SSI in patients with instrumented fusion. Occipitocervical surgery is a relatively rare procedure; therefore, our findings were based on a large cohort acquired using a multicentre study. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to identify occipitocervical procedure as an independent risk variable for deep SSI after spinal surgery.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#186

 

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Name
Description Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder and one of its characteristics is cognitive impairments. Findings regarding levels of the heme metabolite and plasma antioxidant bilirubin in schizophrenia are inconclusive. However, a recently published study indicate that low levels of bilirubin may be implicated in the memory impairments seen in the disorder. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the levels of bilirubin in individuals with a first-episode psychosis (FEP) and to examine if bilirubin levels were associated to cognitive impairments, symptoms and duration of untreated psychosis (DUP). Bilirubin levels were reduced in 39 individuals with FEP compared with 20 HC (median [IQR]: 11.0 [9.0–13.0] µM vs. 15.0 [11.5–18.5] µM). In individuals with FEP, bilirubin levels were also positively correlated to two working memory tests (r = 0.40 and r = 0.32) and inversely correlated to DUP (r = − 0.36). Findings were not influenced by confounding factors. The results confirm the antioxidant deficit previously seen in schizophrenia, but also indicate that these changes may be related to DUP. The study also confirms that bilirubin may be implicated in the cognitive deficits that accompanies the disorder, here for the first time presented in individuals with FEP.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#187

 

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Name
Description Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) has been defined as unexplained relapsing or persistent fatigue for at least 6 consecutive months. Immuno-inflammatory pathway, bacterial infection, and other causes play essential roles in CFS. Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common causes of foregut inflammation, leading to peptic ulcer disease (PUD). This study aimed to analyze the risk of CFS development between patients with and without PUD. Other related factors were also analyzed. We performed a retrospective, nationwide cohort study identifying patients with or without PUD respectively by analyzing the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID2000), Taiwan. The overall incidence of CFS was higher in the PUD cohort than in the non- PUD cohort (HR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.75–2.30), with the same adjusted HR (aHR) when adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities. The sex-specific PUD cohort to the non-PUD cohort relative risk of CFS was significant in both genders. The age-specific incidence of CFS showed incidence density increasing with age in both cohorts. There is an increased risk of developing CFS following PUD, especially in females and the aging population. Hopefully, these findings can prevent common infections from progressing to debilitating, chronic conditions such as CFS.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#188

 

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Name
Description COVID-19 has had a substantial effect on patients with kidney stones, such as delays in care and increased anxiety and use of opioids. Mitigating these effects in the future could involve an online physician-based discussion as a part of the overall treatment strategy to help patients with their queries, apprehensions and ultimately their decision-making.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#189

 

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Name
Description This study aimed to examine the temporal relationship between body mass index (BMI) and uric acid (UA), and their joint effect on blood pressure (BP) in children and adults. The longitudinal cohorts for temporal relationship analyses consisted of 564 and 911 subjects examined twice 5–14 years apart from childhood to adulthood. The cross-sectional cohorts for mediation analyses consisted of 3102 children and 3402 nondiabetic adults. Cross-lagged panel analysis models were used to examine the temporal relationship between BMI and UA, and mediation analysis models the mediation effect of UA on the BMI–BP association. After adjusting for age, race, sex and follow-up years in children, and additionally smoking and alcohol drinking in adults, the path coefficients (standardized regression coefficients) from baseline BMI to follow-up UA (0.145 in children and 0.068 in adults) were significant, but the path coefficients from baseline UA to follow-up BMI (0.011 in children and 0.016 in adults) were not. In mediation analyses, indirect effects through UA on the BMI-systolic BP association were estimated at 0.028 (mediation effect = 8.8%) in children and 0.033 (mediation effect = 13.5%) in adults (P < 0.001 for both). Direct effects of BMI on systolic BP (0.289 in children and 0.212 in adults) were significant. The mediation effect parameters did not differ significantly between Blacks and Whites. Changes in BMI precede alterations in UA, and the BMI–BP association is in part mediated through BMI-related increase in UA both in children and in adults. These findings have implications for addressing mechanisms of obesity hypertension beginning in early life.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#190

 

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Name
Description Learning to balance work, family, optimism and setbacks is a process for all early-career investigators. Stephanie Correa and Leng Han share their stories in this instalment of Career pathways.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#191

 

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Name
Description The covalent post-translational modification of proteins by ubiquitination not only influences protein stability and half-life, but also several aspects of protein function including enzymatic activity, sub-cellular localization, and interactions with binding partners. Protein ubiquitination status is determined by the action of large families of ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases, whose combined activities regulate many physiological and cellular pathways. The Ubiquitin Specific Protease (USP) family is one of 8 subfamilies of deubiquitinating enzymes composed of more than 50 members. Recent studies have shown that USP15 plays a critical role in regulating many aspects of immune and inflammatory function of leukocytes in response to a broad range of infectious and autoimmune insults and following tissue damage. USP15 regulated pathways reviewed herein include TLR signaling, RIG-I signaling, NF-kB, and IRF3/IRF7-dependent transcription for production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I interferons. In addition, USP15 has been found to regulate pathways implicated in tumor onset and progression such as p53, and TGF-β signaling, but also influences the leukocytes-determined immune and inflammatory microenvironment of tumors to affect progression and outcome. Hereby reviewed are recent studies of USP15 in model cell lines in vitro, and in mutant mice in vivo with reference to available human clinical datasets.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#192

 

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Name
Description Mitochondria are indispensable organelles for maintaining cell energy metabolism, and also are necessary to retain cell biological function by transmitting information as signal organelles. Hypoxia, one of the important cellular stresses, can directly regulates mitochondrial metabolites and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS), which affects the nuclear gene expression through mitochondrial retrograde signal pathways, and also promotes the delivery of signal components into cytoplasm, causing cellular injury. In addition, mitochondria can also trigger adaptive mechanisms to maintain mitochondrial function in response to hypoxia. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), as a medium of information transmission between cells, can change the biological effects of receptor cells by the release of cargo, including nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, mitochondria, and their compositions. The secretion of EVs increases in cells under hypoxia, which indirectly changes the mitochondrial function through the uptake of contents by the receptor cells. In this review, we focus on the mitochondrial regulation indirectly through EVs under hypoxia, and the possible mechanisms that EVs cause the changes in mitochondrial function. Finally, we discuss the significance of this EV-mitochondria axis in hypoxic diseases.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#193

 

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Name
Description Emerging studies have demonstrated the potential of PI3Kδ blockade as an immunotherapy for solid tumours. In pre-clinical models, we recently demonstrated that anti-LAG3 immune checkpoint blockade vastly potentiated PI3Kδ-based immunotherapy, enabling successful tumour control in all treated mice.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#194

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#195

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#196

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#197

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#198

 

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Name
Description The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#199

 

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Name
Description Younger people, restless from months of pandemic restrictions, are driving the latest Covid-19 surge, especially in states like Michigan.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#200

 

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Name
Description Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with premature mortality and is an independent risk factor for a broad range of diseases, especially those associated with aging, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease. However, the pathophysiology underlying increased rates of somatic disease in MDD remains unknown. It has been proposed that MDD represents a state of accelerated cellular aging, and several measures of cellular aging have been developed in recent years. Among such metrics, estimators of biological age based on predictable age-related patterns of DNA methylation (DNAm), so-called ‘epigenetic clocks’, have shown particular promise for their ability to capture accelerated aging in psychiatric disease. The recently developed DNAm metric known as ‘GrimAge’ is unique in that it was trained on time-to-death data and has outperformed its predecessors in predicting both morbidity and mortality. Yet, GrimAge has not been investigated in MDD. Here we measured GrimAge in 49 somatically healthy unmedicated individuals with MDD and 60 age-matched healthy controls. We found that individuals with MDD exhibited significantly greater GrimAge relative to their chronological age (‘AgeAccelGrim’) compared to healthy controls (p = 0.001), with a median of 2 years of excess cellular aging. This difference remained significant after controlling for sex, current smoking status, and body-mass index (p = 0.015). These findings are consistent with prior suggestions of accelerated cellular aging in MDD, but are the first to demonstrate this with an epigenetic metric predictive of premature mortality.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#201

 

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Name
Description Recent missteps from the CDC have muddied public health messaging at what some experts are calling a precarious moment in the course of the pandemic.

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#202

 

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Name
Description HEAT repeats are 37–47 amino acid flexible tandem repeat structural motifs occurring in a wide variety of eukaryotic proteins with diverse functions. Due to their ability to undergo elastic conformational changes, they often serve as scaffolds at sites of protein interactions. Here, we describe four affected children from two families presenting with pontocerebellar hypoplasia manifest clinically with neonatal seizures, severe intellectual disability, and motor delay. Whole exome sequencing identified biallelic variants at predicted splice sites in intron 31 of HEATR5B, encoding the HEAT repeat-containing protein 5B segregating in a recessive fashion. Aberrant splicing was found in patient fibroblasts, which correlated with reduced levels of HEATR5B protein. HEATR5B is expressed during brain development in human, and we failed to recover live-born homozygous Heatr5b knockout mice. Taken together, our results implicate loss of HEATR5B in pontocerebellar hypoplasia.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 06 April 2021

#203

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#204

 

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Name
Description We aimed to evaluate the effect of baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) on the outcomes of patients with the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) receiving pitavastatin monotherapy or the combination of pitavastatin + ezetimibe. In the HIJ-PROPER study, 1734 ACS patients with dyslipidemia were randomly assigned to receive pitavastatin or pitavastatin + ezetimibe therapy. Statin-naïve participants (n = 1429) were divided into two groups based on the median LDL-C level (131 mg/dL) at enrollment. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, unstable angina, and ischemia-driven coronary revascularization. The median follow-up was 3.2 years. In the < 131 mg/dL group (n = 686), LDL-C changes were − 34.0% and − 49.8% in the pitavastatin monotherapy and pitavastatin + ezetimibe-treated groups (P < 0.0001), respectively; in the ≥ 131 mg/dL group (n = 743), LDL-C changes were − 42.9% and − 56.4% (P < 0.0001, respectively. Kaplan–Meier analyses revealed that the primary endpoint was not significantly different between the treatment groups for the < 131 mg/dL group, however, it was significantly lower in patients treated with pitavastatin + ezetimibe in the ≥ 131 mg/dL group (Hazard ratio = 0.72, 95% confidence interval = 0.56–0.91, P = 0.007, P value for interaction = 0.012). Statin-naïve ACS patients with baseline LDL-C < 131 mg/dL did not clinically benefit from pitavastatin + ezetimibe, while patients with baseline LDL-C ≥ 131 mg/dL treated with pitavastatin + ezetimibe showed better clinical results than those treated with pitavastatin monotherapy. Clinical Trial Registration: Original HIJ PROPER study; URL: http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr . Unique Identifier; UMIN000002742, registered as an International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#205

 

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Name
Description The prognosis of Artificial liver support system (ALSS) for hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is hard to be expected, which results in multiple operations of ALSS and excessive consumption of plasma, increase in clinical cost. A total of 375 HBV-ACLF patients receiving ALSS treatment were randomly divided a train set and an independent test set. Logistic regression analysis was conducted and a decision tree was built based on 3-month survival as outcome. The ratio of total bilirubin before and after the first time of ALSS treatment was the most significant prognostic factor, we named it RPTB. Further, a decision tree based on the multivariate logistic regression model using CTP score and the RPTB was built, dividing patients into 3 main groups such as favorable prognosis group, moderate prognosis group and poor prognosis group. A clearly-presented and easily-understood decision tree was built with a good predictive value of prognosis in HBV-related ACLF patients after first-time ALSS treatment. It will help maximal the therapeutic value of ALSS treatment and may play an important role in organ allocation for liver transplantation in the future.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#206

 

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Name
Description Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have important biological functions, but their involvement in ovarian cancer remains elusive. We analyzed high-throughput data to identify lncRNAs associated with ovarian cancer outcomes. Our search led to the discovery of lncRNA TOPORS Antisense RNA 1 (TOPORS-AS1). Patients with high TOPORS-AS1 expression had favorable overall survival compared to low expression. This association was replicated in our study and confirmed by meta-analysis. In vitro experiments demonstrated that overexpressing TOPORS-AS1 in ovarian cancer cells suppressed cell proliferation and inhibited aggressive cell behaviors, including migration, invasion, and colony formation. Analysis of tumor cell transcriptomes indicated TOPORS-AS1′s influence on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Additional experiments revealed that TOPORS-AS1 increased the phosphorylation of β-catenin and suppressed the expression of CTNNB1, disrupting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Our experiments further discovered that vitamin D receptor (VDR) upregulated TOPORS-AS1 expression and that inhibition of β-catenin by TOPORS-AS1 required a RNA binding protein, hnRNPA2B1 (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2B1). Taken together, these findings suggest that TOPORS-AS1 may behave like a tumor suppressor in ovarian cancer through interrupting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling and that VDR upregulates the expression of TOPORS-AS1. Assessing TOPORS-AS1 expression in ovarian cancer may help predict disease prognosis and develop treatment strategy

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#207

 

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Name
Description Fetuin-A is an inhibitor of ectopic calcification that is expressed mainly in hepatocytes and is secreted into the circulation after posttranslational processing, including glycosylation and phosphorylation. The molecular weight (MW) of fully modified fetuin-A (FM-fetuin-A) is approximately 60 kDa in an immunoblot, which is much higher than the estimated MW by amino acid sequence. Under conditions of calcification stress such as advanced stage chronic kidney disease, fetuin-A prevents calcification by forming colloidal complexes, which are referred to as calciprotein particles (CPP). Since the significance of CPP in this process is unclear, we investigated the effect of synthetic secondary CPP on the level of FM-fetuin-A in HepG2 cells. Secondary CPP increased the level of FM-fetuin-A in dose- and time-dependent manners, but did not affect expression of mRNA for fetuin-A. Treatment with O- and/or N-glycosidase caused a shift of the 60 kDa band of FM-fetuin-A to a lower MW. Preincubation with brefeldin A, an inhibitor of transport of newly synthesized proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus, completely blocked the secondary CPP-induced increase in FM-fetuin-A. Treatment with BAPTA-AM, an intracellular calcium chelating agent, also inhibited the CPP-induced increase in the FM-fetuin-A level. Secondary CPP accelerate posttranslational processing of fetuin-A in HepG2 cells.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#208

 

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Name
Description CHK1 is a crucial DNA damage checkpoint kinase and its activation, which requires ATR and RAD17, leads to inhibition of DNA replication and cell cycle progression. Recently, we reported that SMG7 stabilizes and activates p53 to induce G1 arrest upon DNA damage; here we show that SMG7 plays a critical role in the activation of the ATR-CHK1 axis. Following genotoxic stress, SMG7-null cells exhibit deficient ATR signaling, indicated by the attenuated phosphorylation of CHK1 and RPA32, and importantly, unhindered DNA replication and fork progression. Through its 14-3-3 domain, SMG7 interacts directly with the Ser635-phosphorylated RAD17 and promotes chromatin retention of the 9-1-1 complex by the RAD17-RFC, an essential step to CHK1 activation. Furthermore, through maintenance of CHK1 activity, SMG7 controls G2-M transition and facilitates orderly cell cycle progression during recovery from replication stress. Taken together, our data reveals SMG7 as an indispensable signaling component in the ATR-CHK1 pathway during genotoxic stress response.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#209

 

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Name
Description Steroids are often utilized to manage patients with non-small cell lung cancer brain metastases (NSCLCBM). Steroids and elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) have been associated with decreased overall survival (OS) in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). We retrospectively investigated patients treated with ICI after the diagnosis of NSCLCBM at a single tertiary care institution examing the impact of steroids and NLR. Overall survival (OS) and intracranial progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. 171 patients treated with ICI for NSCLCBM were included. Thirty-six received steroids within 30 days of the start of ICI, and 53 patients had an NLR ≥ 5 before the start of ICI. Upfront steroids was associated with decreased OS on multivariable analysis (median OS 10.5 vs. 17.9 months, p = .03) and intracranial PFS (5.0 vs. 8.7 months, p = .045). NLR ≥ 5 was indicative of worse OS (10.5 vs. 18.4 months, p = .04) but not intracranial PFS (7.2 vs. 7.7 months, p = .61). When NLR and upfront steroids are modeled together, there is a strong interaction (p = .0008) indicating that the impact of steroids depended on the patient’s NLR. In a subgroup analysis, only in patients with NLR < 4 was there a significant difference in OS with upfront steroids (26.1 vs. 15.6 months, p = .032). The impact of steroids on the efficacy of ICI in patients with NSCLCBM is dependent on the patient's NLR underscoring its importance in these patients. Patients with a low NLR, steroid use decreases the efficacy of ICI. These results can inform clinicians about the impact of steroids in patients treated with ICI.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#210

 

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Name
Description Cholesterol is essential for normal brain function and development. Genetic disruptions of sterol biosynthesis result in intellectual and developmental disabilities. Developing neurons synthesize their own cholesterol, and disruption of this process can occur by both genetic and chemical mechanisms. Many commonly prescribed medications interfere with sterol biosynthesis, including haloperidol, aripiprazole, cariprazine, fluoxetine, trazodone and amiodarone. When used during pregnancy, these compounds might have detrimental effects on the developing brain of the offspring. In particular, inhibition of dehydrocholesterol-reductase 7 (DHCR7), the last enzyme in the biosynthesis pathway, results in accumulation of the immediate cholesterol precursor, 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC). 7-DHC is highly unstable, giving rise to toxic oxysterols; this is particularly pronounced in a mouse model when both the mother and the offspring carry the Dhcr7+/- genotype. Studies of human dermal fibroblasts from individuals who carry DCHR7+/- single allele mutations suggest that the same gene*medication interaction also occurs in humans. The public health relevance of these findings is high, as DHCR7-inhibitors can be considered teratogens, and are commonly used by pregnant women. In addition, sterol biosynthesis inhibiting medications should be used with caution in individuals with mutations in sterol biosynthesis genes. In an age of precision medicine, further research in this area could open opportunities to improve patient and fetal/infant safety by tailoring medication prescriptions according to patient genotype and life stage.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#211

 

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Name
Description Diabetes mellitus is a complex and heterogeneous metabolic disorder which is often pre- or post-existent with complications such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, inflammation, chronic kidney disease, diabetic retino- and nephropathies. However, the frequencies of these co-morbidities vary among individuals and across populations. It is, therefore, not unlikely that certain genetic variants might commonly contribute to these conditions. Here, we identified four single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs5186, rs1800795, rs1799983 and rs1800629 in AGTR1, IL6, NOS3 and TNFA genes, respectively) to be commonly associated with each of these conditions. We explored their possible interplay in diabetes and associated complications. The variant allele and haplotype frequencies at these polymorphic loci vary among different super-populations (African, European, admixed Americans, South and East Asians). The variant alleles are particularly highly prevalent in different European and admixed American populations. Differential distribution of these variants in different ethnic groups suggests that certain drugs might be more effective in selective populations rather than all. Therefore, population specific genetic architectures should be considered before considering a drug for these conditions.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#212

 

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Name
Description Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can be differentiated into chondrocyte-like cells. However, implantation of these cells is not without risk given that those transplanted cells may one day undergo ionizing radiation (IR) in patients who develop cancer. We aimed to evaluate the effect of IR on chondrocyte-like cells differentiated from hiPSCs by determining their gene and microRNA expression profile and proteomic analysis. Chondrocyte-like cells differentiated from hiPSCs were placed in a purpose-designed phantom to model laryngeal cancer and irradiated with 1, 2, or 3 Gy. High-throughput analyses were performed to determine the gene and microRNA expression profile based on microarrays. The composition of the medium was also analyzed. The following essential biological processes were activated in these hiPSC-derived chondrocytes after IR: "apoptotic process", "cellular response to DNA damage stimulus", and "regulation of programmed cell death". These findings show the microRNAs that are primarily responsible for controlling the genes of the biological processes described above. We also detected changes in the secretion level of specific cytokines. This study demonstrates that IR activates DNA damage response mechanisms in differentiated cells and that the level of activation is a function of the radiation dose.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#213

 

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Name
Description Results from the latest phase 3 clinical trial testing combinations of immunotherapy and tyrosine-kinase inhibitors for advanced kidney cancer improve standard first-line treatment options for patients.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#214

 

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Name
Description News of two new outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Republic of Guinea, on the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic, signals the need for a change of direction in vaccination strategies in the area.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#215

 

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Name
Description The advent of genetically encoded calcium indicators, along with surgical preparations such as thinned skulls or refractive-index-matched skulls, has enabled mesoscale cortical activity imaging in head-fixed mice. However, neural activity during unrestrained behavior substantially differs from neural activity in head-fixed animals. For whole-cortex imaging in freely behaving mice, we present the ‘mini-mScope’, a widefield, miniaturized, head-mounted fluorescence microscope that is compatible with transparent polymer skull preparations. With a field of view of 8 × 10 mm2 and weighing less than 4 g, the mini-mScope can image most of the mouse dorsal cortex with resolutions ranging from 39 to 56 µm. We used the mini-mScope to record mesoscale calcium activity across the dorsal cortex during sensory-evoked stimuli, open field behaviors, social interactions and transitions from wakefulness to sleep. The mini-mScope is a miniature microscope that can image neural activity at the mesoscale in most of the dorsal cortex of freely behaving mice.

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#216

 

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Name
Description Polycomb-group proteins assemble into two primary complexes—Polycomb repressive complex (PRC) 1 and 2—that safeguard cell fate by repressing gene transcription. Two new studies explore the PRC1 landscape during the transition from gametes to embryos in mice, thus providing insight into the intergenerational transmission of epigenetic information and gene regulation dynamics as embryos prepare for gastrulation.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#217

 

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Name
Description Endocytosis is critical for regulating plasma membrane composition and function. The mechanisms that control the assembly and dynamic rearrangement of the endocytic protein network to enable endocytic vesicle formation have remained elusive. Two endocytic initiator proteins are now shown to form liquid-like condensates to initiate endocytosis.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#218

 

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Name
Description Imaging evanescent waves is of crucial importance for sub-wavelength-scale investigation of various phenomena. However, frequently used techniques for near-field imaging require either a strong perturbation of the field, long acquisition times or complex electron-based tools. Here, we introduce nonlinear near-field optical microscopy (NNOM), which is capable of real-time evanescent wave imaging by nonlinear wave mixing while using only standard optical components. As a proof-of-concept, we present non-perturbative, single-shot mapping of evanescent plasmonic patterns, utilizing the nonlinearity of the host metal, and monitor in real time the externally controlled changes to the patterns. We further demonstrate the ability to extract the full field information—the amplitude and phase of all electric-field components—in a polarization-sensitive, spin-selective manner. This simple and highly tunable technique could be extended to deep sub-wavelength imaging of polaritons in two-dimensional materials or other nanophotonic guided modes, for swift photonic device characterization and optimized light−matter interactions. A near-field imaging approach based on nonlinear wave mixing that can provide a detailed picture of evanescent waves in real time and with a single shot is demonstrated. Using only standard optical components, this approach will make near-field imaging much more affordable and accessible.

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#219

 

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Name
Description Singapore will next month accept visitors who use a mobile travel pass containing digital certificates for COVID-19 tests and vaccines, its aviation regulator said on Monday, becoming one of the first countries to adopt the initiative.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#220

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#221

 

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Name
Description NFTs ... They are still hot.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#222

 

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Name
Description Google has come up with a short video that recollects the terms that the world got acquainted with during the pandemic-stricken year. Through the video, the company urges all to get themselves vaccinated.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#223

 

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Name
Description A woman in Pittsburgh has become the first documented case in a living person of an unusual medical condition where alcohol naturally brews in the bladder from the fermentation of yeast.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#224

 

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Name
Description Does the Covid-19 vaccine cause an allergic reaction? Should I get tested for Covid-19 vaccine allergy? What are polyethylene glycol and polysorbate 80?

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#225

 

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Name
Description New study backs the idea that current health measures still reduce spread.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#228

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#229

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#230

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#231

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#232

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#233

 

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Name
Description Citizens of Australia and New Zealand will be able to travel between the two countries without quarantining at side.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 05 April 2021

#234

 

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Name
Description African DNA is grossly underrepresented in genetic research, but a number of organizations have sprung up to address the problem.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 04 April 2021

#235

 

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Name
Description HERE’S a bunny who bucks the usual practice of hopping from place to place — by walking on its front paws.The sauteur d’Alfort breed, also known

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 04 April 2021

#236

 

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Name
Description COVID-19 vaccination drive in India for citizens above the age of 45 has begun and shots are being offered at most private and public hospitals across the country. To look for a nearby vaccination centre, head to CoWIN or MapMyIndia portal online.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 04 April 2021

#237

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 04 April 2021

#238

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 04 April 2021