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#1

 

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Description Cardiovascular (CV) morbidity is the major cause of death in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Previous studies on mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene polymorphisms in SLE patients suggest that low levels of complement MBL are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, as large studies on MBL deficiency based on resulting MBL plasma concentrations are lacking, the aim of our study was to analyze the association of MBL concentrations with CVD in SLE patients. Plasma MBL levels SLE patients included in the Swiss SLE Cohort Study were quantified by ELISA. Five different CV organ manifestations were documented. Of 373 included patients (85.5% female) 62 patients had at least one CV manifestation. Patients with MBL deficiency (levels below 500 ng/ml or 1000 ng/ml) had no significantly increased frequency of CVD (19.4% vs. 15.2%, P = 0.3 or 17.7% vs. 15.7%, P = 0.7). After adjustment for traditional CV risk factors, MBL levels and positive antiphospholipid serology (APL+) a significant association of CVD with age, hypertension, disease duration and APL+ was demonstrated. In our study of a large cohort of patients with SLE, we could not confirm previous studies suggesting MBL deficiency to be associated with an increased risk for CVD.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#2

 

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Description The finding of novel molecular markers for prediction or prognosis of invasiveness in colorectal cancer (CRC) constitutes an appealing challenge. Here we show the up-regulation of EPDR1 in a prospective cohort of 101 CRC patients, in a cDNA array of 43 patients and in in silico analyses. EPDR1 encodes a protein related to ependymins, a family of glycoproteins involved in intercellular contacts. A thorough statistical model allowed us to conclude that the gene is significantly up-regulated in tumour tissues when compared with normal mucosa. These results agree with those obtained by the analysis of three publicly available databases. EPDR1 up-regulation correlates with the TNM staging parameters, especially T and M. Studies with CRC cell lines revealed that the methylation of a CpG island controls EPDR1 expression. siRNA knocking-down and overexpression of the gene following transient plasmid transfection, showed that EPDR1 favours cell proliferation, migration, invasiveness and adhesion to type I collagen fibres, suggesting a role in epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Both statistical and functional analysis correlated EPDR1 overexpression with invasiveness and dissemination of tumour cells, supporting the inclusion of EPDR1 in panels of genes used to improve molecular subtyping of CRC. Eventually, EPDR1 may be an actionable target.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#3

 

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Description A critical limitation of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) as an anti-cancer agent is the loss of their invasive or replicative activities, which results in no or less delivery of anti-cancer agents inside cancer cells in cancer therapy. Here we developed an oxytolerant attenuated Salmonella strain (KST0650) from the parental KST0649 (ΔptsIΔcrr) strain using radiation mutation technology (RMT). The oxytolerant KST0650 strain possessed 20-times higher replication activity in CT26 cancer cells and was less virulent than KST0649. Furthermore, KST0650 migrated effectively into tumor tissues in mice. KST0650 was further equipped with a plasmid harboring a spliced form of the intracellular pro-apoptotic protein sATF6, and the expression of sATF6 was controlled by the radiation-inducible recN promoter. The new strain was named as KST0652, in which sATF6 protein expression was induced in response to radiation in a dose-dependent manner. This strain was effectively delivered inside cancer cells and tumor tissues via the Salmonella type III secretion system (T3SS). In addition, combination treatment with KST0652 and radiation showed a synergistic anti-tumor effect in murine tumor model with complete inhibition of tumor growth and protection against death. In conclusion, we showed that RMT can be used to effectively develop an anti-tumor Salmonella strain for delivering anti-cancer agents inside tumors.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#4

 

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Description To investigate whether automated volumetric radiomic analysis of breast cancer vascularization (VAV) can improve survival prediction in primary breast cancer. 314 consecutive patients with primary invasive breast cancer received standard clinical MRI before the initiation of treatment according to international recommendations. Diagnostic work-up, treatment, and follow-up was done at one tertiary care, academic breast-center (outcome: disease specific survival/DSS vs. disease specific death/DSD). The Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) was used as the reference method with which to predict survival of breast cancer. Based on the MRI scans, VAV was accomplished by commercially available, FDA-cleared software. DSD served as endpoint. Integration of VAV into the NPI gave NPIVAV. Prediction of DSD by NPIVAV compared to standard NPI alone was investigated (Cox regression, likelihood-test, predictive accuracy: Harrell’s C, Kaplan Meier statistics and corresponding hazard ratios/HR, confidence intervals/CI). DSD occurred in 35 and DSS in 279 patients. Prognostication of the survival outcome by NPI (Harrell’s C = 75.3%) was enhanced by VAV (NPIVAV: Harrell’s C = 81.0%). Most of all, the NPIVAV identified patients with unfavourable outcome more reliably than NPI alone (hazard ratio/HR = 4.5; confidence interval/CI = 2.14-9.58; P = 0.0001). Automated volumetric radiomic analysis of breast cancer vascularization improved survival prediction in primary breast cancer. Most of all, it optimized the identification of patients at higher risk of an unfavorable outcome. Future studies should integrate MRI as a “gate keeper” in the management of breast cancer patients. Such a “gate keeper” could assist in selecting patients benefitting from more advanced diagnostic procedures (genetic profiling etc.) in order to decide whether are a more aggressive therapy (chemotherapy) is warranted.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#5

 

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Description Campylobacter is the major bacterial agent of human gastroenteritis worldwide and represents a crucial global public health burden. Species differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli and phylogenetic analysis is challenged by inter-species horizontal gene transfer. Routine real-time PCR on more than 4000 C. jejuni and C. coli field strains identified isolates with ambiguous PCR results for species differentiation, in particular, from the isolation source eggs. K-mer analysis of whole genome sequencing data indicated the presence of C. coli hybrid strains with huge amounts of C. jejuni introgression. Recombination events were distributed over the whole chromosome. MLST typing was impaired, since C. jejuni sequences were also found in six of the seven housekeeping genes. cgMLST suggested that the strains were phylogenetically unrelated. Intriguingly, the strains shared a stress response set of C. jejuni variant genes, with proposed roles in oxidative, osmotic and general stress defence, chromosome maintenance and repair, membrane transport, cell wall and capsular biosynthesis and chemotaxis. The results have practical impact on routine typing and on the understanding of the functional adaption to harsh environments, enabling successful spreading and persistence of Campylobacter.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#6

 

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Description The presence of a disease continuum in inflammatory arthritis (IA) is a recognised concept, with distinct stages from at-risk stage (presence of anti citrullinated-peptide autoantibody) to diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), including therapy-induced remission. Despite T-cell dysregulation being a key feature of RA, there are few reports of T-cell phenotyping along the IA-continuum. We investigated the disturbances of naïve, regulatory and inflammation related cell (IRC) CD4+ T-cell subsets in 705 individuals across the IA-continuum, developing a simple risk-score (summing presence/absence of a risk-associated with a subset) to predict progression from one stage to the next. In 158 at-risk individuals, the 3 subsets had individual association with progression to IA and the risk-score was highly predictive (p < 0.0001). In evolving IA patients, 219/294 developed RA; the risk-score included naïve and/or Treg and predicted progression (p < 0.0001). In 120 untreated RA patients, the risk-score for predicting treatment-induced remission using naïve T-cells had an odds ratio of 15.4 (p < 0.0001). In RA patients in treatment-induced remission, a score using naïve T-cells predicted disease flare (p < 0.0001). Evaluating the risk of progression using naïve CD4+ T-cells was predictive of progression along the whole IA-continuum. This should allow identification of individuals at high-risk of progression, permitting targeted therapy for improved outcomes.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#7

 

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Description Several patients with thyroid cancer experience symptom distress after diagnosis and surgery. Data on the association between symptomatology and disease recurrence are limited. A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was performed, and 57 patients who had recurrence after operation of differentiated thyroid cancer were identified. Controlling for age, sex, surgery, and tumour stage, 114 patients without recurrent disease were selected by case-control matching. Subjective symptoms at follow-up visits were extracted from medical records and classified into three symptom clusters: pharyngolaryngeal, psychoneurological, and gastrointestinal. Compared to the control group, patients with recurrence had higher symptom totals in the pharyngolaryngeal (P < 0.001) and psychoneurological clusters (P = 0.005). Symptom score >3 yielded a sensitivity of 61.4% and a specificity of 80.7% to predict recurrence. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that high symptom score (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.184), family history of thyroid cancer (HR = 2.463), and obesity (HR = 1.981) were independently associated with disease recurrence. Taken together, the likelihood of postoperative recurrence seemed to increase with high self-perceived symptom burden, family history, and obesity in patients with thyroid cancer. The results could be applied to the recurrence surveillance and symptomatic management of thyroid cancer post-operation.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#8

 

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Description Yoshida, Gowers et al. examined somatic mutations in normal lung epithelium to better understand the effects of tobacco smoking, and stopping smoking, on normal tissue biology and how these effects relate to lung cancer development.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#9

 

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Description Targeted delivery of a nanovaccine loaded with a tumor antigen and adjuvant to the lymph nodes (LNs) is an attractive approach for improving cancer immunotherapy outcomes. However, the application of this technique is restricted by the paucity of suitable tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and the sophisticated technology required to identify tumor neoantigens. Here, we demonstrate that a self-assembling melittin-lipid nanoparticle (α-melittin-NP) that is not loaded with extra tumor antigens promotes whole tumor antigen release in situ and results in the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in LNs. Compared with free melittin, α-melittin-NPs markedly enhance LN accumulation and activation of APCs, leading to a 3.6-fold increase in antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Furthermore, in a bilateral flank B16F10 tumor model, primary and distant tumor growth are significantly inhibited by α-melittin-NPs, with an inhibition rate of 95% and 92%, respectively. Thus, α-melittin-NPs induce a systemic anti-tumor response serving as an effective LN-targeted whole-cell nanovaccine. The bee venom melittin has anti-tumor properties but is unsuitable for therapeutic use on its own. Here, the authors generate melittin-nanoparticles and demonstrate that the nanoparticles reduce tumor growth and generate an anti-tumor immune response.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#10

 

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Description The interaction between immune cells and phosphatidylserine (PS) molecules exposed on the surface of apoptotic-tumor bodies, such as those induced by chemotherapies, contributes to the formation of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Annexin A5 (AnxA5) binds with high affinity to PS externalized by apoptotic cells, thereby hindering their interaction with immune cells. Here, we show that AnxA5 administration rescue the immunosuppressive state of the TME induced by chemotherapy. Due to the preferential homing of AnxA5 to the TME enriched with PS+ tumor cells, we demonstrate in vivo that fusing tumor-antigen peptide to AnxA5 significantly enhances its immunogenicity and antitumor efficacy when administered after chemotherapy. Also, the therapeutic antitumor effect of an AnxA5-peptide fusion can be further enhanced by administration of other immune checkpoint inhibitors. Our findings support the administration of AnxA5 following chemotherapy as a promising immune checkpoint inhibitor for cancer treatment. AnnexinV has been shown to bind phosphatidylserine expressed by chemotherapy-induced apoptotic cells increasing their immunogeneicity. Here, the authors demonstrate in a preclinical tumor model that fusing tumor-antigen peptide to Annexin V enhances its efficacy when administered after chemotherapy and with other immune checkpoint inhibitors.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#11

 

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Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#12

 

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Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#13

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#14

 

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Description Internet search giant Baidu has warned the deadly coronavirus outbreak could drive revenues down in the first quarter, as it reported steady annual revenue growth.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#15

 

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Description Geneva International Motor Show is likely to be cancelled following a ban of large-scale events in Swtizerland.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#16

 

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Description New research from McMaster and McMaster Children’s Hospital shows that two out of three young mothers have at least one mental health problem. Researchers found that teen mothers have a much higher prevalence of mental health challenges than mothers aged 21 and older and teens who aren’t par

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#17

 

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Description During the life-cycle of FDA regulated products, FDA collects data from a diversity of sources including voluntary reports from healthcare providers and patients. While cause and effect are not always conclusive or relevant in these reports, valuable insights into the impact of regulated products on

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#18

 

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Description Asthma is the most common chronic childhood disease and is the primary reason why children miss school or end up in hospital. New research from Simon Fraser University and the CHILD Cohort Study shows that frequent exposure to common household cleaning products can increase a child’s risk of

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#19

 

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Description Instagram has released a Progressive Web App (PWA) on the Microsoft Store for Windows 10 users. The app is available as an update and comes with direct messaging features.

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#20

 

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Description I dare you to say his name.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#21

 

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Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#22

 

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Description Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a deacetylase that modulates proteins that control metabolism and protects against oxidative stress. Modulation of SIRT3 activity has been proposed as a promising therapeutic target for ameliorating metabolic diseases and associated cardiac disturbances. In this study, we investigated the role of SIRT3 in inflammation and fibrosis in the heart using male mice with constitutive and systemic deletion of SIRT3 and human cardiac AC16 cells. SIRT3 knockout mice showed cardiac fibrosis and inflammation that was characterized by augmented transcriptional activity of AP-1. Consistent with this, SIRT3 overexpression in human and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes partially prevented the inflammatory and profibrotic response induced by TNF-α. Notably, these effects were associated with a decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of FOS and the DNA-binding activity of AP-1. Finally, we demonstrated that SIRT3 inhibits FOS transcription through specific histone H3 lysine K27 deacetylation at its promoter. These findings highlight an important function of SIRT3 in mediating the often intricate profibrotic and proinflammatory responses of cardiac cells through the modulation of the FOS/AP-1 pathway. Since fibrosis and inflammation are crucial in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and diabetic cardiomyopathy, our results point to SIRT3 as a potential target for treating these diseases.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#23

 

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Description A new analysis suggests that 100,000 overdose deaths in the US due to unspecified drugs were actually caused by opioids – bringing the total death count to more than 450,000 people

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#24

 

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Description The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention has provided information about how the novel coronavirus could affect the US.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#25

 

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Description Major depressive disorder with psychotic features (psychotic depression) is a severe disorder. Compared with other psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, relatively few studies on the neurobiology of psychotic depression have been pursued. Neuroimaging studies investigating psychotic depression have provided evidence for distributed structural brain abnormalities implicating the insular cortex and limbic system. We examined structural brain networks in participants (N = 245) using magnetic resonance imaging. This sample included healthy controls (n = 159) and the largest cross-sectional sample of patients with remitted psychotic depression (n = 86) collected to date. All patients participated in the Study of Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression II randomized controlled trial. We used a novel, whole-brain, data-driven parcellation technique—non-negative matrix factorization—and applied it to cortical thickness data to derive structural covariance networks. We compared patients with remitted psychotic depression to healthy controls and found that patients had significantly thinner cortex in five structural covariance networks (insular-limbic, occipito-temporal, temporal, parahippocampal-limbic, and inferior fronto-temporal), confirming our hypothesis that affected brain networks would incorporate cortico-limbic regions. We also found that cross-sectional depression and severity scores at the time of scanning were associated with the insular-limbic network. Furthermore, the insular-limbic network predicted future severity scores that were collected at the time of recurrence of psychotic depression or sustained remission. Overall, decreased cortical thickness was found in five structural brain networks in patients with remitted psychotic depression and brain-behavior relationships were observed, particularly between the insular-limbic network and illness severity.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#27

 

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Description Facebook Inc said on Thursday it would cancel its annual developer conference due to fears over the coronavirus, as growing concerns about the economic impact of the global outbreak drove Wall Street to tumble for a sixth straight day.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#28

 

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Description Facebook said on Thursday it would cancel its annual developer conference due to fears over the coronavirus, as growing concerns about the economic impact of the global outbreak drove Wall Street to tumble for a sixth straight day.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#29

 

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Description Three more companies have joined the ever growing list of attendees to cancel their presence at GDC 2020. This time, Microsoft, Epic, and Unity have announced that they will withdraw from the event due to coronavirus risks.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#30

 

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Description Facebook on Thursday confirmed that it has called out its annual F8 developers conference due to the coronavirus outbreak.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#31

 

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Description Through its competitive funding schemes and professional support, the Hong Kong Baptist University's Knowledge Transfer Office spurs open innovation in China’s Greater Bay Area.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#32

 

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Description HPV vaccine hesitancy in Japan could result in 5,000 additional deaths from the disease, a study by Japan and Australia scientists suggests.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#33

 

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Description One of Singapore’s robotics pioneers, Professor Marcelo Ang Jr’s research promises to take driverless cars and personal robotic assistants outside the realm of imagination and into the mainstream.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#34

 

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Description Radiomic features hold potential to improve prediction of disease-free survival (DFS) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and may show better performance if developed from TNBC patients. We aimed to develop a radiomics score based on MRI features to estimate DFS in patients with TNBC. A total of 228 TNBC patients who underwent preoperative MRI and surgery between April 2012 and December 2016 were included. Patients were temporally divided into the training (n = 169) and validation (n = 59) set. Radiomic features of the tumor were extracted from T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced T1- weighted MRI. Then a radiomics score was constructed with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression in the training set. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine what associations the radiomics score and clinicopathologic variables had with DFS. A combined clinicopathologic-radiomic (CCR) model was constructed based on multivariate Cox analysis. The incremental values of the radiomics score were evaluated by using the integrated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (iAUC) and bootstrapping (n = 1000). The radiomics score, which consisted of 5 selected MRI features, was significantly associated with worse DFS in both the training and validation sets (p = 0.002, p = 0.033, respectively). In both the training and validation set, the radiomics score showed comparable performance with the clinicopathologic model. The CCR model demonstrated better performance than the clinicopathologic model in the training set (iAUC, 0.844; difference in iAUC, p < 0.001) and validation set (iAUC, 0.765, difference in iAUC, p < 0.001). In conclusion, MRI-based radiomic features can improve the prediction of DFS when integrated with clinicopathologic data in patients with TNBC.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#35

 

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Description Histone modifications govern chromatin structures and regulate gene expression to orchestrate cellular functions in the central nervous system, where neuronal cells are postmitotic and developmentally inactive, the functional and age-dependent changes also accumulate in the epigenetic states. Because the brain is composed of several types of cells, such as the neurons, glial cells, and vascular cells, the analysis of histone modifications using bulk brain tissue might obscure alterations specific to neuronal cells. Furthermore, among the various epigenetic traits, analysis of the genome-wide distribution of DNA methylation in the bulk brain is predominantly a reflection of DNA methylation of the non-neuronal cells, which may be a potential caveat of previous studies on neurodegenerative diseases using bulk brains. In this study, we established a method of neuron-specific ChIP-seq assay, which allows for the analysis of genome-wide distribution of histone modifications specifically in the neuronal cells derived from post-mortem brains. We successfully enriched neuronal information with high reproducibility and high signal-to-noise ratio. Our method will further facilitate the understanding of neurodegeneration.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#36

 

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Description During mung bean post-germination seedling growth, various metabolic and physiological changes occurred, leading to the improvement of its nutritional values. Here, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses of mung bean samples from 6-hour, 3-day and 6-day after imbibition (6-HAI, 3-DAI, and 6-DAI) were performed to characterize the regulatory mechanism of the primary metabolites during the post-germination seedling growth. From 6-HAI to 3-DAI, rapid changes in transcript level occurred, including starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis, citrate cycle, amino acids synthesis, and plant hormones regulation. Later changes in the metabolites, including carbohydrates and amino acids, appeared to be driven by increases in transcript levels. During this process, most amino acids and monosaccharides kept increasing, and accumulated in 6-day germinated sprouts. These processes were also accompanied with changes in hormones including abscisic acid, gibberellin, jasmonic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, etc. Overall, these results will provide insights into molecular mechanisms underlying the primary metabolic regulation in mung bean during post-germination seedling growth.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#37

 

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Description Contact interaction of neuronal cells with extracellular nanometric features can be exploited to investigate and modulate cellular responses. By exploiting nanogratings (NGs) with linewidth from 500 nm down to 100 nm, we here study neurite contact guidance along ultra-small directional topographies. The impact of NG lateral dimension on the neuronal morphotype, neurite alignment, focal adhesion (FA) development and YAP activation is investigated in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiating PC12 cells and in primary hippocampal neurons, by confocal and live-cell total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, and at molecular level. We demonstrate that loss of neurite guidance occurs in NGs with periodicity below 400 nm and correlates with a loss of FA lateral constriction and spatial organization. We found that YAP intracellular localization is modulated by the presence of NGs, but it is not sensitive to their periodicity. Nocodazole, a drug that can increase cell contractility, is finally tested for rescuing neurite alignment showing mild ameliorative effects. Our results provide new indications for a rational design of biocompatible scaffolds for enhancing nerve-regeneration processes.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#38

 

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Description We investigated the impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) in elderly deceased-donors (DDs) vs. AKI in young DDs on post-transplant clinical outcomes. A total of 709 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) from 602 DDs at four transplant centers were enrolled. KTRs were divided into young-DDKT and elderly-DDKT groups according to the age of DD of 60 years. Both groups were subdivided into non-AKI-KT and AKI-KT subgroups according to AKI in DDs. We investigated short-term and long-term clinical outcomes of non-AKI-DDKT and AKI-DDKT subgroups within young-DDKT and elderly-DDKT groups. The incidence of DGF in the AKI-DDKT subgroup was higher and the allograft function within 12 months after KT in the AKI-DDKT subgroup was lower than those in the non-AKI-DDKT subgroup in both young-DDKT and elderly-DDKT groups. Death-censored allograft survival rate was significantly lower in the AKI-elderly-DDKT subgroup than that in the non-AKI-elderly-DDKT subgroup, but it did not differ between AKI-young-DDKT and non-AKI-young-DDKT subgroup. In multivariable analysis, AKI-elderly-DDKT was an independent risk factor for allograft failure (hazard ratio: 2.648, 95% CI: 1.170–5.994, p = 0.019) and a significant interaction between AKI and old age in DDs on allograft failure was observed (p = 0.001). AKI in elderly DDs, but not in young DDs, can significantly affect long-term allograft outcomes of KTRs.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#39

 

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Description The incidence of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration disease, caused by changes in the osmotic pressure of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, increases with age. In general, low back pain is associated with IVD degeneration. However, the mechanism and molecular target of low back pain have not been elucidated, and there are no data suggesting specific biomarkers of low back pain. Therefore, the research aims to identify and verify the significant gene biomarkers of low back pain. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and the identification and analysis of significant gene biomarkers were also performed with various bioinformatics programs. A total of 120 patients with low back pain were recruited. Before surgery, the degree of pain was measured by the numeric rating scale (NRS), which enables comparison of the pain scores from individuals. After surgery, IVD tissues were obtained, and NP cells were isolated. The NP cells were cultured in two various osmotic media, including iso-osmotic media (293 mOsm/kg H2O) to account for the morbid environment of NP cells in IVD degeneration disease and hyper-osmotic media (450 mOsm/kg H2O) to account for the normal condition of NP cells in healthy individuals. The relative mRNA expression levels of CCL5, OPRL1, CXCL13, and SST were measured by quantitative real-time PCR in the in vitro analysis of the osmotic pressure experiments. Finally, correlation analysis and a neural network module were employed to explore the linkage between significant gene biomarkers and pain. A total of 371 DEGs were identified, including 128 downregulated genes and 243 upregulated genes. Furthermore, the four genes (CCL5, OPRL1, SST, and CXCL13) were identified as significant gene biomarkers of low back pain (P < 0.001) based on univariate linear regression, and CCL5 (odds ratio, 34.667; P = 0.003) and OPRL1 (odds ratio, 19.875; P < 0.001) were significantly related to low back pain through multivariate logistic regression. The expression of CCL5 and OPRL1 might be correlated with low back pain in patients with IVD degeneration disease caused by changes in the osmotic pressure of NP cells.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#40

 

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Description Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections comprise a leading cause of newborn impairments worldwide and are pervasive concerns among the immunocompromised. Quantification of CMV viral loads is increasingly used to guide definitions of CMV disease but standardization of CMV quantitation remains problematic, mostly due to differences in qPCR amplicon sizes between clinical laboratories. Here, we used plasma cfDNA sequencing data from 2,208 samples sent for non-invasive prenatal aneuploidy screening to detect CMV and precisely measure the length of CMV fragments in human plasma. CMV reads were identified in 120 (5.4%) samples. Median cfDNA fragment size derived from CMV was significantly shorter than cfDNA derived from human chromosomes (103 vs 172 bp, p < 0.0001), corresponding to the 3rd percentile of human cfDNA. Sequencing of cfDNA from seven plasma samples from transplant patients positive for CMV confirmed the extraordinarily short nature of CMV cfDNA fragment size with a median length of 149 bp. We further show that these high-resolution measurements of CMV DNA fragment size accurately predict measured discrepancies in serum viral load measurements by different qPCR assays. These results highlight the exceptionally fragmented nature of CMV cfDNA and illustrate the promise of plasma cfDNA sequencing for quantitating viral loads through detection of fragments that would be unrecoverable by qPCR.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#41

 

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Description Th17 cells are critical drivers of autoimmune diseases and immunopathology. There is an unmet need to develop therapies targeting pathogenic Th17 cells for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. Here, we report that anxiolytic FGIN-1-27 inhibits differentiation and pathogenicity of Th17 cells in vitro and in vivo using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of Th17 cell-driven pathology. Remarkably, we found that the effects of FGIN-1-27 were independent of translocator protein (TSPO), the reported target for this small molecule, and instead were driven by a metabolic switch in Th17 cells that led to the induction of the amino acid starvation response and altered cellular fatty acid composition. Our findings suggest that the small molecule FGIN-1-27 can be re-purposed to relieve autoimmunity by metabolic reprogramming of pathogenic Th17 cells.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#42

 

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Name
Description Situs inversus (SI), a left-right mirror reversal of the visceral organs, can occur with recessive Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD). However, most people with SI do not have PCD, and the etiology of their condition remains poorly studied. We sequenced the genomes of 15 people with SI, of which six had PCD, as well as 15 controls. Subjects with non-PCD SI in this sample had an elevated rate of left-handedness (five out of nine), which suggested possible developmental mechanisms linking brain and body laterality. The six SI subjects with PCD all had likely recessive mutations in genes already known to cause PCD. Two non-PCD SI cases also had recessive mutations in known PCD genes, suggesting reduced penetrance for PCD in some SI cases. One non-PCD SI case had recessive mutations in PKD1L1, and another in CFAP52 (also known as WDR16). Both of these genes have previously been linked to SI without PCD. However, five of the nine non-PCD SI cases, including three of the left-handers in this dataset, had no obvious monogenic basis for their condition. Environmental influences, or possible random effects in early development, must be considered.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 28 February 2020

#43

 

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Name
Description Facebook Inc said on Wednesday it would ban advertisements for products offering any cures or prevention around the coronavirus outbreak, and those that create a sense of urgency around the situation.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#44

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#45

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#46

 

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Name
Description Many children with autism face developmental delays, including communication and behavioral challenges and difficulties with social interaction. This makes learning new skills a major challenge, especially in traditional ...

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#47

 

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Name
Description With the covid-19 virus spreading in a growing number of countries, many of us are wondering if and how we should prepare. Here's what to do

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#48

 

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Name
Description One kind of bacteria can cause colon tumours, while lacking another kind of microbe may lead to ulcerative colitis, an inflammatory bowel condition

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#49

 

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Name
Description Obesity is one of the most important risk factors of knee osteoarthritis (KOA), but its impact on clinical and functional consequences is less clear. The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to describe the relation between body mass index (BMI) and clinical expression of KOA. Participants with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and KOA completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires. They were classified according to BMI in three groups: overweight (BMI 25–30 kg/m2), stage I obesity (BMI 30–35 kg/m2) and stage II/III obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2). The groups were compared in terms of pain, physical disability, level of physical activity (PA) and fears and beliefs concerning KOA. Among the 391 individuals included, 57.0% were overweight, 28.4% had stage I obesity and 14.6% had stage II/III obesity. Mean pain score on a 10-point visual analog scale was 4.3 (SD 2.4), 5.0 (SD 2.6) and 5.2 (SD 2.3) with overweight, stage I and stage II/III obesity, respectively (p = 0.0367). The mean WOMAC function score (out of 100) was 36.2 (SD 20.1), 39.5 (SD 21.4) and 45.6 (SD 18.4), respectively (p = 0.0409). The Knee Osteoarthritis Fears and Beliefs Questionnaire total score (KOFBEQ), daily activity score and physician score significantly differed among BMI groups (p = 0.0204, p = 0.0389 and p = 0.0413, respectively), and the PA level significantly differed (p = 0.0219). We found a dose–response relation between BMI and the clinical consequences of KOA. Strategies to treat KOA should differ by obesity severity. High PA level was associated with low BMI and contributes to preventing the clinical consequences of KOA.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#50

 

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Name
Description Listening to songs is a complex task for the brain, so it uses the left hemisphere to process the lyrics while the right hemisphere processes the melody

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#51

 

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Name
Description Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have identified a molecular pathway that when silenced could restore the normal function of immune cells in people with fatty liver disease. The findings could lead to new strategies for treating the condition, which is a major health risk for people wi

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#52

 

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Name
Description In Mouse Study, Stem Cells Migrated to Proper Locations in Fetal Brain and Body, Differentiated Into Cells That Produce Crucial Misssing Protein. Administering stem cell or enzyme therapy in utero may be a path to alleviating some congenital diseases that often result in losing a pregnancy, accordi

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#53

 

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Name
Description Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) aims to restore an altered microbiota and has been suggested as a potential treatment option for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), among other diseases. A new study suggests that the use of a so-called superdonor is necessary to successfully treat patients with IBS using FMT.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#54

 

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Name
Description An international research team has been able to describe the overall structure of the antibody type IgE, which is the key molecule in allergic diseases. This is a scientific breakthrough that provides important insights into basic mechanisms of allergic reactions and may pave the way for more effect

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#55

 

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Name
Description In a new study, cryopreserved human hepatocytes retrieved from livers deemed unsuitable for transplantation were thawed and encapsulated into alginate microbeads and then infused into the peritoneal cavity of a group of children with acute liver failure who were awaiting liver transplantation.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#56

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#58

 

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Name
Description Blood serum is enriched in lipids and has provided a platform to understand the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases with improved diagnosis and development of biomarkers. Understanding lipid changes in neurodegenerative diseases is particularly important because of the fact that lipids make up >50% of brain tissues. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a common cause of early onset dementia, characterized by brain atrophy in the frontal and temporal regions, concomitant loss of lipids and dyslipidemia. However, little is known about the link between dyslipidemia and FTD pathophysiology. Here, we utilized an innovative approach – lipidomics based on mass spectrometry – to investigate three key aspects of FTD pathophysiology – mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, and oxidative stress. We analyzed the lipids that are intrinsically linked to neurodegeneration in serum collected from FTD patients and controls. We found that cardiolipin, acylcarnitine, lysophosphatidylcholine, platelet-activating factor, o-acyl-ω-hydroxy fatty acid and acrolein were specifically altered in FTD with strong correlation between the lipids, signifying pathophysiological changes in FTD. The lipid changes were verified by measurement of the common disease markers (e.g. ATP, cytokine, calcium) using conventional assays. When put together, these results support the use of lipidomics technology to detect pathophysiological changes in FTD.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#59

 

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Name
Description Gene expression is a biological process regulated at different molecular levels, including chromatin accessibility, transcription, and RNA maturation and transport. In addition, these regulatory mechanisms have strong links with cellular metabolism. Here we present a multi-omics dataset that captures different aspects of this multi-layered process in yeast. We obtained RNA-seq, metabolomics, and H4K12ac ChIP-seq data for wild-type and mip6Δ strains during a heat-shock time course. Mip6 is an RNA-binding protein that contributes to RNA export during environmental stress and is informative of the contribution of post-transcriptional regulation to control cellular adaptations to environmental changes. The experiment was performed in quadruplicate, and the different omics measurements were obtained from the same biological samples, which facilitates the integration and analysis of data using covariance-based methods. We validate our dataset by showing that ChIP-seq, RNA-seq and metabolomics signals recapitulate existing knowledge about the response of ribosomal genes and the contribution of trehalose metabolism to heat stress. Raw data, processed data and preprocessing scripts are made available. Machine-accessible metadata file describing the reported data: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.11836743

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#60

 

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Description Although the coronavirus outbreak has slowed down the global supply-chain for industries across the spectrum, the need of the hour is to not only have a diverse portfolio of products but also a diverse portfolio of factories so that such unpredictable situations can be tackled in an efficient way in the future, a top HP Inc executive has said.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#61

 

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Name
Description The first half of Doctor Who’s season finale brought dread and wants to answer it with hope.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#62

 

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Name
Description An atmosphere of distrust is certainly something we don’t need during this critical time.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#63

 

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Description Foreign firms in virus-hit China are expecting large drops in revenue, especially for the first half of the year, with some planning to lower their business targets, said trade associations on Thursday.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#64

 

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Name
Description Facebook said Wednesday that it is banning ads that make false claims about products tied to the new coronavirus.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#65

 

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Name
Description Air France is taking new cost-cutting measures, including a partial hiring freeze, to offset the impact of the coronavirus outbreak on the travel sector, according to an internal letter obtained by AFP.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#66

 

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Name
Description Researchers hope serological testing will help them better understand the epidemic

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#67

 

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Name
Description A group of scientists say their new research shows that contagious diseases like the coronavirus spread like viral videos and other internet memes.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#68

 

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Name
Description Uber, Airbnb, and Grubhub have taken big hits to their stock prices as people opt out of the sharing economy.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#69

 

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Name
Description In a move that could help realize the promise of new strategies to control HIV, Rockefeller has entered a licensing agreement with a global pharmaceutical company to advance the development of investigational drugs based on broadly neutralizing antibodies discovered at the university. In a recent ea

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#70

 

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Name
Description Skin-to-skin contact between a babywearing just a diaper and a parent with a bare chest has scientifically proven physiological benefits for infants. They’re less likely to intermittently stop breathing. Their heart rate and blood sugar are less likely to drop to dangerous levels. Their body tempera

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#71

 

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Name
Description There is no way the coronavirus could be active long enough on a surface for it to become contagious through the touching of a package or a product from China.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#72

 

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Name
Description For people in Japan, whose life expectancies are among the longest in the world and who enjoy universal health coverage, their general mindset is, “I go to the hospital if I get sick.” But this attitude will have to change as Japan’s population rapidly grays and shrinks, warned University of Toky

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#73

 

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Name
Description The Facebook F8 developer conference usually takes place in late April, but has now been canceled due to fears surrounding the spread of coronavirus.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#74

 

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Name
Description People who have been treated in intensive care commonly suffer from residual cognitive impairment, but the reason for this is unknown. Researchers at Karolinska Institutet now link cognitive impairment with lasting inflammation and a potential treatment target. The results are presented in the scien

#Medicine & Human body;#Software
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#75

 

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Name
Description Facebook said on Wednesday it would ban advertisements for products offering any cures or prevention around the coronavirus outbreak, and those that create a sense of urgency around the situation.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#76

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#77

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#78

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#79

 

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Name
Description Tech giant Amazon is warning third-party sellers on its marketplace to refrain from charging exorbitant pricing for face masks amid the deadly novel coronavirus outbreak that is spreading globally.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#80

 

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Name
Description The biggest games event of the year is under threat of being cancelled as Microsoft, Epic Games, Unity, Sony, EA, Facebook and Kojima all drop out.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#81

 

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Name
Description The latest case is in the same county where hundreds of evacuees were quarantined.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#82

 

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Name
Description Facebook will offer "locally hosted events, videos, and live streamed content."

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#83

 

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Name
Description “An implied consent process is no substitute for informed consent. Indeed, implied consent is no consent at all.”

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#84

 

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Name
Description Researchers have successfully bypassed the eyes with a brain implant that allows rudimentary vision.

#Medicine & Human body;#Hardware & Devices
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#85

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#86

 

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Name
Description The news: A patient in the US with no history of travel to outbreak hot spots or exposure to someone with coronavirus has been diagnosed with the disease, likely marking the first case of “community spread” inside the country, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has announced.The case: The patient was admitted to UC Davis Medical Center in Sacramento, California, on February 19 from another hospital, but the virus wasn’t diagnosed until four days later.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#87

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#88

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#89

 

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Name
Description Mouse studies challenge the premise of efforts to eliminate painkillers' impact on breathing

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#90

 

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Name
Description Facebook on Thursday canceled its annual F8 developers conference, the biggest annual event for the US tech giant, over fears about the possible spread of the novel coronavirus.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#91

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#92

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#93

 

View it
Name
Description Facebook has cancelled its annual F8 developer conference due to growing concerns over the global coronavirus outbreak.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#94

 

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Name
Description Google, Amazon, Apple, and others are all making big plays in healthcare. The key to it all? Your medical data.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#95

 

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Name
Description Medical health experts share tips to help avoid the spread of the coronavirus.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#96

 

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Name
Description The coronavirus impact on stock prices continued on Thursday with Microsoft and Apple stocks among the hardest hit.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#97

 

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Name
Description HP Reinvent 2020 will not be held in March as planned as a result of the coronavirus outbreak.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#98

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#99

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#100

 

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Name
Description Epigenetic therapy through demethylation of 5-methylcytosine has been largely ineffective in treating lung cancer, most likely due to poor tissue distribution with oral or subcutaneous delivery of drugs such as 5-azacytidine (5AZA). An inhalable, stable dry powder formulation of 5AZA was developed. Pharmacokinetics of inhaled dry powder and aqueous formulations of 5AZA were compared to an injected formulation. Efficacy studies and effect of therapy on the epigenome were conducted in an orthotopic rat lung cancer model for inhaled formulations. Inhaled dry powder 5AZA showed superior pharmacokinetic properties in lung, liver, brain and blood compared to the injected formulation and for all tissues except lung compared to an inhaled aqueous formulation. Only dry powder 5AZA was detected in brain (~4-h half-life). Inhaled dry powder was superior to inhaled aqueous 5AZA in reducing tumour burden 70–95%. Superiority of inhaled 5AZA dry powder was linked to effectively reprogramming the cancer genome through demethylation and gene expression changes in cancer signalling and immune pathways. These findings could lead to widespread use of this drug as the first inhaled dry powder therapeutic for treating local and metastatic lung cancer, for adjuvant therapy, and in combination with immunotherapy to improve patient survival.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#101

 

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Name
Description Seasonal differences in mood and depressive symptoms affect a large percentage of the general population, with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) representing the most common presentation. SAD affects up to 3% of the world’s population, and it tends to be more predominant in females than males. The brainstem has been shown to be affected by photoperiodic changes, and that longer photoperiods are associated with higher neuronal density and decreased depressive-like behaviours. We predict that longer photoperiod days are associated with larger brainstem volumes and lower depressive scores, and that brainstem volume mediates the seasonality of depressive symptoms. Participants (N = 9289, 51.8% females and 48.1% males) ranging in age from 44 to 79 years were scanned by MRI at a single location. Photoperiod was found to be negatively correlated with low mood and anhedonia in females while photoperiod was found to be positively correlated with brainstem volumes. In females, whole brainstem, pons and medulla volumes individually mediated the relationship between photoperiod and both anhedonia and low mood, while midbrain volume mediated the relationship between photoperiod and anhedonia. No mediation effects were seen in males. Our study extends the understanding of the neurobiological factors that contribute to the pathophysiology of seasonal mood variations.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#102

 

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Name
Description Left ventricular (LV) contraction is characterized by shortening and thickening of longitudinal and circumferential fibres. To date, it is poorly understood how LV deformation is altered in the pathogenesis of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus-associated diabetic cardiomyopathy and how this is associated with changes in cardiac structural composition. To gain further insights in these LV alterations, eight-week-old C57BL6/j mice were intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg/kg body weight STZ during 5 consecutive days. Six, 9, and 12 weeks (w) post injections, echocardiographic analysis was performed using a Vevo 3100 device coupled to a 30-MHz linear-frequency transducer. Speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) demonstrated impaired global longitudinal peak strain (GLS) in STZ versus control mice at all time points. 9w STZ animals displayed an impaired global circumferential peak strain (GCS) versus 6w and 12w STZ mice. They further exhibited decreased myocardial deformation behaviour of the anterior and posterior base versus controls, which was paralleled with an elevated collagen I/III protein ratio. Additionally, hypothesis-free proteome analysis by imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) identified regional- and time-dependent changes of proteins affecting sarcomere mechanics between STZ and control mice. In conclusion, STZ-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy changes global cardiac deformation associated with alterations in cardiac sarcomere proteins.

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#103

 

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Name
Description The use of conventional antibiotics has substantial clinical efficacy, however these vital antimicrobial agents are becoming less effective due to the dramatic increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Novel approaches to combat bacterial infections are urgently needed and bacteriocins represent a promising alternative. In this study, the activities of the two-peptide bacteriocin PLNC8 αβ were investigated against different Staphylococcus spp. The peptide sequences of PLNC8 α and β were modified, either through truncation or replacement of all L-amino acids with D-amino acids. Both L- and D-PLNC8 αβ caused rapid disruption of lipid membrane integrity and were effective against both susceptible and antibiotic resistant strains. The D-enantiomer was stable against proteolytic degradation by trypsin compared to the L-enantiomer. Of the truncated peptides, β1–22, β7–34 and β1–20 retained an inhibitory activity. The peptides diffused rapidly (2 min) through the bacterial cell wall and permeabilized the cell membrane, causing swelling with a disorganized peptidoglycan layer. Interestingly, sub-MIC concentrations of PLNC8 αβ substantially enhanced the effects of different antibiotics in an additive or synergistic manner. This study shows that PLNC8 αβ is active against Staphylococcus spp. and may be developed as adjuvant in combination therapy to potentiate the effects of antibiotics and reduce their overall use.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#104

 

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Name
Description Self-expandable metallic stents (SEMSs) have been widely used in the treatment of malignant central airway obstruction. However, few reports focus on the treatment of atelectasis and how to estimate the prior probability of success via SEMSs placement, This current study aimed to study the safety and effectiveness of SEMSs for the treatment of obstructive atelectasis, and the value of preoperative CT enhancement for ventilation of atelectasis via SEMSs placement. A total of 35 patients with obstructive atelectasis (29 male and 6 female) was included from February 2012 to March 2018. The procedures were performed under fluoroscopic guidance, and bronchoscopic laser resection was performed for severe restenosis cases after SEMSs placement. Clinical and functional pulmonary data were recorded before and 3 months after the procedure. Follow-up involved clinical data and radiographic techniques at 48 h and at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month intervals. Thirty-eight SEMSs were successfully implanted in 34 patients, included 29 Y type tracheal stents, 4 small y stents, and 5 straight airway stents. After stenting, 26 cases showed full ventilation, and 3 cases were partially ventilated. The technical success and clinical success was 97.1% and 82.9%, respectively. A higher maximum enhancement CT value was found in patients with full ventilation. Mean follow-up time was 18.8 ± 4.0 months. Eight cases showed restenosis and received endoscopic laser resection, included 1 case underwent removal and 3 cases received second stenting. There were 2 cases of perioperative non-operative death, and 11 cases of post-discharge death (2 cardiac deaths and 9 malignant tumors). The survival rates of 3 months, 1 year and 2 years were 78.6%, 58.5% and 58.5%, respectively. In conclusion, SEMSs placement is safe and effective for obstructive atelectasis, and the preoperative CT enhancement played an important role in estimating the prior probability of success in the treatment of atelectasis via SEMSs placement.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#105

 

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Name
Description Recently, the critical roles played by genetic variants of TREM2 (Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells 2) in Alzheimer’s disease have been aggressively highlighted. However, few studies have focused on the deleterious roles of Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) associated TREM2 variants. In order to get insights into the contributions made by these variants to neurodegeneration, we investigated the influences of four NHD associated TREM2 mutations (Y38C, W50C, T66M, and V126G) on loss-of-function, and followed this with in silico prediction and conventional molecular dynamics simulation. NHD mutations were predicted to be highly deleterious by eight different in silico bioinformatics tools and found to induce conformational changes by molecular dynamics simulation. As compared with the wild-type, the four variants produced substantial differences in the collective motions of loop regions, which not only promoted structural remodeling in the CDR2 (complementarity-determining region 2) loop but also in the CDR1 loop, by changing inter- and intra-loop hydrogen bonding networks. In addition, structural studies in a free energy landscape analysis showed that Y38, T66, and V126 are crucial for maintaining the structural features of CDR1 and CDR2 loops, and that mutations in these positions produced steric clashes and loss of ligand binding. These results showed the presence of mutations in the TREM2 ectodomain induced flexibility and caused structural alterations. Dynamical scenarios, as provided by the present study, may be critical to our understanding of the roles of these TREM2 mutations in neurodegenerative diseases.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#106

 

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Name
Description This study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of crAssphage, pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) as indicators of the reduction of human enteric viruses during wastewater treatment. Thirty-nine samples were collected from three steps at a wastewater treatment plant (raw sewage, secondary-treated sewage, and final effluent) monthly for a 13-month period. In addition to the three indicator viruses, eight human enteric viruses [human adenoviruses, JC and BK polyomaviruses, Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), enteroviruses, and noroviruses of genogroups I, II, and IV] were tested by quantitative PCR. Indicator viruses were consistently detected in the tested samples, except for a few final effluents for crAssphage and TMV. The mean concentrations of crAssphage were significantly higher than those of most tested viruses. The concentrations of crAssphage in raw sewage were positively correlated with the concentrations of all tested human enteric viruses (p <0.05), suggesting the applicability of crAssphage as a suitable indicator to estimate the concentrations of human enteric viruses in raw sewage. The reduction ratios of AiV-1 (1.8 ± 0.7 log10) were the lowest among the tested viruses, followed by TMV (2.0 ± 0.3 log10) and PMMoV (2.0 ± 0.4 log10). Our findings suggested that the use of not only AiV-1 and PMMoV but also TMV as indicators of reductions in viral levels can be applicable during wastewater treatment.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#107

 

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Name
Description Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), which is correlated with changes in the gut microbiota, is a risk factor for neonatal inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs). Maternal hyperglycemia exerts epigenetic effects on genes that encode IEM-associated enzymes, resulting in changes in the neonatal blood metabolome. However, the relationship between maternal gut microbiota and the neonatal blood metabolome remains poorly understood. This study aimed at understanding the connections between maternal gut microbiota and the neonatal blood metabolome in GDM. 1H-NMR-based untargeted metabolomics was performed on maternal fecal samples and targeted metabolomics on the matched neonatal dry blood spots from a cohort of 40 pregnant women, including 22 with GDM and 18 controls. Multi-omic association methods (including Co-Inertia Analysis and Procrustes Analysis) were applied to investigate the relationship between maternal fecal metabolome and the neonatal blood metabolome. Both maternal fecal metabolome and the matched neonatal blood metabolome could be separated along the vector of maternal hyperglycemia. A close relationship between the maternal and neonatal metabolomes was observed by multi-omic association approaches. Twelve out of thirty-two maternal fecal metabolites with altered abundances from 872 1H- NMR features (Bonferroni-adjusted P < 0.05) in women with GDM and the controls were identified, among which 8 metabolites contribute (P < 0.05 in a 999-step permutation test) to the close connection between maternal and the neonatal metabolomes in GDM. Four of these eight maternal fecal metabolites, including lysine, putrescine, guanidinoacetate, and hexadecanedioate, were negatively associated (Spearman rank correlation, coefficient value < −0.6, P < 0.05) with maternal hyperglycemia. Biotin metabolism was enriched (Bonferroni-adjusted P < 0.05 in the hypergeometric test) with the four-hyperglycemia associated fecal metabolites. The results of this study suggested that maternal fecal metabolites contribute to the connections between maternal fecal metabolome and the neonatal blood metabolome and may further affect the risk of IEMs.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#108

 

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Name
Description Hartmann’s reversal procedures are often fraught with complications or failure to recover. This being a fact, it is often difficult to select patients with the optimal indications for a reversal. The post-recovery morbidity and mortality rates in the literature are heterogeneous between 0.8 and 44%. The identification of predictive risk factors of failure of such interventions would therefore be very useful to help the practitioner in his approach. Given these elements, it was important to us to analyze the practice of two French university hospitals in order to highlight such risk factors and to allow surgeons to select the best therapeutic strategy. We performed a bicentric observational retrospective study between 2010 and 2015 that studied the characteristics of patients who had undergone Hartmann surgery and were subsequently reestablished. The aim of the study was to identify factors influencing morbidity and postoperative mortality of Hartmann’s reversal. Primary outcome was complications within the first 90 postoperative days. 240 patients were studied of which 60.4% were men. The mean age was 69.48 years. The median time to reversal was 8 months. 79.17% of patients were operated as emergency cases where the indication was a diverticular complication (39.17%). Seventy patients (29.2%) underwent a reversal and approximately 43% of these had complications within the first 90 postoperative days. The mean age of these seventy patients was 61.3 years old and 65.7% were males. None of them benefited from a reversal in the first three months. We identified some risk factors for morbidity such as pre-operative low albuminemia (p = 0.005) and moderate renal impairment (p = 0.019). However, chronic corticosteroid use (p = 0.004), moderate renal insufficiency (p = 0.014) and coronary artery disease (p = 0.014) seem to favour the development of anastomotic fistula, which is itself, a risk factor for mortality (p = 0.007). Our study highlights an important rate of complications including significant anastomotic fistula after Hartmann’s reversal. Precarious nutritional status and cardiovascular comorbidities should clearly lead us to reconsider the surgical indication for continuity restoration.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#109

 

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Name
Description N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) acetylator status can be classified into three groups depending on the number of rapid alleles (e.g., NAT2*4): rapid, intermediate, and slow acetylators. Such acetylator status may influence the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) during sulfasalazine treatment. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between NAT2 acetylator status and ADRs of sulfasalazine. We searched for qualified studies in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the strength of the association between NAT2 acetylator status and ADRs of sulfasalazine. Nine cohort studies involving 1,077 patients were included in the meta-analysis. NAT2 slow acetylators were associated with an increase in overall ADRs (OR 3.37, 95% CI: 1.43 to 7.93; p = 0.005), discontinuation due to overall ADRs (OR 2.89, 95% CI: 1.72 to 4.86; p < 0.0001), and dose-related ADRs (OR 5.20, 95% CI: 2.44 to 11.08; p < 0.0001), compared with rapid and intermediate acetylators. In conclusion, NAT2 slow acetylators are at risk of ADRs during sulfasalazine treatment. Based on our findings, NAT2 genotyping may be useful to predict the occurrence of ADRs during sulfasalazine treatment.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#110

 

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Name
Description Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in mouse and human lung is associated with oxidative injury and pathogenic inflammation. RSV impairs antioxidant responses by increasing the degradation of transcription factor NRF2, which controls the expression of several antioxidant enzyme (AOE) genes, including catalase. Since catalase is a key enzyme for the dismutation of virus-mediated generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) we developed a model of intranasal supplementation of polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase (PG-CAT) for RSV-infected mice. The results of our study show that PG-CAT supplementation was able to increase specific enzymatic activity along with reduction in H2O2 in the airways and had a significant protective effect against RSV-induced clinical disease and airway pathology. PG-CAT treated mice showed amelioration in airway obstruction, reduction in neutrophil elastase and inflammation. Improved airway hyperresponsiveness was also observed in mice that received PG-CAT as a treatment post-viral inoculation. In addition, PG-CAT greatly reduced the concentration of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-1, TNF-α, IL-9, CXCL1, CCL2, and CCL5 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of RSV-infected mice, without increasing viral replication in the lung. In conclusion, catalase supplementation may represent a novel pharmacologic approach to be explored in human for prevention or treatment of respiratory infections caused by RSV.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#111

 

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Name
Description Hyperprogressive disease (HPD), an unexpected acceleration of tumor growth kinetics, is described in cancer patients treated with anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 agents. Here, our aim was to take into consideration the host and explore whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key genes involved in immune response might predispose to HPD. DNA was extracted from blood-samples from 98 patients treated under CPI monotherapy. Four candidate genes (PD-1, PD-L1, IDO1 and VEGFR2) and 15 potential SNPs were selected. The TGKR (ratio of the slope of tumor growth before treatment and the slope of tumor growth on treatment) was calculated. Hyperprogression was defined as a TGKR≥2. TGKR calculation was feasible for 80 patients (82%). HPD was observed for 11 patients (14%) and was associated with shorter overall survival (P = 0.003). In univariate analysis, HPD was significantly associated with age ≥70 y (P = 0.025), immune-related toxicity (P = 0.016), VEGFR2 rs1870377 A/T or A/A (P = 0.005), PD-L1 rs2282055 G/T or G/G (P = 0.024) and PD-L1 rs2227981 G/A or A/A (P = 0.024). Multivariate analysis confirmed the correlation between HPD and age ≥70 y (P = 0.006), VEGFR2 rs1870377 A/T or A/A (P = 0.007) and PD-L1 rs2282055 G/T or G/G (P = 0.018). Immunogenetics could become integral predictive factors for CPI-based immunotherapy.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#112

 

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Name
Description Hypercholesterolemia accelerates the phenotypes of aging in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). As yet, little is known about the underlying mechanism. We found that hypercholesterolemia downregulates Ten eleven translocation 1 (Tet1) in HSCs. The total HSC population was increased, while the long-term (LT) population, side population and reconstitution capacity of HSCs were significantly decreased in Tet1−/− mice. Expression of the Tet1 catalytic domain in HSCs effectively restored the LT population and reconstitution capacity of HSCs isolated from Tet1−/− mice. While Tet1 deficiency upregulated the expression of p19 and p21 in HSCs by decreasing the H3K27me3 modification, the restoration of Tet1 activity reduced the expression of p19, p21 and p27 by restoring the H3K27me3 and H3K36me3 modifications on these genes. These results indicate that Tet1 plays a critical role in maintaining the quiescence and reconstitution capacity of HSCs and that hypercholesterolemia accelerates HSC aging phenotypes by decreasing Tet1 expression in HSCs.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#113

 

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Name
Description Metacognitive abilities allow us to adjust ongoing behavior and modify future decisions in the absence of external feedback. Although metacognition is critical in many daily life settings, it remains unclear what information is actually being monitored and what kind of information is being used for metacognitive decisions. In the present study, we investigated whether response information connected to perceptual events contribute to metacognitive decision-making. Therefore, we recorded EEG signals during a perceptual color discrimination task while participants were asked to provide an estimate about the quality of their decision on each trial. Critically, the moment participants provided their confidence judgments varied across conditions, thereby changing the amount of action information (e.g., response competition or response fluency) available for metacognitive decisions. Results from three experiments demonstrate that metacognitive performance improved when first-order action information was available at the moment metacognitive decisions about the perceptual task had to be provided. This behavioral effect was accompanied by enhanced functional connectivity (beta phase synchrony) between motor areas and prefrontal regions, exclusively observed during metacognitive decision-making. Our findings demonstrate that action information contributes to metacognitive decision-making, thereby painting a picture of metacognition as a process that integrates sensory evidence and information about our interactions with the world.

#Medicine & Human body;#Software
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#114

 

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Name
Description In humans, parthenogenesis and androgenesis occur naturally in mature cystic ovarian teratomas and androgenetic complete hydatidiform moles (CHM), respectively. Our previous study has reported human parthenogenetic induced pluripotent stem cells from ovarian teratoma–derived fibroblasts and screening of imprinted genes using genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. However, due to the lack of the counterparts of uniparental cells, identification of new imprinted differentially methylated regions has been limited. CHM are inherited from only the paternal genome. In this study, we generated human androgenetic induced pluripotent stem cells (AgHiPSCs) from primary androgenetic fibroblasts derived from CHM. To investigate the pluripotency state of AgHiPSCs, we analyzed their cellular and molecular characteristics. We tested the DNA methylation status of imprinted genes using bisulfite sequencing and demonstrated the androgenetic identity of AgHiPSCs. AgHiPSCs might be an attractive alternative source of human androgenetic embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, AgHiPSCs can be used in regenerative medicine, for analysis of genomic imprinting, to study imprinting-related development, and for disease modeling in humans.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#115

 

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Name
Description A ketamine/xylazine (K/X) mixture is widely used before and during experiments in rodents. However, the impact of short-term use of K/X mixture and its influences on data interpretation have rarely been discussed. In this study, we administered one shot of a K/X mixture and examined acute hepatic responses using biochemical analysis, histopathological examination, and non-invasive imaging to determine the delay required prior to further assessment of the liver to avoid confounding effects triggered by anaesthesia. After the K/X injection, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum was significantly elevated from 3 to 48 h. Obstructed sinusoidal circulation lasting for 24 or 36 h was revealed by DCE-MRI and drug distribution analysis, respectively. Metabolic alterations were detected at 3 h by NMR analysis and FDG-PET. Moreover, ultrasonography showed that lipid droplet accumulation increased from 1 to 16 h and declined thereafter. Taken together, our findings show that the K/X mixture induces acute hepatotoxicity and metabolic disturbance, and these disturbances cause hemodynamical disorders in the liver. The required time interval for recovery from K/X impact was dependent on the chosen assay. It took at least 16 h for metabolic recovery and 36 h for recovery of sinusoidal circulation. However, the liver was not fully recovered from the injury within 48 h.

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#116

 

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Name
Description Endometrial cancer (EC) is the sixth most common cancer in women. Since early EC has a good prognosis, identifying methods for early diagnosis is valuable. Here, we aimed to study the role of HDAC6, which has been indicated important in many kinds of cancers, in EC diagnosis and therapy. First, the expression levels of HDAC6 in EC tissues and cells were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, and through bioinformatics and dual luciferase assays, HDAC6 was found to be a direct target of miR-206. Then, CCK-8, colony formation, wound healing, and Transwell assays were performed; these results indicated that HDAC6 promoted EC cell proliferation, metastasis and invasion, while miR-206 produced the opposite effects. In addition, rescue assays verified that the effect of miR-206 could be reversed by HDAC6, and global gene expression analysis confirmed the relationship between miR-206 and HDAC6. Finally, we measured the levels of PTEN, p-AKT and p-mTOR and other key molecules and speculated that miR-206 might target HDAC6 to suppress EC progression via the PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway. In conclusion, downregulation of miR-206 and upregulation of HDAC6 in EC may predict poor prognosis, and as the target gene of miR-206, HDAC achieves its carcinogenic effect through the PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#117

 

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Name
Description Nutanix stock drops due to coronavirus fears and a faster than expected transition to software subscriptions.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#118

 

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Name
Description Identifying genes involved in vertebrate developmental processes and characterizing this involvement are daunting tasks, especially in the mouse where viviparity complicates investigations. Attempting to devise a streamlined approach for this type of study we focused on limb development. We cultured E10.5 and E12.5 embryos and performed transcriptional profiling to track molecular changes in the forelimb bud over a 6-hour time-window. The expression of certain genes was found to diverge rapidly from its normal path, possibly reflecting the activation of a stress-induced response. Others, however, maintained for up to 3 hours dynamic expression profiles similar to those seen in utero. Some of these resilient genes were known regulators of limb development. The implication of the others in this process was either unsuspected or unsubstantiated. The localized knockdown of two such genes, Fgf11 and Tbx1, hampered forelimb bud development, providing evidence of their implication. These results show that combining embryo culture, transcriptome analysis and RNA interference could speed up the identification of genes involved in a variety of developmental processes, and the validation of their implication.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#119

 

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Name
Description A 2017 workplace safety infographic compiled by the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has run amok on social media and in news reports, spawning claims that authorities are telling people to shave off beards and moustaches to avoi

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#120

 

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Name
Description The antiangiogenic splice variant VEGF-A165b is downregulated in a variety of cancer entities, but little is known so far about circulating plasma levels. The present analysis addresses this question and examines circulating VEGF-A/VEGF-A165b levels in a collective of female high-risk breast cancer patients over the course of treatment. Within the SUCCES-A trial 205 patients were recruited after having received primary breast surgery. Using ELISA VEGF-A/VEGF-A165b concentrations were determined and correlated to clinical characteristics (1) before adjuvant chemotherapy, (2) four weeks and (3) two years after therapy and compared to healthy controls (n = 107). VEGF165b levels were significantly elevated after completion of chemotherapy. Within the breast cancer cohort, VEGF-A165b levels increased two years after completion of chemotherapy. VEGF-A plasma concentrations were significantly elevated in the breast cancer cohort at all examined time points and decreased after treatment. VEGF-A levels two years after chemotherapy correlated with increased cancer related mortality, no such correlation could be found between VEGF-A165b and the examined clinical characteristics. Compared to controls, VEGF-A/VEGF-A165b ratios were decreased in patients before and after chemotherapy. Our data suggests that circulating VEGF-A165b is significantly reduced in women with primary breast cancer at time of diagnosis; furthermore, levels change during adjuvant treatment.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#121

 

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Name
Description Autoinflammation as a distinct disease category was first reported in 1999 as a group of monogenic disorders characterized by recurrent episodes of systemic and organ-specific inflammation, known as periodic fever syndromes. Since this original description, the focus has shifted considerably to the inclusion of complex multifactorial conditions with an autoinflammatory basis. Furthermore, the boundaries of what are considered to be autoinflammatory disorders are constantly evolving and currently encompass elements of immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. Notable developments in the intervening 20 years include substantial progress in understanding how the different inflammasomes are activated, how infection is sensed by the innate immune system and how intracellular signalling systems are consequently activated and integrated with many different cellular functions in the autoinflammatory process. With these developments, the field of autoinflammation is moving from a gene-centric view of innate immune-mediated disease towards a systems-based concept, which describes how various convergent pathways, including pyrin and the actin cytoskeleton, protein misfolding and cellular stress, NF-κB dysregulation and interferon activation, contribute to the autoinflammatory process. The development and adoption of a systems-based concept of systemic autoinflammatory diseases is anticipated to have implications for the development of treatments that target specific components of the innate immune system. The concept of autoinflammation has evolved to include multifactorial conditions and disorders with autoimmune and immunodeficiency components. An appreciation of the contributions of various molecular mechanisms and systems could improve our understanding and treatment of the systemic autoinflammatory diseases.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#122

 

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Name
Description Perturbations in ribosome biogenesis have been associated with cancer. Such aberrations activate p53 through the RPL5/RPL11/5S rRNA complex-mediated inhibition of HDM2. Studies using animal models have suggested that this signaling pathway might constitute an important anticancer barrier. To gain a deeper insight into this issue in humans, here we analyze somatic mutations in RPL5 and RPL11 coding regions, reported in The Cancer Genome Atlas and International Cancer Genome Consortium databases. Using a combined computational and statistical approach, complemented by a range of biochemical and functional analyses in human cancer cell models, we demonstrate the existence of several mechanisms by which RPL5 mutations may impair wild-type p53 upregulation and ribosome biogenesis. Unexpectedly, the same approach provides only modest evidence for a similar role of RPL11, suggesting that RPL5 represents a preferred target during human tumorigenesis in cancers with wild-type p53. Furthermore, we find that several functional cancer-associated RPL5 somatic mutations occur as rare germline variants in general population. Our results shed light on the so-far enigmatic role of cancer-associated mutations in genes encoding ribosomal proteins, with implications for our understanding of the tumor suppressive role of the RPL5/RPL11/5S rRNA complex in human malignancies.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#123

 

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Name
Description A bill to ban religious vaccine exemptions faces intense protest.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#124

 

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Name
Description Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clinically and biologically heterogenous event that accounts for approximately 10% of all hematological malignancies. Chromosome 1 open reading frame 35 (C1orf35) is a gene cloned and identified in our laboratory from a MM cell line (GenBank: AY137773), but little is known about its function. In the current study, we have confirmed that C1orf35 is a candidate oncogene, and it can promote cell cycle progression from G1 to S. Later, we found that C1orf35 is able to affect the cell proliferation by modulating the expression of c-MYC (v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog), and the oncogenic property of C1orf35 can be rescued by c-MYC inhibition. Herein, we found positive association between C1orf35 and c-MYC in MM patients and in MM cell lines. The correlation analysis of the genes coamplified in MM patients from GEO datasets showed a correlation between C1orf35 and c-MYC, and the expression data of different stages of plasma cell neoplasm acquired from GEO datasets showed that the expression of C1orf35 increase with the progression of the disease. This indicates that C1orf35 may play a role in the disease progression. Moreover, C1orf35 can modulate c-MYC expression and rescue c-MYC transcription inhibited by Act D. Finally, we have shown that C1orf35 activates c-MYC transcription by binding to the i-motif of Nuclease hypersensitivity element III1 (NHE III1) in the c-MYC promoter. Not only does our current study advance our knowledge of the pathogenesis and therapeutic landscape of MM, but also of other cancer types and diseases that are initiated with deregulated c-MYC transcription.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#125

 

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Name
Description Preimplantation genetic testing-human leukocyte antigen ‘(PGT-HLA) only’ refers to the HLA typing of single or few cells biopsied from in vitro fertilized preimplantation embryos. The aim of the procedure is to establish a pregnancy, in which the fetus is HLA compatible with an affected sibling in need of a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). During PGT-M-HLA, the identification of a HLA-compatible embryo is combined with the detection of mutation(s) underlying immunodeficiencies and hemoglobinopathies. We report a combined retrospective and prospective cohort analysis of PGT-(M-)HLA procedures carried out from 1998 until 2017, with follow-up of transplantations to 2019. During the study period, 234 couples from 22 countries were invited for a multidisciplinary consultation. Two couples were rejected and 70 couples declined (various reasons), leaving 162 couples for which 414 clinical cycles were carried out. Cleavage stage biopsy followed by single-cell multiplex PCR for short tandem repeat-based haplotyping was applied in most cases (98.7%). The diagnostic efficiency was high (94.8%) but only 16.5% of the embryos was genetically suitable for transfer. Fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfer resulted in 67 clinical pregnancies, 63 deliveries, and 74 live births, of which 60 children were HLA compatible. This yielded a live birth delivery rate of 30.3% per transfer. Information on neonatal characteristics of the matching PGT-(M-)HLA children showed reassuring outcomes. So far, HSCT was carried out successfully for 25 out of 26 cases. In conclusion, our data show that PGT-(M-)HLA is a valuable procedure: the high complexity and limited delivery rate are balanced by the successful HSCT outcome and the positive impact on families.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 27 February 2020

#126

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#127

 

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Name
Description Unisys expects to use the $1.2 billion it will receive once the sale of its federal business to SAIC goes through to fuel growth.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#128

 

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Description China grapples to find a cure for the deadly coronavirus, but tech companies have seem to found the solution to identify masked faces that caused glitches in facial recognition systems.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#129

 

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Name
Description China grapples to find a cure for the deadly coronavirus, but tech companies have seem to found the solution to identify masked faces that caused glitches in facial recognition systems.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#130

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#131

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#132

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#133

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#134

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#135

 

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Name
Description The coronavirus is a global health concern, and its deadly effects have caught the attention of many people. Air purifiers have been suggested to protect them.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#136

 

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Name
Description The government of Liberia crafted an effective response to the Ebola crisis of 2014-15 by using volunteer citizens to distribute information to the public, according to a study co-authored by MIT political scientist Lily Tsai.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#137

 

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Name
Description High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is the most frequent type of ovarian carcinoma, associated with poor clinical outcome and metastatic disease. Although metastatic processes are becoming more understandable, the genomic landscape and metastatic progression in HGSOC has not been elucidated. Multi-region whole-exome sequencing was performed on HGSOC primary tumours and their metastases (n = 33 tumour regions) from six patients. The resulting somatic variants were analysed to delineate tumour evolution and metastatic dissemination, and to compare the repertoire of events between primary HGSOC and metastasis. All cases presented branching evolution patterns in primary HGSOC, with three cases further showing parallel evolution in which different mutations on separate branches of a phylogenetic tree converge on the same gene. Furthermore, linear metastatic progression was observed in 67% of cases with late dissemination, in which the metastatic tumour mostly acquires the same mutational process active in primary tumour, and parallel metastatic progression, with early dissemination in the remaining 33.3% of cases. Metastatic-specific SNVs were further confirmed as late dissemination events. We also found the involvement of metastatic-specific driver events in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and identified potential clinically actionable events in individual patients of the metastatic HGSOC cohort. This study provides deeper insights into clonal evolution and mutational processes that can pave the way to new therapeutic targets.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#138

 

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Name
Description This nationwide study investigated associations between paternal occupational exposure and childhood bone tumours and soft- tissue sarcomas. The UK National Registry of Childhood Tumours provided cases of childhood sarcomas born and diagnosed in Great Britain, 1962–2010. Control births, unaffected by childhood cancer, were matched on sex, birth period and birth registration sub-district. Fathers’ occupations were assigned to one or more of 33 exposure groups and coded for occupational social class. We analysed 5,369 childhood sarcoma cases and 5380 controls. Total bone tumours, total soft-tissue sarcomas and the subgroups osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumours (ESFT) were considered separately. Significant positive associations were seen between rhabdomyosarcoma and paternal exposure to EMFs (odds ratio = 1.67, CI = 1.22–2.28) and also for ESFT and textile dust (1.93, 1.01–3.63). There were putative protective effects on total bone tumours of paternal dermal exposure to hydrocarbons, metal, metal working or oil mists. Despite the large size and freedom from bias of this study, our results should be interpreted with caution. Many significance tests were undertaken, and chance findings are to be expected. Nevertheless, our finding of associations between ESFT and paternal exposure to textile dust may support related suggestions in the literature.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#139

 

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Name
Description Venetoclax, an FDA-approved Bcl-2 selective inhibitor for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), is tolerated well in elderly patients with AML and has good overall response rates; however, resistance remains a concern. In this study, we show that targeting CDK9 with voruciclib in combination with venetoclax results in synergistic antileukemic activity against AML cell lines and primary patient samples. CDK9 inhibition enhances venetoclax activity through downregulation of Mcl-1 and c-Myc. However, downregulation of Mcl-1 is transient, which necessitates an intermittent treatment schedule to allow for repeated downregulation of Mcl-1. Accordingly, an every other day schedule of the CDK9 inhibitor is effective in vitro and in vivo in enhancing the efficacy of venetoclax. Our preclinical data provide a rationale for an intermittent drug administration schedule for the clinical evaluation of the combination treatment for AML.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#140

 

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Name
Description To provide insights into the biology of opioid dependence (OD) and opioid use (i.e., exposure, OE), we completed a genome-wide analysis comparing 4503 OD cases, 4173 opioid-exposed controls, and 32,500 opioid-unexposed controls, including participants of European and African descent (EUR and AFR, respectively). Among the variants identified, rs9291211 was associated with OE (exposed vs. unexposed controls; EUR z = −5.39, p = 7.2 × 10–8). This variant regulates the transcriptomic profiles of SLC30A9 and BEND4 in multiple brain tissues and was previously associated with depression, alcohol consumption, and neuroticism. A phenome-wide scan of rs9291211 in the UK Biobank (N > 360,000) found association of this variant with propensity to use dietary supplements (p = 1.68 × 10–8). With respect to the same OE phenotype in the gene-based analysis, we identified SDCCAG8 (EUR + AFR z = 4.69, p = 10–6), which was previously associated with educational attainment, risk-taking behaviors, and schizophrenia. In addition, rs201123820 showed a genome-wide significant difference between OD cases and unexposed controls (AFR z = 5.55, p = 2.9 × 10–8) and a significant association with musculoskeletal disorders in the UK Biobank (p = 4.88 × 10–7). A polygenic risk score (PRS) based on a GWAS of risk-tolerance (n = 466,571) was positively associated with OD (OD vs. unexposed controls, p = 8.1 × 10–5; OD cases vs. exposed controls, p = 0.054) and OE (exposed vs. unexposed controls, p = 3.6 × 10–5). A PRS based on a GWAS of neuroticism (n = 390,278) was positively associated with OD (OD vs. unexposed controls, p = 3.2 × 10–5; OD vs. exposed controls, p = 0.002) but not with OE (p = 0.67). Our analyses highlight the difference between dependence and exposure and the importance of considering the definition of controls in studies of addiction.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#141

 

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Name
Description Moderna shipped the first samples of messenger RNA based coronavirus vaccine to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease in Bethesda Maryland. Human clinical trials should start in 6 weeks and the results could be available in July....

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#142

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#143

 

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Name
Description Scientists have developed a new type of breath test that offers a cheap and non-invasive way to detect esophageal cancer, which is very difficult to detect during its early stages.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#144

 

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Name
Description OPTICAL illusions are sometimes easy to wrap your head around once explained but the following is sure to leave your brain scrambled. A gif of flashing cubes has been blowing the minds of Twitter users, simply because the stationary squares look like they're moving even though they're not.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#145

 

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Name
Description WE'VE been given an early look inside the mammoth new Grand Egyptian Museum where the 'cursed' body of Tutankhamun is set to be moved. The $1.3billion (£1billion) structure will be the world's biggest archaeological museum and will host the largest collection of King Tut's artefacts ever displayed.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#146

 

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Name
Description In the FET Open project ENABLED, TU Graz protein designer Gustav Oberdorfer is working together with researchers from Spain and Italy on environmentally friendly and inexpensive light-emitting diodes.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#147

 

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Name
Description In the FET Open project ENABLED, TU Graz protein designer Gustav Oberdorfer is working together with researchers from Spain and Italy on environmentally friendly and inexpensive light-emitting diodes.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#148

 

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Name
Description A new technique to convert human stem cells into insulin-producing cells could hold huge promise for future diabetic treatments, if results seen in an experiment with mice can be successfully replicated in humans.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#149

 

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Name
Description Viruses and the immune system interact in complex ways, so there are many different approaches to developing an effective vaccine.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#150

 

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Name
Description Amazon is telling some sellers that their listings are “not in compliance” with policies that ban price-gouging.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#151

 

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Name
Description Regular low intensity aerobic exercise (aerobic training) provides effective protection against various metabolic disorders. Here, the roles played by transient transcriptome responses to acute exercise and by changes in baseline gene expression during up-regulation of protein content in human skeletal muscle were investigated after 2 months of aerobic training. Seven untrained males were involved in a 2 month aerobic cycling training program. Mass-spectrometry and RNA sequencing were used to evaluate proteome and transcriptome responses to training and acute exercise. We found that proteins with different functions are regulated differently at the transcriptional level; for example, a training-induced increase in the content of extracellular matrix-related proteins is regulated at the transcriptional level, while an increase in the content of mitochondrial proteins is not. An increase in the skeletal muscle content of several proteins (including mitochondrial proteins) was associated with increased protein stability, which is related to a chaperone-dependent mechanism and/or reduced regulation by proteolysis. These findings increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of protein expression in human skeletal muscle subjected to repeated stress (long term aerobic training) and may provide an opportunity to control the expression of specific proteins (e.g., extracellular matrix-related proteins, mitochondrial proteins) through physiological and/or pharmacological approaches.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#152

 

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Name
Description In Tanzania, chloroquine was replaced by sulphadoxine- pyrimethamine (SP) as a first-line for treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Due to high resistance in malaria parasites, SP lasted for only 5 years and by the end of 2006 it was replaced with the current artemisinin combination therapy. We therefore, set a study to determine the current genotypic mutations associated with Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin, partner drugs and chloroquine. Parasites DNA were extracted from dried blood spots collected by finger-prick from Tanzanian malaria infected patients. DNA were sequenced using MiSeq then genotypes were translated into drug resistance haplotypes at Wellcome Sanger Institute, UK. About 422 samples were successful sequenced for K13 gene (marker for artemisinin resistance), the wild type (WT) was found in 391 samples (92.7%) whereby 31 samples (7.3%) had mutations in K13 gene. Of 31 samples with mutations, one sample had R561H, a mutation that has been associated with delayed parasite clearance in Southeast Asia, another sample had A578S, a mutation not associated with artemisinin whilst 29 samples had K13 novel mutations. There were no mutations in PGB, EXO, P23_BP and PfMDR1 at position 86 and 1246 (markers for resistance in artemisinin partner drugs) but 270 samples (60.4%) had mutations at PfMDR1 Y184F. Additionally, genotyped PfCRT at positions 72–76 (major predictors for chroquine resistance), found WT gene in 443 out of 444 samples (99.8%). In conclusion, this study found mutations in K13-propeller gene and high prevalence of chloroquine susceptible P. falciparum in Southeast of Tanzania.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#153

 

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Name
Description People with severe brain injuries can be unable to communicate. Now brain scanners are being used to see if some can tell doctors what kind of care they want

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#154

 

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Name
Description Ruling would fill in a 10-year gap in compliance

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#155

 

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Name
Description People with severe brain injuries can be unable to communicate. Now brain scanners are being used to see if some can tell doctors what kind of care they want

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#156

 

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Name
Description Beta-blockers (BB) have been traditionally associated with improvement in cardiovascular disease outcomes in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Whether they’re still efficacious in the post-reperfusion era is currently debated in the light of recent controversial reports. In-hospital, 6-month and 12-month mortality were studied in the GULF-COAST, a prospective multicenter cohort of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), in relation to BB use: prior to admission, 24-hour post-admission and on discharge in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥ 40%. On admission, 50.9% of the cohort participants had a LVEF ≥ 40%, of whom 1203 (55.4%) were on BB whilst 905 (44.6%) were not. Mean age was 60 (13) years old and 66% were males. Prior BB use or its administration in 24 hours decreased in-hospital mortality (OR = 0.25, 95% CI [0.09–0.67]; OR = 0.16, 95% CI [0.08–0.35]; respectively). BB on discharge lowered 1-month mortality (OR = 0.28, 95% CI [0.11–0.72]), but had a neutral effect on mortality, reinfarction and stroke at 6 and 12 months. Results were unchanged after multivariable adjustments and further sensitivity analysis. In this retrospective cohort of ACS, BB improved in-hospital and 1-month mortality in patients with a LVEF ≥ 40% but had a neutral effect on longer-term outcome.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#157

 

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Name
Description Preprint servers and journals are working overtime to keep up with a “firehose” of data

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#158

 

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Name
Description A critical global health need exists for a Zika vaccine capable of mitigating the effects of future Zika epidemics. In this study we evaluated the antibody responses and efficacy of an aluminum hydroxide adjuvanted purified inactivated Zika vaccine (PIZV) against challenge with Zika virus (ZIKV) strain PRVABC59. Indian rhesus macaques received two doses of PIZV at varying concentrations ranging from 0.016 µg − 10 µg and were subsequently challenged with ZIKV six weeks or one year following the second immunization. PIZV induced a dose-dependent immune response that was boosted by a second immunization. Complete protection against ZIKV infection was achieved with the higher PIZV doses of 0.4 µg, 2 µg, and 10 µg at 6 weeks and  with 10 ug PIZV at  1 year following vaccination. Partial protection was achieved with the lower PIZV doses of 0.016 µg and 0.08 µg. Based on these data, a neutralizing antibody response above 3.02 log10 EC50 was determined as a correlate of protection in macaques. PIZV elicited a dose-dependent neutralizing antibody response which is protective for at least 1 year following vaccination.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#159

 

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Name
Description The focus of this paper is on the functional role of brain regions focusing on their modular architecture and individual variability. Our main assumption is that the more variable anti-correlation patterns reflect random connections, while the more conserved ones play a functional role. Within this framework, we expanded on previous results using a different database and a different methodological approach. Aiming to identify the role of specific functional connections within a global network organization which includes subnetworks, we found that the fronto-parietal module acts as the main source of anti-correlations. In addition, the pre-frontal regions (namely: frontal middle, frontal middle orbital, frontal inferior triangular) and the parietal inferior region are highly conserved and, at the same time, act as highly connected nodes, thus confirming their importance in functional modulation.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#160

 

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Name
Description Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) has been listed as a critically endangered species on the IUCN Red List and is an endemic fish of China. Five sets of duplex polymerase chain reactions (PCR) assays were developed with 10 tetranucleotide microsatellites for Chinese sturgeon. The size of CS57, ZHX43, ZHX69, AS105, ZHX51, AS074, ZHX2, AS078, AS026 and AS073 products in 184 Chinese sturgeon individuals ranged from 257–305, 191–241, 251–285, 172–244, 236–260, 169–209, 194–234, 92–176, 165–257 and 120–164, respectively. The observed allele number of the 10 microsatellites ranged from 7 to 16, and the total number of alleles was 106. The number of alleles per individual in CS57, ZHX43, AS105, AS074, AS078 and AS026 was 1–4. The number of alleles per individual in ZHX69, ZHX51, ZHX2 and AS073 was 2–4. The mean number of alleles per locus per individual ranged from 2.01–3.76. The expected heterozygosity (HE), observed heterozygosity (HO), polymorphic information content (PIC) and Shannon-Weiner diversity index (H′) ranged from 0.582 to 0.899, from 0.676 to 1, from 0.518 to 0.886 and from 1.034 to 2.34, respectively. Despite many advantages, the use of microsatellites as genetic analysis tools can be limited by the cost of the associated experiment. To solve this problem, this set of five duplex PCRs will provide tools that are more helpful, less expensive and less time consuming than others used for genetic analyses in Chinese sturgeon.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#161

 

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Name
Description Anterior circulation large artery occlusion (AC-LAO) related acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is particularly common in clinics in China. We retrospectively analyzed 787 consecutively hospitalized AIS patients with AC-LAO in Hebei Province, China. AC-LAO was defined as a complete occlusion of at least one intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) or middle cerebral artery (MCA) based on computed tomography or magnetic resonance angiography. Among eight subtypes of AC-LAO, unilateral MCA occlusion is the most common one (49.8%, n = 392), while bilateral ICA/unilateral MCA occlusion is the least (0.3%, n = 2). Compared with unilateral MCA and unilateral ICA occlusion, patients with tandem ICA/MCA and bilateral ICA/MCA occlusion had poor outcomes after suffering AIS. Age (OR 1.022; 95%CI, 1.007 to 1.036) was an independent risk factor for single artery progressed to multiple artery occlusion, while ApoA1 (OR 0.453; 95% CI, 0.235 to 0.953) was a protective factor. Patients with unilateral MCA occlusion were prone to artery-to-artery embolism infarction subtype, unilateral ICA occlusion group were the most vulnerable to hypoperfusion/impaired emboli clearance subtype. Our results suggested various AC-LAO subtypes have different clinical characteristics and prognosis and were prone to different subtypes of infarction. Customized preventive measures based on AC-LAO subtypes may be more targeted preventions of stroke recurrences for AIS patients and could improve their prognoses.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#162

 

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Name
Description Spatial heterogeneity is a fundamental feature of the tumor microenvironment (TME), and tackling spatial heterogeneity in neoplastic metabolic aberrations is critical for tumor treatment. Genome-scale metabolic network models have been used successfully to simulate cancer metabolic networks. However, most models use bulk gene expression data of entire tumor biopsies, ignoring spatial heterogeneity in the TME. To account for spatial heterogeneity, we performed spatially-resolved metabolic network modeling of the prostate cancer microenvironment. We discovered novel malignant-cell-specific metabolic vulnerabilities targetable by small molecule compounds. We predicted that inhibiting the fatty acid desaturase SCD1 may selectively kill cancer cells based on our discovery of spatial separation of fatty acid synthesis and desaturation. We also uncovered higher prostaglandin metabolic gene expression in the tumor, relative to the surrounding tissue. Therefore, we predicted that inhibiting the prostaglandin transporter SLCO2A1 may selectively kill cancer cells. Importantly, SCD1 and SLCO2A1 have been previously shown to be potently and selectively inhibited by compounds such as CAY10566 and suramin, respectively. We also uncovered cancer-selective metabolic liabilities in central carbon, amino acid, and lipid metabolism. Our novel cancer-specific predictions provide new opportunities to develop selective drug targets for prostate cancer and other cancers where spatial transcriptomics datasets are available.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#163

 

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Name
Description Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a high-yielding annual crop primarily grown for fiber, seeds, and oil. Due to the phytochemical composition of hemp, there has been an increased interest in the market for nutraceuticals and dietary supplements for human health. Recent omics analysis has led to the elucidation of hemp candidate genes involved in the syntheses of specialized metabolites. However, a detailed study of these genes has not been undertaken due to the lack of a stable transformation system. We report for the first time an agroinfiltration system in hemp utilizing vacuum infiltration, which is an alternative method to stable transformation. A combination of 0.015% Silwett L-77, 5 mM ascorbic acid, and thirty second sonication followed by a 10-minute vacuum treatment resulted in the highest β-glucuronidase expression in the leaf, male and female flowers, stem, and root tissues. The phytoene desaturase gene was silenced with a transient hairpin RNA expression, resulting in an albino phenotype in the leaves and the male and female flowers. This agroinfiltration system would be useful for overexpression and silencing studies of target genes to regulate the yield of specialized metabolites in hemp.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#164

 

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Name
Description This paper portrays the dynamics of pine wilt disease. The specific formula for reproduction number is accomplished. Global behavior is completely demonstrated on the basis of the basic reproduction number $${{oldsymbol{R}}}_{{oldsymbol{o}}}$$. The disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable for $${{oldsymbol{R}}}_{{oldsymbol{o}}}{oldsymbol{ < }}{f{1}}$$ and in such a case, the endemic equilibrium does not exist. If $${{oldsymbol{R}}}_{{oldsymbol{o}}}$$ exceeds one, the disease persists and the unique endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. Global stability of disease-free equilibrium is proved using a Lyapunov function. A graph-theoretic approach is applied to show the global stability of the unique endemic equilibrium. Sensitivity analysis has been established and control strategies have been designed on the basis of sensitivity analysis.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#165

 

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Name
Description Psychosocial stressors - life events that challenge social support and relationships - represent powerful risk factors for human disease; included amongst these events are relocation, isolation and displacement. To evaluate the impact of a controlled psychosocial stressor on physiology and underlying molecular pathways, we longitudinally studied the influence of a 28-day period of quarantine on biomarkers of immune signalling, microbial translocation, glycaemic health and blood transcriptome in the wild-born vervet monkey. This event caused a coordinated, mostly transient, reduction of circulating levels of nine immune signalling molecules. These were paralleled by a massive dysregulation of blood transcriptome, including genes implicated in chronic pathologies and immune functions. Immune and inflammatory functions were enriched among the genes downregulated in response to stress. An upregulation of genes involved in blood coagulation, platelet activation was characteristic of the rapid response to stress induction. Stress also decreased neutrophils and increased CD4 + T cell proportions in blood. This model of psychosocial stress, characterised by an immune dysregulation at the transcriptomic, molecular and cellular levels, creates opportunities to uncover the underlying mechanisms of stress-related diseases with an immune component, including cardiovascular diseases and susceptibility to infections.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#166

 

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Name
Description Physical activity (PA) has been hypothesized to be effective to maintaining cognitive function and delay cognitive decline in the elderly, but physical fitness (PF) could be a better predictor of cognitive function. We aimed to study the association between PA and PF with cognitive function and quality of life using cross-sectional data from 6874 participants of the PREDIMED-Plus trial (64.9 ± 4.9 years, 48.5% female). PF and PA were measured with a Chair Stand Test, the REGICOR and Rapid Assessment Physical Activity questionnaires. Cognitive function was measured with Mini-mental State Examination, Control Oral Word Association Test, Trail Making Test and Digit Span tests; whereas health-related quality of life was assessed with the SF36-HRQL test. Cognitive and quality of life scores were compared among PF quartiles and PA levels (low, moderate and high) with ANCOVA and with Chair Stand repetitions and energy expenditure from total PA with multivariable linear regression adjusted for confounding factors. PF associated with higher scores in phonemic and semantic verbal fluency tests and with lower TMT A time. However, PA was not associated with the neurocognitive parameters evaluated. Both PF and PA levels were strongly associated with a better quality of life. We concluded that PF, but not PA, is associated with a better cognitive function. This trial was retrospectively registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial (ISRCTN89898870, https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89898870?q=ISRCTN89898870&filters=&sort=&offset=1&totalResults=1&page=1&pageSize=10&searchType=basic-search) on 07/24/2014.

#Medicine & Human body;#Software
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#167

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#168

 

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Name
Description Coronavirus news reported live as the number of infected increases, with recent confirmed coronavirus cases in Italy, Iran, and South Korea.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#169

 

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Name
Description Organisms respond to tissue damage through the upregulation of protective responses which restore tissue structure and metabolic function. Mitochondria are key sources of intracellular oxidative metabolic signals that maintain cellular homeostasis. Here we report that tissue and cellular wounding triggers rapid and reversible mitochondrial fragmentation. Elevated mitochondrial fragmentation either in fzo-1 fusion-defective mutants or after acute drug treatment accelerates actin-based wound closure. Wounding triggered mitochondrial fragmentation is independent of the GTPase DRP-1 but acts via the mitochondrial Rho GTPase MIRO-1 and cytosolic Ca2+. The fragmented mitochondria and accelerated wound closure of fzo-1 mutants are dependent on MIRO-1 function. Genetic and transcriptomic analyzes show that enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation accelerates wound closure via the upregulation of mtROS and Cytochrome P450. Our results reveal how mitochondrial dynamics respond to cellular and tissue injury and promote tissue repair. Mitochondria are important organelles that generate and respond to signals to maintain cellular homeostasis. Here the authors show that wounding triggers GTPase MIRO-1- and calcium-dependent mitochondrial fragmentation, which aids tissue wound repair through cytochrome P450 and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#170

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#171

 

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Name
Description The software giant said revenue in the operating segment that makes its Windows OS and Surface devices is likely to be affected by the virus.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#172

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#173

 

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Name
Description Medical masks are getting more expensive online.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#174

 

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Name
Description German airline Lufthansa said Wednesday it would freeze new hires and use unpaid leave and additional short-time work to cut costs to help cushion the economic impact of the novel coronavirus.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#175

 

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Name
Description As the new coronavirus spreads globally, the online battle to keep misinformation about the disease is also stepping up.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#176

 

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Name
Description A new study has identified an association between socioeconomic status and the risk of disability in individuals with multiple sclerosis. The findings highlight the importance of collecting large, structured datasets for the study of modifiable risk factors.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#177

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body;#Theoretical sciences
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#178

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#179

 

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Name
Description Parental and social factors have long-term impact on the neurodevelopment of offspring, but tend to highly covary with each other. Thus, it is difficult to parse out which parental and social factor contributes most to neurodevelopmental outcomes. This study aimed to assess clusters of parental and social factors associated with child psychopathology, behavioral problems, and cognition. This study employed the data of 11,875 children (9 to 11 years) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on 39 environmental measures and 30 child behavior and cognitive measures separately to identify clusters of parental and social factors and clusters of child psychopathology, behaviour, and cognition. Regression analysis was used to examine independent effects of each cluster of parental and social factors on child psychopathology, behavioral problems, and cognition. Greater Parent Psychopathology cluster was associated with greater Child Psychopathology cluster. Moreover, greater Socioeconomic Status cluster was associated with greater child General Cognition and Executive Function but less Behavioral Inhibition clusters. Greater Proximal Social Environment and Interaction cluster were associated with less child Impulsive Behavior and Behavioral Inhibition, but greater Behavioral Activation cluster. The environmental clusters related to birth outcomes, maternal tobacco, and drug use were not significantly related to child psychopathology, behavior, and cognition. Our findings suggest that socioeconomic status, parental psychopathology, and social environment and interactions are the strongest risks for behavioral problems and cognitive performance in a general child population. Intervention programs should target modifiable factors within these domains.

#Medicine & Human body;#Software
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#180

 

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Name
Description Facebook is taking steps to fight misinformation related to the coronavirus outbreak.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#181

 

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Name
Description With outbreaks in multiple countries, the new coronavirus looks like a pandemic, but the World Health Organization won't declare one because governments may react in the wrong way

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#182

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#183

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#184

 

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Name
Description In one pot, at room temperature, chemists at Rice University are able to make valuable pharmaceutical precursors they say could change the industry. The Rice group of chemist László Kürti introduced an inexpensive organic synthesis technique that catalyzes the transfer of nitrogen atoms to olefin

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#185

 

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Name
Description A randomized, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the investigational antiviral remdesivir in hospitalized adults diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has begun at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) in Omaha. The trial regulatory sponsor is th

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#186

 

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Name
Description Google, Facebook and other platforms are struggling to keep ahead of scammers, trolls, and others with ill intent who routinely use major tragedies or disasters as opportunities to swindle or manipulate people.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#187

 

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Name
Description Google, Facebook and other platforms are struggling to keep ahead of scammers, trolls, and others with ill intent who routinely use major tragedies or disasters as opportunities to swindle or manipulate people.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#188

 

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Name
Description Microsoft disclosed that coronavirus impacts will result in a reduction to its Q3 2020 revenue guidance.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#189

 

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Name
Description Spooked by a sneeze or a cough, Chinese consumers are turning to online consultations in droves for advice about possible coronavirus symptoms - a boon for a fledgling industry that has struggled to win over customers.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#190

 

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Name
Description Growing concerns over coronavirus have caused a lot of companies to back out of events like PAX East and GDC. The latest in the list of cancellations are Square Enix, Capcom, and EA.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#191

 

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Name
Description Coronavirus cases spread in Europe and beyond on Wednesday, with Latin America confirming its first patient as the world scrambled to contain the epidemic that has killed thousands worldwide.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#192

 

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Name
Description In a bid to hunt down novel coronavirus critics, China is making use of Twitter and WeChat to track down people who share information what officials consider as &quot;negative information&quot; about the deadly outbreak.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#193

 

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Name
Description In a bid to hunt down novel coronavirus critics, China is making use of Twitter and WeChat to track down people who share information what officials consider as &quot;negative information&quot; about the deadly outbreak.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#194

 

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Name
Description One more bad bit of news for self-employed dads.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#195

 

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Name
Description The answer is complicated.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 26 February 2020

#196

 

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Name
Description Intrathecal administration of nusinersen in adult spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) patients with scoliosis and spondylodesis requires image guidance, which is preferably achieved with multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). As long-term treatment is necessary and patients are young, radiation doses should be reduced to a minimum whilst a sufficient image quality for precise interventional performance should be kept. We compared 44 MDCT standard-dose scans (133.0–200.0 mA) with a hybrid iterative reconstruction (iDose4) to 20 low-dose scans (20.0–67.0 mA) with iterative model reconstruction (IMR), which were performed for procedure planning of intrathecal nusinersen administration in 13 adult patients with SMA and complex spinal conditions. Qualitative image evaluation, including confidence for intervention planning, was performed by two neuroradiologists for standard- and low-dose scans. All 64 MDCT-guided intrathecal administrations of nusinersen were successful. The dose length product (DLP) was significantly lower when using low-dose scanning with IMR (median DLP of standard-dose scans: 92.0 mGy•cm vs. low-dose scans: 34.5 mGy•cm; p < 0.0001). Image quality was significantly reduced for low-dose compared to standard-dose scanning. However, bone/soft tissue contrast and confidence for intervention planning were not significantly impaired in low-dose MDCT according to both readers, showing good inter-reader agreement. Thus, we hereby demonstrate a low-dose MDCT protocol combined with advanced image reconstruction for scanning during procedure planning as a viable option for image guidance in intrathecal nusinersen treatment of adult SMA patients with complex spinal conditions.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#197

 

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Name
Description The Insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS) pathway plays an essential role in the regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis. At the same time, a reduction in the IIS pathway activity can extend lifespan and healthspan in various model organisms. Amongst a number of body organs that sense and respond to insulin/IGF-1, the adipose tissue has a central role in both the metabolic and lifespan effects of IIS at the organismal level. Genetic inactivation of IIS components specifically in the adipose tissue has been shown before to improve metabolic profile and extend lifespan in various model organisms. We sought to identify conserved molecular mechanisms that may underlie the beneficial effects of IIS inhibition in the adipose tissue, specifically at the level of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), a key IIS effector molecule. To this end, we inactivated PI3K by genetic means in the fly fat body and by pharmacological inhibition in mammalian adipocytes. Gene expression studies revealed changes to metabolism and upregulation of mitochondrial activity in mouse adipocytes and fly fat bodies with downregulated PI3K, which were confirmed by biochemical assays in mammalian adipocytes. These data suggest that PI3K inactivation has a conserved effect of upregulating mitochondrial metabolism in both fly and mammalian adipose tissue, which likely contributes to the health- and life-span extending effect of IIS pathway downregulation.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#198

 

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Name
Description The Insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS) pathway plays an essential role in the regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis. At the same time, a reduction in the IIS pathway activity can extend lifespan and healthspan in various model organisms. Amongst a number of body organs that sense and respond to insulin/IGF-1, the adipose tissue has a central role in both the metabolic and lifespan effects of IIS at the organismal level. Genetic inactivation of IIS components specifically in the adipose tissue has been shown before to improve metabolic profile and extend lifespan in various model organisms. We sought to identify conserved molecular mechanisms that may underlie the beneficial effects of IIS inhibition in the adipose tissue, specifically at the level of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), a key IIS effector molecule. To this end, we inactivated PI3K by genetic means in the fly fat body and by pharmacological inhibition in mammalian adipocytes. Gene expression studies revealed changes to metabolism and upregulation of mitochondrial activity in mouse adipocytes and fly fat bodies with downregulated PI3K, which were confirmed by biochemical assays in mammalian adipocytes. These data suggest that PI3K inactivation has a conserved effect of upregulating mitochondrial metabolism in both fly and mammalian adipose tissue, which likely contributes to the health- and life-span extending effect of IIS pathway downregulation.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#199

 

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Name
Description An incredible amount of joss fly ash is produced from the burning of Chinese holy joss paper; thus, an excellent method of recycling joss fly ash waste to extract aluminosilicate nanocomposites is explored. The present research aims to introduce a novel method to recycle joss fly ash through a simple and straightforward experimental procedure involving acidic and alkaline treatments. The synthesized aluminosilicate nanocomposite was characterized to justify its structural and physiochemical characteristics. A morphological analysis was performed with field-emission transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy revealed the size of the aluminosilicate nanocomposite to be ~25 nm, while also confirming a uniformly spherical-shaped nanostructure. The elemental composition was measured by energy dispersive spectroscopy and revealed the Si to Al ratio to be 13.24 to 7.96, showing the high purity of the extracted nanocomposite. The roughness and particle distribution were analyzed using atomic force microscopy and a zeta analysis. X-ray diffraction patterns showed a synthesis of faceted and cubic aluminosilicate crystals in the nanocomposites. The presence of silica and aluminum was further proven by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the functional groups were recognized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal capacity of the nanocomposite was examined by a thermogravimetric analysis. In addition, the research suggested the promising application of aluminosilicate nanocomposites as drug carriers. The above was justified by an enzyme-linked apta-sorbent assay, which claimed that the limit of the aptasensing aluminosilicate-conjugated ampicillin was two-fold higher than that in the absence of the nanocomposite. The drug delivery property was further justified through an antibacterial analysis against Escherichia coli (gram-negative) and Bacillus subtilis (gram-positive).

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#200

 

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Name
Description Genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genomic prediction (GP) are extensively employed to accelerate genetic gain and identify QTL in plant breeding. In this study, 1,317 spring barley and 1,325 winter wheat breeding lines from a commercial breeding program were genotyped with the Illumina 9 K barley or 15 K wheat SNP-chip, and phenotyped in multiple years and locations. For GWAS, in spring barley, a QTL on chr. 4H associated with powdery mildew and ramularia resistance were found. There were several SNPs on chr. 4H showing genome-wide significance with yield traits. In winter wheat, GWAS identified two SNPs on chr. 6A, and one SNP on chr. 1B, significantly associated with quality trait moisture, as well as one SNP located on chr. 5B associated with starch content in the seeds. The significant SNPs identified by multiple trait GWAS were generally the same as those found in single trait GWAS. GWAS including genotype-location information in the model identified significant SNPs in each tested location, which were not found previously when including all locations in the GWAS. For GP, in spring barley, GP using the Bayesian Power Lasso model had higher accuracy than ridge regression BLUP in powdery mildew and yield traits, whereas the prediction accuracies were similar using Bayesian Power Lasso model and rrBLUP for yield traits in winter wheat.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#201

 

View it
Name
Description Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) are two highly prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with a significant rate of co-infection in some populations. Vaginal metabolites are influenced by resident vaginal microbiota, affect susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and may impact local inflammation and patient symptoms. Examining the vaginal metabolome in the context of CT mono (CT+) and CT/MG co-infection (CT+/MG+) may identify biomarkers for infection or provide new insights into disease etiology and pathogenesis. Yet, the vaginal metabolome in the setting of CT infection is understudied and the composition of the vaginal metabolome in CT/MG co-infected women is unknown. Therefore, in this analysis, we used an untargeted metabolomic approach combined with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to characterize the vaginal microbiota and metabolomes of CT+, CT+/MG+, and uninfected women. We found that CT+ and CT+/MG+ women had distinct vaginal metabolomic profiles as compared to uninfected women both before and after adjustment for the vaginal microbiota. This study provides important foundational data documenting differences in the vaginal metabolome between CT+, CT+/MG+ and uninfected women. These data may guide future mechanistic studies that seek to provide insight into the pathogenesis of CT and CT/MG infections.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#202

 

View it
Name
Description Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) are two highly prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with a significant rate of co-infection in some populations. Vaginal metabolites are influenced by resident vaginal microbiota, affect susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and may impact local inflammation and patient symptoms. Examining the vaginal metabolome in the context of CT mono (CT+) and CT/MG co-infection (CT+/MG+) may identify biomarkers for infection or provide new insights into disease etiology and pathogenesis. Yet, the vaginal metabolome in the setting of CT infection is understudied and the composition of the vaginal metabolome in CT/MG co-infected women is unknown. Therefore, in this analysis, we used an untargeted metabolomic approach combined with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to characterize the vaginal microbiota and metabolomes of CT+, CT+/MG+, and uninfected women. We found that CT+ and CT+/MG+ women had distinct vaginal metabolomic profiles as compared to uninfected women both before and after adjustment for the vaginal microbiota. This study provides important foundational data documenting differences in the vaginal metabolome between CT+, CT+/MG+ and uninfected women. These data may guide future mechanistic studies that seek to provide insight into the pathogenesis of CT and CT/MG infections.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#203

 

View it
Name
Description We demonstrate the size-dependent separation and permanent immobilization of DNA on plasmonic substrates by means of plasmonic optical tweezers. We found that a gold nanopyramidal dimer array enhanced the optical force exerted on the DNA, leading to permanent immobilization of the DNA on the plasmonic substrate. The immobilization was realized by a combination of the plasmon-enhanced optical force and the thermophoretic force induced by a photothermal effect of the plasmons. In this study, we applied this phenomenon to the separation and fixation of size-different DNA. During plasmon excitation, DNA strands of different sizes became permanently immobilized on the plasmonic substrate forming micro-rings of DNA. The diameter of the ring was larger for longer DNA (in base pairs). When we used plasmonic optical tweezers to trap DNA of two different lengths dissolved in solution (φx DNA (5.4 kbp) and λ-DNA (48.5 kbp), or φx DNA and T4 DNA (166 kbp)), the DNA were immobilized, creating a double micro-ring pattern. The DNA were optically separated and immobilized in the double ring, with the shorter sized DNA and the larger one forming the smaller and larger rings, respectively. This phenomenon can be quantitatively explained as being due to a combination of the plasmon-enhanced optical force and the thermophoretic force. Our plasmonic optical tweezers open up a new avenue for the separation and immobilization of DNA, foreshadowing the emergence of optical separation and fixation of biomolecules such as proteins and other ncuelic acids.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#204

 

View it
Name
Description We demonstrate the size-dependent separation and permanent immobilization of DNA on plasmonic substrates by means of plasmonic optical tweezers. We found that a gold nanopyramidal dimer array enhanced the optical force exerted on the DNA, leading to permanent immobilization of the DNA on the plasmonic substrate. The immobilization was realized by a combination of the plasmon-enhanced optical force and the thermophoretic force induced by a photothermal effect of the plasmons. In this study, we applied this phenomenon to the separation and fixation of size-different DNA. During plasmon excitation, DNA strands of different sizes became permanently immobilized on the plasmonic substrate forming micro-rings of DNA. The diameter of the ring was larger for longer DNA (in base pairs). When we used plasmonic optical tweezers to trap DNA of two different lengths dissolved in solution (φx DNA (5.4 kbp) and λ-DNA (48.5 kbp), or φx DNA and T4 DNA (166 kbp)), the DNA were immobilized, creating a double micro-ring pattern. The DNA were optically separated and immobilized in the double ring, with the shorter sized DNA and the larger one forming the smaller and larger rings, respectively. This phenomenon can be quantitatively explained as being due to a combination of the plasmon-enhanced optical force and the thermophoretic force. Our plasmonic optical tweezers open up a new avenue for the separation and immobilization of DNA, foreshadowing the emergence of optical separation and fixation of biomolecules such as proteins and other ncuelic acids.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#205

 

View it
Name
Description Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is described as a bilateral disease with inter-eye symmetry that presents on short-wavelength fundus autofluorescence (SW-AF) imaging with hyperautofluorescent (hyperAF) rings with an ellipsoid shape and regular borders. Nevertheless, both asymmetry and irregular ring morphologies are also observed. In this retrospective study of 168 RP patients, we characterize the degree of inter-eye asymmetry and frequency of irregular hyperAF ring morphologies according to mode of inheritance and disease-causing gene by using SW-AF imaging and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans. We observed that from 336 eyes, 290 (86%) presented with regular hyperAF rings and 46 (14%) presented with irregular shapes. From the 168 patients, 23 (14%) presented with asymmetric disease, with 16 (70%) of these patients also presenting with irregular ring shapes. Patients with autosomal dominant RP (adRP) had the highest proportion of irregular ring shapes (21%) and disease asymmetry (23%) in comparison to other modes of inheritance. Furthermore, both RP1 and RHO-adRP had the highest proportions of both disease asymmetry and irregular ring morphology. Our results suggest that in patients presenting with either irregular ring shapes or asymmetric disease, emphasis should be placed in targeted gene sequencing of genes known to cause adRP, such as RHO and RP1.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#206

 

View it
Name
Description Accurate quantification of synaptic changes is essential for understanding the molecular mechanisms of synaptogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and synaptic toxicity. Here we demonstrate a robust high-content imaging method for the assessment of synaptic changes and apply the method to brain homogenates from an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model. Our method uses serial imaging of endogenous fluorescent labeled presynaptic VAMP2 and postsynaptic PSD95 in long-term cultured live primary neurons in 96 well microplates, and uses automatic image analysis to quantify the number of colocalized mature synaptic puncta for the assessment of synaptic changes in live neurons. As a control, we demonstrated that our synaptic puncta assay is at least 10-fold more sensitive to the toxic effects of glutamate than the MTT assay. Using our assay, we have compared synaptotoxic activities in size-exclusion chromatography fractioned protein samples from 3xTg-AD mouse model brain homogenates. Multiple synaptotoxic activities were found in high and low molecular weight fractions. Amyloid-beta immunodepletion alleviated some but not all of the synaptotoxic activities. Although the biochemical entities responsible for the synaptotoxic activities have yet to be determined, these proof-of-concept results demonstrate that this novel assay may have many potential mechanistic and therapeutic applications.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#207

 

View it
Name
Description A major difficulty in studies of the brain, from the molecular to large-scale network level, is ensuring the accuracy and reliability of results, since repeatability has been a problem in studies utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI) near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and positron-emission tomography (PET). More generally, an effort to replicate psychological studies has shown that the original results were unambiguously reobtained only 39% of the time. It has been suggested that researchers must undertake studies to identify factors that reduce reliability and conduct more carefully controlled studies to improve reliability. In our previous work, we examined whether changes in hand/arm posture can have a confounding effect on task-related brain activity. Here we show a solution to enhance reproducibility in a NIRS study in a hearing task. The results showed that crossed posture can lead to different results than parallel posture with respect to asymmetric functional connectivity, especially during non-resting state. Even when the only task is listening to speech stimuli, participants should be asked to place their hands on a surface and feet on the floor and keep the same stable posture to increase reproducibility of results. To achieve accurate reliability and reproductively of results, stable hand posture through the experiment is important.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#208

 

View it
Name
Description A major difficulty in studies of the brain, from the molecular to large-scale network level, is ensuring the accuracy and reliability of results, since repeatability has been a problem in studies utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI) near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and positron-emission tomography (PET). More generally, an effort to replicate psychological studies has shown that the original results were unambiguously reobtained only 39% of the time. It has been suggested that researchers must undertake studies to identify factors that reduce reliability and conduct more carefully controlled studies to improve reliability. In our previous work, we examined whether changes in hand/arm posture can have a confounding effect on task-related brain activity. Here we show a solution to enhance reproducibility in a NIRS study in a hearing task. The results showed that crossed posture can lead to different results than parallel posture with respect to asymmetric functional connectivity, especially during non-resting state. Even when the only task is listening to speech stimuli, participants should be asked to place their hands on a surface and feet on the floor and keep the same stable posture to increase reproducibility of results. To achieve accurate reliability and reproductively of results, stable hand posture through the experiment is important.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#209

 

View it
Name
Description Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulates in plants following exposure to heavy metals. To investigate the role of GABA in cadmium (Cd) tolerance and elucidate the underlying mechanisms, GABA (0, 25 and 50 µM) was applied to Cd-treated maize plants. Vegetative growth parameters were improved in both Cd-treated and control plants due to GABA application. Cd uptake and translocation were considerably inhibited by GABA. Antioxidant enzyme activity was enhanced in plants subjected to Cd. Concurrently GABA caused further increases in catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, which led to a significant reduction in hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and malondealdehyde contents under stress conditions. Polyamine biosynthesis-responsive genes, namely ornithine decarboxylase and spermidine synthase, were induced by GABA in plants grown under Cd shock. GABA suppressed polyamine oxidase, a gene related to polyamine catabolism, when plants were exposed to Cd. Consequently, different forms of polyamines were elevated in Cd-exposed plants following GABA application. The maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) was decreased by Cd-exposed plants, but was completely restored by GABA to the same value in the control. These results suggest a multifaceted contribution of GABA, through regulation of Cd uptake, production of reactive oxygen species and polyamine metabolism, in response to Cd stress.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#210

 

View it
Name
Description Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulates in plants following exposure to heavy metals. To investigate the role of GABA in cadmium (Cd) tolerance and elucidate the underlying mechanisms, GABA (0, 25 and 50 µM) was applied to Cd-treated maize plants. Vegetative growth parameters were improved in both Cd-treated and control plants due to GABA application. Cd uptake and translocation were considerably inhibited by GABA. Antioxidant enzyme activity was enhanced in plants subjected to Cd. Concurrently GABA caused further increases in catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, which led to a significant reduction in hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and malondealdehyde contents under stress conditions. Polyamine biosynthesis-responsive genes, namely ornithine decarboxylase and spermidine synthase, were induced by GABA in plants grown under Cd shock. GABA suppressed polyamine oxidase, a gene related to polyamine catabolism, when plants were exposed to Cd. Consequently, different forms of polyamines were elevated in Cd-exposed plants following GABA application. The maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) was decreased by Cd-exposed plants, but was completely restored by GABA to the same value in the control. These results suggest a multifaceted contribution of GABA, through regulation of Cd uptake, production of reactive oxygen species and polyamine metabolism, in response to Cd stress.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#211

 

View it
Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#212

 

View it
Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#213

 

View it
Name
Description Mr Ng Pei Kang, founder of sustainable packaging solutions firm TRIA, has developed a compostable material that can be used in place of plastic food packaging.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#214

 

View it
Name
Description The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master sensor of the cellular energy status that is crucial for the adaptive response to limited energy availability. AMPK is implicated in the regulation of many cellular processes, including autophagy. However, the precise mechanisms by which AMPK controls these processes and the identities of relevant substrates are not fully understood. Using protein microarrays, we identify Cyclin Y as an AMPK substrate that is phosphorylated at Serine 326 (S326) both in vitro and in cells. Phosphorylation of Cyclin Y at S326 promotes its interaction with the Cyclin-dependent kinase 16 (CDK16), thereby stimulating its catalytic activity. When expressed in cells, Cyclin Y/CDK16 is sufficient to promote autophagy. Moreover, Cyclin Y/CDK16 is necessary for efficient AMPK-dependent activation of autophagy. This functional interaction is mediated by AMPK phosphorylating S326 of Cyclin Y. Collectively, we define Cyclin Y/CDK16 as downstream effector of AMPK for inducing autophagy. AMPK integrates information about a cell’s energy status to inform decisions about cellular processes, including autophagy. Here the authors identify cyclin Y as an AMPK substrate, which phosphorylates cyclin Y and promotes its interaction with CDK16 to stimulate autophagy.

#Medicine & Human body;#Theoretical sciences
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#215

 

View it
Name
Description However will we manage?

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#216

 

View it
Name
Description The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master sensor of the cellular energy status that is crucial for the adaptive response to limited energy availability. AMPK is implicated in the regulation of many cellular processes, including autophagy. However, the precise mechanisms by which AMPK controls these processes and the identities of relevant substrates are not fully understood. Using protein microarrays, we identify Cyclin Y as an AMPK substrate that is phosphorylated at Serine 326 (S326) both in vitro and in cells. Phosphorylation of Cyclin Y at S326 promotes its interaction with the Cyclin-dependent kinase 16 (CDK16), thereby stimulating its catalytic activity. When expressed in cells, Cyclin Y/CDK16 is sufficient to promote autophagy. Moreover, Cyclin Y/CDK16 is necessary for efficient AMPK-dependent activation of autophagy. This functional interaction is mediated by AMPK phosphorylating S326 of Cyclin Y. Collectively, we define Cyclin Y/CDK16 as downstream effector of AMPK for inducing autophagy. AMPK integrates information about a cell’s energy status to inform decisions about cellular processes, including autophagy. Here the authors identify cyclin Y as an AMPK substrate, which phosphorylates cyclin Y and promotes its interaction with CDK16 to stimulate autophagy.

#Medicine & Human body;#Theoretical sciences
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#217

 

View it
Name
Description Eight public servants who visited the ship to support the quarantine contracted the virus

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#218

 

View it
Name
Description Keep your flabby liver where it is, pal.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#219

 

View it
Name
Description The power of heat and electrical stimulation soothes chronic pain with ease

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#220

 

View it
Name
Description More than 80,000 people have been infected with the coronavirus in China since the outbreak began

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#221

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#222

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#223

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#224

 

View it
Name
Description The coronavirus outbreak continues to weigh on the IT industry, from travel plans to manufacturing.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#225

 

View it
Name
Description The coronavirus outbreak continues to weigh on the IT industry, from travel plans to manufacturing.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#226

 

View it
Name
Description HP's fiscal Q2 2020 earnings guidance has been reduced as a result of the coronavirus outbreak.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#227

 

View it
Name
Description HP's fiscal Q2 2020 earnings guidance has been reduced as a result of the coronavirus outbreak.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#228

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#229

 

View it
Name
Description Microsoft will open an Azure cloud data center region in Spain and leverage Madrid-based Telefónica's infrastructure as part of an expanded partnership with the Spanish telecommunications company that will include joint go-to-market plans

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#230

 

View it
Name
Description Microsoft will open an Azure cloud data center region in Spain and leverage Madrid-based Telefónica's infrastructure as part of an expanded partnership with the Spanish telecommunications company that will include joint go-to-market plans

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#231

 

View it
Name
Description Dr. Scott Gottlieb, Pfizer board member and former FDA commissioner, is making regular appearances on CNBC to discuss coronavirus (COVID-19)....

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#232

 

View it
Name
Description Iran, South Korea and Italy have significant levels of COVID-19 coronavirus....

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#233

 

View it
Name
Description Health officials say now is the time to prepare.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#234

 

View it
Name
Description A decision on whether the games will go on as planned must be made by late May.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#235

 

View it
Name
Description It’s called Digid8 and will try to use your genes to make sure you never meet the wrong person.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#236

 

View it
Name
Description A massive locust outbreak in East Africa has entered Congo, and U.N. agencies are warning of a “major hunger threat” from the flying pests.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#237

 

View it
Name
Description A pandemic seems inevitable, but its speed and impact can be mitigated

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#238

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#239

 

View it
Name
Description American health authorities said Tuesday they ultimately expect the novel coronavirus to spread in the United States and are urging local governments, businesses, and schools to develop plans like canceling mass gatherings or switching to teleworki

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#240

 

View it
Name
Description Americans are searching for face masks more than they ever have before — right at the same time that worries about the coronavirus are mounting.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#241

 

View it
Name
Description Genetic analysis of the COVID-19 virus shows that it is very similar to a coronavirus in bats but the receptor binding looks like the receptor for SARS. This could happen naturally with slow changes of one in ten thousand sequences each year. This appeared all at once. This gives support to the belief that the Wuhan lab took the bat virus and attached the SARS receptor....

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#242

 

View it
Name
Description There are coronavirus (COVID-19) fatality statistics based on age, gender and pre-existing conditions. The rates are mainly for hospitalized cases in China. There is likely 5-10 times as many people who caught the virus but had no symptoms or did not need to be hospitalized or were not diagnosed....

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#243

 

View it
Name
Description The social network is trying to curb the misinformation and fearmongering surrounding the illness.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#244

 

View it
Name
Description The social network is trying to curb the misinformation and fearmongering surrounding the illness.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#245

 

View it
Name
Description Cats share around 250 types of genetic diseases with humans, and they are seen as a next-generation animal model for diseases. During his days as a veterinarian, Project Professor Watanabe saw many animals succumb to diseases, including genetic diseases which were incurable. He presses forward with

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#246

 

View it
Name
Description Researchers have converted human stem cells into insulin-producing cells and demonstrated in mice infused with such cells that blood sugar levels can be controlled and diabetes functionally cured for nine months. The findings, from researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Lo

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#247

 

View it
Name
Description In Quebec, gravestones did not come into common use until the second half of the 19th century, so historical cemeteries contain many unmarked graves. Inspired by colleagues at Barcelona's Pompeu Fabra University, a team of researchers in genetics, archaeology, and demography from three Quebec uni

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#248

 

View it
Name
Description WHO's insights from China suggest that the virus can be contained.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#249

 

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Name
Description The Alberta government’s plan for many arthritis, diabetes, and Crohn’s disease patients to switch to less expensive medications by July 1 could create legal challenges for doctors, say two researchers at the University of Alberta. “If a physician has concerns about switching, there may be a lega

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#250

 

View it
Name
Description WHO's insights from China suggest that the virus can be contained.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#251

 

View it
Name
Description Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a global health problem. At present, prior exposure to Mtb can be determined by blood-based interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), but active TB is not always detectable by blood tests such as CRP and ESR. This study was undertaken to investigate whether leucine-rich alpha-2 glycoprotein (LRG), a new inflammatory biomarker, could be used to assess active disease of TB. Cynomolgus macaques pretreated with or without Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination were inoculated with Mtb to induce active TB. Blood was collected over time from these animals and levels of LRG as well as CRP and ESR were quantified. In the macaques without BCG vaccination, Mtb inoculation caused extensive TB and significantly increased plasma CRP and LRG levels, but not ESR. In the macaques with BCG vaccination, whereas Mtb challenge caused pulmonary TB, only LRG levels were significantly elevated. By immunohistochemical analysis of the lung, LRG was visualized in epithelioid cells and giant cells of the granulation tissue. In humans, serum LRG levels in TB patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls and declined one month after anti-tubercular therapy. These findings suggest that LRG is a promising biomarker when performed following IGRA for the detection of active TB.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#252

 

View it
Name
Description Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a global health problem. At present, prior exposure to Mtb can be determined by blood-based interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), but active TB is not always detectable by blood tests such as CRP and ESR. This study was undertaken to investigate whether leucine-rich alpha-2 glycoprotein (LRG), a new inflammatory biomarker, could be used to assess active disease of TB. Cynomolgus macaques pretreated with or without Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination were inoculated with Mtb to induce active TB. Blood was collected over time from these animals and levels of LRG as well as CRP and ESR were quantified. In the macaques without BCG vaccination, Mtb inoculation caused extensive TB and significantly increased plasma CRP and LRG levels, but not ESR. In the macaques with BCG vaccination, whereas Mtb challenge caused pulmonary TB, only LRG levels were significantly elevated. By immunohistochemical analysis of the lung, LRG was visualized in epithelioid cells and giant cells of the granulation tissue. In humans, serum LRG levels in TB patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls and declined one month after anti-tubercular therapy. These findings suggest that LRG is a promising biomarker when performed following IGRA for the detection of active TB.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#253

 

View it
Name
Description In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the clinical significance of soluble immune checkpoint protein levels as predictors of patient outcomes or therapeutic responses has yet to be defined. This study profiled the baseline levels of sixteen soluble checkpoint proteins and their changes following sorafenib treatment for HCC. Plasma samples were obtained from 53 patients with advanced HCC at baseline, week 1, 2 and 4 of sorafenib treatment and tested the concentrations of 16 soluble checkpoint proteins using multiplexed fluorescent bead-based immunoassays. Multivariate analysis showed high sBTLA levels at baseline were an independent predictor of poor overall survival (p = 0.038). BTLA was highly expressed in T cells and macrophages in peritumoral areas. At week 2, sCD27 levels were decreased compared to baseline. By contrast, the concentrations of most inhibitory proteins, including sBTLA, sLAG-3, sCTLA-4, sPD-1, sCD80, sCD86 and sPD-L1, had significantly increased. The fold-changes of soluble checkpoint receptors and their ligands, including sCTLA-4 with sCD80/sCD86, sPD-1 with sPD-L1; and the fold-changes of sCTLA-4 with sBTLA or sPD-1 were positively correlated. sBTLA may be a good biomarker for predicting overall survival in HCC patients. Sorafenib treatment in patients with advanced HCC revealed dynamic changes of soluble checkpoint protein levels.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#254

 

View it
Name
Description In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the clinical significance of soluble immune checkpoint protein levels as predictors of patient outcomes or therapeutic responses has yet to be defined. This study profiled the baseline levels of sixteen soluble checkpoint proteins and their changes following sorafenib treatment for HCC. Plasma samples were obtained from 53 patients with advanced HCC at baseline, week 1, 2 and 4 of sorafenib treatment and tested the concentrations of 16 soluble checkpoint proteins using multiplexed fluorescent bead-based immunoassays. Multivariate analysis showed high sBTLA levels at baseline were an independent predictor of poor overall survival (p = 0.038). BTLA was highly expressed in T cells and macrophages in peritumoral areas. At week 2, sCD27 levels were decreased compared to baseline. By contrast, the concentrations of most inhibitory proteins, including sBTLA, sLAG-3, sCTLA-4, sPD-1, sCD80, sCD86 and sPD-L1, had significantly increased. The fold-changes of soluble checkpoint receptors and their ligands, including sCTLA-4 with sCD80/sCD86, sPD-1 with sPD-L1; and the fold-changes of sCTLA-4 with sBTLA or sPD-1 were positively correlated. sBTLA may be a good biomarker for predicting overall survival in HCC patients. Sorafenib treatment in patients with advanced HCC revealed dynamic changes of soluble checkpoint protein levels.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#255

 

View it
Name
Description Concerted evolution is often observed in multigene families such as the CEA gene family. As a result, sequence similarity of paralogous genes is significantly higher than expected from their evolutionary distance. Gene conversion, a “copy paste” DNA repair mechanism that transfers sequences from one gene to another and homologous recombination are drivers of concerted evolution. Nevertheless, some gene family members escape concerted evolution and acquire sufficient sequence differences that orthologous genes can be assigned in descendant species. Reasons why some gene family members can escape while others are captured by concerted evolution are poorly understood. By analyzing the entire CEA gene family in cattle (Bos taurus) we identified a member (CEACAM32) that was created by gene duplication and cooption of a unique transmembrane domain exon in the most recent ancestor of ruminants. CEACAM32 shows a unique, testis-specific expression pattern. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CEACAM32 is not involved in concerted evolution of CEACAM1 paralogs in ruminants. However, analysis of gene conversion events revealed that CEACAM32 is subject to gene conversion but remarkably, these events are found in the leader exon and intron sequences but not in exons coding for the Ig-like domains. These findings suggest that natural selection hinders gene conversion affecting protein sequences of the mature protein and thereby support escape of CEACAM32 from concerted evolution.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#256

 

View it
Name
Description Concerted evolution is often observed in multigene families such as the CEA gene family. As a result, sequence similarity of paralogous genes is significantly higher than expected from their evolutionary distance. Gene conversion, a “copy paste” DNA repair mechanism that transfers sequences from one gene to another and homologous recombination are drivers of concerted evolution. Nevertheless, some gene family members escape concerted evolution and acquire sufficient sequence differences that orthologous genes can be assigned in descendant species. Reasons why some gene family members can escape while others are captured by concerted evolution are poorly understood. By analyzing the entire CEA gene family in cattle (Bos taurus) we identified a member (CEACAM32) that was created by gene duplication and cooption of a unique transmembrane domain exon in the most recent ancestor of ruminants. CEACAM32 shows a unique, testis-specific expression pattern. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CEACAM32 is not involved in concerted evolution of CEACAM1 paralogs in ruminants. However, analysis of gene conversion events revealed that CEACAM32 is subject to gene conversion but remarkably, these events are found in the leader exon and intron sequences but not in exons coding for the Ig-like domains. These findings suggest that natural selection hinders gene conversion affecting protein sequences of the mature protein and thereby support escape of CEACAM32 from concerted evolution.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#257

 

View it
Name
Description Neuropathic pain is believed to arise from damage to nociceptive C fibres in diabetic neuropathy (DN). We have utilised corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) to quantify the severity of small nerve fibre damage in relation to the severity of neuropathic pain and quality of life (QoL) in patients with and without painful DN. 30 controls and patients with painful (n = 78) and painless (n = 62) DN underwent assessment of large and small nerve fibre function, CCM, neuropathic symptoms (small fibre neuropathy symptom inventory questionnaire, neuropathic pain scale) and QoL (SF-36, pre-R-ODS and hospital anxiety and depression scale). Patients with painful compared to painless DN, had comparable neurophysiology and vibration perception, but lower corneal nerve fibre density (20.1 ± 0.87 vs. 24.13 ± 0.91, P = 0.005), branch density (44.4 ± 3.31 vs. 57.74 ± 3.98, P = 0.03), length (19.61 ± 0.81 vs. 22.77 ± 0.83, P = 0.01), inferior whorl length (18.03 ± 1.46 vs. 25.1 ± 1.95, P = 0.005) and cold sensation threshold (21.35 ± 0.99 vs. 26.08 ± 0.5, P < 0.0001) and higher warm sensation threshold (43.7 ± 0.49 vs. 41.37 ± 0.51, P = 0.004) indicative of small fibre damage. There was a significant association between all CCM parameters and the severity of painful neuropathic symptoms, depression score and QoL. CCM identifies small nerve fibre loss, which correlates with the severity of neuropathic symptoms and reduced QoL in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#258

 

View it
Name
Description Neuropathic pain is believed to arise from damage to nociceptive C fibres in diabetic neuropathy (DN). We have utilised corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) to quantify the severity of small nerve fibre damage in relation to the severity of neuropathic pain and quality of life (QoL) in patients with and without painful DN. 30 controls and patients with painful (n = 78) and painless (n = 62) DN underwent assessment of large and small nerve fibre function, CCM, neuropathic symptoms (small fibre neuropathy symptom inventory questionnaire, neuropathic pain scale) and QoL (SF-36, pre-R-ODS and hospital anxiety and depression scale). Patients with painful compared to painless DN, had comparable neurophysiology and vibration perception, but lower corneal nerve fibre density (20.1 ± 0.87 vs. 24.13 ± 0.91, P = 0.005), branch density (44.4 ± 3.31 vs. 57.74 ± 3.98, P = 0.03), length (19.61 ± 0.81 vs. 22.77 ± 0.83, P = 0.01), inferior whorl length (18.03 ± 1.46 vs. 25.1 ± 1.95, P = 0.005) and cold sensation threshold (21.35 ± 0.99 vs. 26.08 ± 0.5, P < 0.0001) and higher warm sensation threshold (43.7 ± 0.49 vs. 41.37 ± 0.51, P = 0.004) indicative of small fibre damage. There was a significant association between all CCM parameters and the severity of painful neuropathic symptoms, depression score and QoL. CCM identifies small nerve fibre loss, which correlates with the severity of neuropathic symptoms and reduced QoL in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#259

 

View it
Name
Description A research group in China has sequenced the genome of the COVID-19 virus and reported that the virus most likely originated from bats.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#260

 

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Name
Description Conventional next generation sequencing analysis has provided important insights into cancer genetics. However, the detection of rare (low allele fraction) variants remains difficult because of the error-prone nucleotide changes derived from sequencing/PCR errors. To eliminate the false-positive variants and detect genuine rare variants, sequencing technology combined with molecular barcodes will be useful. Here, we used the newly developed dual-molecular barcode technology (Ion AmpliSeq HD) to analyze somatic mutations in 24 samples (12 tumor tissues and 12 plasma) from 12 patients with biliary-pancreatic and non-small cell lung cancers. We compared the results between next generation sequencing analysis with or without molecular barcode technologies. The variant allele fraction (VAF) between non-molecular barcode and molecular barcode sequencing was correlated in plasma DNA (R2 = 0.956) and tumor (R2 = 0.935). Both methods successfully detected high VAF mutations, however, rare variants were only identified by molecular barcode sequencing and not by non-molecular barcode sequencing. Some of these rare variants in tumors were annotated as pathogenic, and therefore subclonal driver mutations could be observed. Furthermore, the very low VAF down to 0.17% were identified in cell free DNA in plasma. These results demonstrate that the dual molecular barcode sequencing technologies can sensitively detect rare somatic mutations, and will be important in the investigation of the clonal and subclonal architectures of tumor heterogeneity.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#261

 

View it
Name
Description Conventional next generation sequencing analysis has provided important insights into cancer genetics. However, the detection of rare (low allele fraction) variants remains difficult because of the error-prone nucleotide changes derived from sequencing/PCR errors. To eliminate the false-positive variants and detect genuine rare variants, sequencing technology combined with molecular barcodes will be useful. Here, we used the newly developed dual-molecular barcode technology (Ion AmpliSeq HD) to analyze somatic mutations in 24 samples (12 tumor tissues and 12 plasma) from 12 patients with biliary-pancreatic and non-small cell lung cancers. We compared the results between next generation sequencing analysis with or without molecular barcode technologies. The variant allele fraction (VAF) between non-molecular barcode and molecular barcode sequencing was correlated in plasma DNA (R2 = 0.956) and tumor (R2 = 0.935). Both methods successfully detected high VAF mutations, however, rare variants were only identified by molecular barcode sequencing and not by non-molecular barcode sequencing. Some of these rare variants in tumors were annotated as pathogenic, and therefore subclonal driver mutations could be observed. Furthermore, the very low VAF down to 0.17% were identified in cell free DNA in plasma. These results demonstrate that the dual molecular barcode sequencing technologies can sensitively detect rare somatic mutations, and will be important in the investigation of the clonal and subclonal architectures of tumor heterogeneity.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#262

 

View it
Name
Description The major environmental risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is smoking, which according to a widely accepted model induces protein citrullination in the lungs, triggering the production of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and RA development. Nevertheless, some research findings do not fit this model. Therefore, we obtained six independent cohorts with 2253 RA patients for a detailed analysis of the association between smoking and RA autoantibodies. Our results showed a predominant association of smoking with the concurrent presence of the three antibodies: rheumatoid factor (RF), ACPA and anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (ACarPA) (3 Ab vs. 0 Ab: OR = 1.99, p = 2.5 × 10–8). Meta-analysis with previous data (4491 patients) confirmed the predominant association with the concurrent presence of the three antibodies (3 Ab vs. 0 Ab: OR = 2.00, p = 4.4 ×10–16) and revealed that smoking was exclusively associated with the presence of RF in patients with one or two antibodies (RF+1+2 vs. RF−0+1+2: OR = 1.32, p = 0.0002). In contrast, no specific association with ACPA or ACarPA was found. Therefore, these results showed the need to understand how smoking favors the concordance of RA specific antibodies and RF triggering, perhaps involving smoking-induced epitope spreading and other hypothesized mechanisms.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#263

 

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Name
Description Here, we developed protocols to improve sensitivity, rigor and comparability of 16S rRNA gene amplification-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) results. A thorough study was performed by evaluating extraction efficiency with respect to the yield, purity, fragmentation of the purified DNA, and sequencing metrics considering the number of quality reads, amplicon sequence variants (ASVs), community structure and biodiversity. We identified batch-effects that significantly bias broiler gastrointestinal tract (GIT) community compositions and made recommendations to improve sensitivity, consistency, and cross-study comparability. We found that the purity of the extracted nucleic acid had a strong effect on the success rate of downstream library preparations. The preparation of stool bacterial suspensions from feces showed a significant positive influence on community biodiversity by enriching Gram-negative bacteria and cataloguing low abundant taxa with greater success than direct processing of fecal material. Applications relying on the automated Roche MagNa Pure 24 magnetic-bead based method provided results with high consistency therefore it seems to be the optimal choice in large-scale studies for investigating broiler GIT microbiota.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#264

 

View it
Name
Description Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a histone deacetylase, is involved in maintenance of genetic stability, inflammation, immune response, metabolism (energy-sensing molecule) and colorectal tumorigenesis. We investigated SIRT1’s specific role in colorectal tumorigenesis by studying SIRT1 polymorphisms in relation to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk by microsatellite instability (MSI) and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) status. The Netherlands Cohort study (NLCS) was initiated in 1986 and includes 120,852 participants in a case-cohort design. CRC tumour samples were available for incident cases between 1989 and 1993. Toenail deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was used for genotyping of two SIRT1 tagging variants (rs10997870 and rs12778366). Excluding the first 2.3 years of follow-up, subcohort members and CRC cases with no toenail DNA available and those with low sample call rates, and CRC cases with no tumour DNA available left 3478 subcohort members and 533 CRC cases. Cox regression was utilised to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for MSI and CIMP positive and negative tumours by SIRT1 genotypes. The results were that the rs12778366 TC/CC versus TT genotype was inversely associated with MSI CRC (HR = 0.41, 95% confidence interval: 0.20, 0.88), while no association was found with the risk of an MSS tumour (TC/CC versus TT carriers: HR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.44). No significant associations were found between other SIRT1 genotypes and CRC subtypes. In conclusion, the results suggest a role for SIRT1 polymorphisms in colorectal tumorigenesis, particularly MSI CRC.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#265

 

View it
Name
Description Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a histone deacetylase, is involved in maintenance of genetic stability, inflammation, immune response, metabolism (energy-sensing molecule) and colorectal tumorigenesis. We investigated SIRT1’s specific role in colorectal tumorigenesis by studying SIRT1 polymorphisms in relation to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk by microsatellite instability (MSI) and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) status. The Netherlands Cohort study (NLCS) was initiated in 1986 and includes 120,852 participants in a case-cohort design. CRC tumour samples were available for incident cases between 1989 and 1993. Toenail deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was used for genotyping of two SIRT1 tagging variants (rs10997870 and rs12778366). Excluding the first 2.3 years of follow-up, subcohort members and CRC cases with no toenail DNA available and those with low sample call rates, and CRC cases with no tumour DNA available left 3478 subcohort members and 533 CRC cases. Cox regression was utilised to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for MSI and CIMP positive and negative tumours by SIRT1 genotypes. The results were that the rs12778366 TC/CC versus TT genotype was inversely associated with MSI CRC (HR = 0.41, 95% confidence interval: 0.20, 0.88), while no association was found with the risk of an MSS tumour (TC/CC versus TT carriers: HR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.44). No significant associations were found between other SIRT1 genotypes and CRC subtypes. In conclusion, the results suggest a role for SIRT1 polymorphisms in colorectal tumorigenesis, particularly MSI CRC.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#266

 

View it
Name
Description Insulin resistance increases patients’ risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and a host of other comorbidities including cardiovascular disease and cancer. At the molecular level, insulin exerts its function through the insulin receptor (IR), a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase. Data from human genetic studies have shown that Grb14 functions as a negative modulator of IR activity, and the germline Grb14-knockout (KO) mice have improved insulin signaling in liver and skeletal muscle. Here, we show that Grb14 knockdown in liver, white adipose tissues, and heart with an AAV-shRNA (Grb14-shRNA) improves glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. A previous report has shown that germline deletion of Grb14 in mice results in cardiac hypertrophy and impaired systolic function, which could severely limit the therapeutic potential of targeting Grb14. In this report, we demonstrate that there are no significant changes in cardiac function as measured by echocardiography in the Grb14-knockdown mice fed a high-fat diet for a period of four months. While additional studies are needed to further confirm the efficacy and to de-risk potential negative cardiac effects in preclinical models, our data support the therapeutic strategy of inhibiting Grb14 to treat diabetes and related conditions.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#267

 

View it
Name
Description Insulin resistance increases patients’ risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and a host of other comorbidities including cardiovascular disease and cancer. At the molecular level, insulin exerts its function through the insulin receptor (IR), a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase. Data from human genetic studies have shown that Grb14 functions as a negative modulator of IR activity, and the germline Grb14-knockout (KO) mice have improved insulin signaling in liver and skeletal muscle. Here, we show that Grb14 knockdown in liver, white adipose tissues, and heart with an AAV-shRNA (Grb14-shRNA) improves glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. A previous report has shown that germline deletion of Grb14 in mice results in cardiac hypertrophy and impaired systolic function, which could severely limit the therapeutic potential of targeting Grb14. In this report, we demonstrate that there are no significant changes in cardiac function as measured by echocardiography in the Grb14-knockdown mice fed a high-fat diet for a period of four months. While additional studies are needed to further confirm the efficacy and to de-risk potential negative cardiac effects in preclinical models, our data support the therapeutic strategy of inhibiting Grb14 to treat diabetes and related conditions.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#268

 

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Name
Description Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are an important histopathologic feature of colorectal cancer that confer prognostic information. Previous clinical and epidemiologic studies have found that the presence and quantification of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are significantly associated with disease-specific and overall survival in colorectal cancer. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis, establishing pooled estimates for survival outcomes based on the presence of TILs in colon cancer. PubMed (Medline), Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from inception to April 2017. Studies were included, in which the prognostic significance of intratumoral tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, as well as subsets of CD3, CD8, FOXP3, CD45R0 lymphocytes, were determined within the solid tumor center, the invasive margin, and tumor stroma. Random-effects models were calculated to estimated summary effects using hazard ratios. Forty-three relevant studies describing 21,015 patients were included in our meta-analysis. The results demonstrate that high levels of generalized TILS as compared to low levels had an improved overall survival (OS) with a HR of 0.65 (p = <0.01). In addition, histologically localized CD3+ T-cells at the tumor center were significantly associated with better disease-free survival (HR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.36–0.61, p = 0.05), and CD3 + cells at the invasive margin were associated with improved disease-free survival (HR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.38–0.86, p = 0.05). CD8+ T-cells at the tumor center had statistically significant prognostic value on cancer-specific survival and overall survival with HRs of 0.65 (p = 0.02) and 0.71 (p < 0.01), respectively. Lastly, FOXP3+ T-cells at the tumor center were associated with improved prognosis for cancer-specific survival (HR = 0.65, p < 0.01) and overall survival (HR = 0.70, p < 0.01). These findings suggest that TILs and specific TIL subsets serve as prognostic biomarkers for colorectal cancer.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#269

 

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Name
Description Although several risk factors have been reported for cervical ossification of the longitudinal ligament (OPLL), most evaluations made in the past were based on plain X-ray, not on computed tomography (CT) scan. In this study, we aimed to clarify novel risk factors for cervical OPLL in asymptomatic subjects undergoing CT scan as their routine medical checkups. A total of 1789 Japanese asymptomatic subjects who underwent CT scan for the whole body as their routine medical checkups were retrospectively reviewed. The medical checkup also included laboratory examinations, bone mineral status, and ultrasound of the carotid artery. As a result, cervical OPLL was seen in 120 subjects (6.7%). As we compared the demographic and clinical data between subjects with and without OPLL, OPLL group showed older age, higher proportion of male sex, higher BMI, higher incidence of hypertension, higher levels of blood HbA1c and triglyceride, and higher incidence of plaques in the carotid artery. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age (Odds ratio (OR):1.03), male sex (OR: 1.91), and the presence of plaque in the carotid artery (OR: 1.71) were risk factors for OPLL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to reveal an association between OPLL and arteriosclerotic lesions.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#270

 

View it
Name
Description Although several risk factors have been reported for cervical ossification of the longitudinal ligament (OPLL), most evaluations made in the past were based on plain X-ray, not on computed tomography (CT) scan. In this study, we aimed to clarify novel risk factors for cervical OPLL in asymptomatic subjects undergoing CT scan as their routine medical checkups. A total of 1789 Japanese asymptomatic subjects who underwent CT scan for the whole body as their routine medical checkups were retrospectively reviewed. The medical checkup also included laboratory examinations, bone mineral status, and ultrasound of the carotid artery. As a result, cervical OPLL was seen in 120 subjects (6.7%). As we compared the demographic and clinical data between subjects with and without OPLL, OPLL group showed older age, higher proportion of male sex, higher BMI, higher incidence of hypertension, higher levels of blood HbA1c and triglyceride, and higher incidence of plaques in the carotid artery. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age (Odds ratio (OR):1.03), male sex (OR: 1.91), and the presence of plaque in the carotid artery (OR: 1.71) were risk factors for OPLL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to reveal an association between OPLL and arteriosclerotic lesions.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 25 February 2020

#271

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#272

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#273

 

View it
Name
Description The country has the highest number of cases of coronavirus outside China.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#274

 

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Name
Description We don’t know the sources of many of the covid-19 cases in South Korea and Italy, suggesting the virus is now spreading untraceably among communities

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#275

 

View it
Name
Description A study of 13,000 people suggests that genetics strongly shapes how likely you are to contract HIV if you are exposed to the virus

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#276

 

View it
Name
Description Amazon is trying to reduce misinformation shared on its e-commerce platform

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#277

 

View it
Name
Description Nearly two million people in England have non-diabetic hyperglycaemia, a condition that puts people at risk of type 2 diabetes.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#278

 

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Name
Description INVITATIONS to hundreds of thousands of supposedly private WhatsApp chats have been published online. Experts found that 470,000 of the messaging app's groups have potentially been compromised, with links to join them visible in Google searches.

#Medicine & Human body;#Psychology
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#279

 

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Name
Description The spikes crowning the new coronavirus that causes COVID-19 atypical pneumonia are divulging how they attach, fuse and gain entry to cells. Analysis of the spike architecture and its mechanics is locating the virus’ vulnerabilities, and revealing other information that could prompt the discovery of

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#280

 

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Name
Description While many of us worry about proteins aggregating in our brains as we age and potentially causing Alzheimer’s disease or other types of neurodegeneration, we may not realize that some of the same proteins are aggregating in our muscles, setting us up for muscle atrophy in old age. University of C

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#281

 

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Name
Description People with diabetes are at a higher risk of fracturing a bone than the general population. And if they do break one it also takes longer than normal to heal. In the issue of Biomaterials, Henry Daniell, Shuying (Sheri) Yang, and colleagues at Penn’s School of Dental Medicine share promising find

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#282

 

View it
Name
Description The French Health Ministry announced that France no longer has confirmed cases of the coronavirus COVID-19: one patient died but all the others recovered.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#283

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#284

 

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Name
Description Using the word ‘pandemic’ to describe the novel coronavirus outbreak could cause fear, according to Tedros Ghebreyesus, director general of the World Health Organization

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#285

 

View it
Name
Description As countries struggle to contain the coronavirus, global economies and the stock market are starting to take notable hits.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#286

 

View it
Name
Description It believes such an announcement would be premature and only likely to further spread fear.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#287

 

View it
Name
Description There are concerns that repressive regimes might make the potential pandemic worse.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#288

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#289

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#290

 

View it
Name
Description Despite its association with allergy and inflammation, histamine protects against heart and kidney damage in cardiorenal syndrome.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#291

 

View it
Name
Description Every year, an estimated 100,000 Americans die from hospital-acquired infections - and one of the common causes is getting pneumonia from drug-resistant bacteria like A. baumannii. Developing drugs to combat such bacteria is one of the top priorities for genomics researchers - and today an MIT-led

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#292

 

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Name
Description Chinese researchers have confirmed a case of asymptomatic transmission of the new coronavirus: A 20-year-old woman from Wuhan passed it to five of her family members but never got physically sick herself.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#293

 

View it
Name
Description Viruses harm the body in a number of different ways depending on the strain.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#294

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#295

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#296

 

View it
Name
Description A woman in Pittsburgh has become the first documented case in a living person of an unusual medical condition where alcohol naturally brews in the bladder from the fermentation of yeast.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2020

#297

 

View it
Name
Description Researchers were able to reduce tumour size in mice by between eight and nine times without harming healthy tissue using the new technique.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2020

#298

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2020

#299

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2020

#300

 

View it
Name
Description Researchers at MIT have used artificial intelligence to develop a new antibiotic compound which can kill even some antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2020

#301

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2020

#302

 

View it
Name
Description The codes were printed onto a piece of A4 paper and stuffed into a fishing rod case.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2020

#303

 

View it
Name
Description In a first, US researchers have used artificial intelligence to identify a powerful new antibiotic capable of killing several drug-resistant bacteria.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2020

#304

 

View it
Name
Description These lightweight formulas blend into the skin and protect against wrinkles, discoloration and skin cancer.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2020

#305

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2020

#306

 

View it
Name
Description Global warming has threatened winter sports, skiing in particular, around the world. But nowhere is that felt as strongly as in Norway.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2020

#307

 

View it
Name
Description The prospect that the new coronavirus could soon be a pandemic is looming closer to reality.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2020

#308

 

View it
Name
Description Russian authorities aren’t afraid of using drastic measures to monitor the situation.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2020

#309

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2020

#310

 

View it
Name
Description Verizon joins AT&T Cybersecurity, IBM and a small number of exhibitors in declining to attend the event.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2020

#311

 

View it
Name
Description Microsoft is planning to extend its Defender antivirus software to Android and iOS ecosystems and is planning to showcase a preview during the RSA Conference that will be held from February 24 - 28.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2020

#312

 

View it
Name
Description Sony and Facebook have decided to skip this year&rsquo;s Game Developers Conference (GDC) scheduled for March 16 in San Francisco. Both companies have cited coronavirus concerns as their reason for not attending the conference.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2020

#313

 

View it
Name
Description At first, NASA just wanted a way to characterize fuel sprays in a turbulent environment such as a jet engine. What William Bachalo created to meet this need in 1984 has since been used for automobile engines, aircraft testing, inkjet printers, medicine, agriculture, and now the latest cutting-edge d

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2020

#314

 

View it
Name
Description Gene-infused nanoparticles used for combating disease work better when they include plant-based relatives of cholesterol, new research shows. That's because the shape and structure of the phytosterols help the genes get where they need to be inside cells. The findings by Oregon State Universit

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2020

#315

 

View it
Name
Description A new study from the University of Michigan biologists presents the first genetic evidence of resistance in some bats to white-nose syndrome, a deadly fungal disease that has decimated some North American bat populations. The study involved northern Michigan populations of the little brown bat, o

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2020

#316

 

View it
Name
Description “CDC did weigh in on this and explicitly recommended against it.”

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2020

#317

 

View it
Name
Description E-commerce giant Amazon has warned sellers that it is removing listings for products from the platform that claim to cure the novel coronavirus.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2020

#318

 

View it
Name
Description In its most direct foray yet into the $3.8 trillion medical sector, Amazon has launched a pilot program to administer health care services to many of its nearly 54,000 Seattle-area employees and their families.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2020

#319

 

View it
Name
Description San Francisco's annual RSA cybersecurity conference continues to lose big name attendees, like Verizon and AT&T, over coronavirus fears.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2020

#320

 

View it
Name
Description State Dept. overruled health experts amid unexpected test results, report says.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2020

#321

 

View it
Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2020

#322

 

View it
Name
Description Amid the coronavirus outbreak, business software solutions major SAP India on Thursday shut all its offices in the country for sanitisation after two of its employees were tested positive for Swine Flu (H1N1).

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2020