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#1

 

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Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#2

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#3

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#4

 

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Description FDA documents show Johnson & Johnson's Covid-19 vaccine is safe and highly effective, with no deaths reported and no hospitalizations after 28 days.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#5

 

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Name
Description An advisory committee for the agency will further review the vaccine this Friday.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#6

 

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Description Our aim was to evaluate maternal use of sedative drugs before, during, and after pregnancy and to assess the influence of use of these drugs on pregnancy outcomes. The study cohort (N = 6231) consists of all primiparous women, who lived in the city of Vantaa, Finland, and who delivered a singleton between 2009 and 2015. Data were obtained from Finnish national health registers. Of the women, 3.2% (n = 202) purchased at least once sedative drugs within 90 days before conception, during pregnancy and/or within 90 days after delivery. Sedative drug users were older, less likely to cohabitate, more often smokers, had lower educational attainment and had more mental diseases (for all p < 0.001) compared with non-users. Sedative drug users purchased more often antidepressants and drugs for the alimentary tract, musculoskeletal and nervous system than non-users (for all p < 0.001). No adverse birth or pregnancy outcomes were found in the group using sedative drugs compared with the non-users. Studies in larger cohorts are needed to confirm our study findings.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#7

 

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Description The purpose of the study was to compare clinical characteristics and mortality among adults infected with human coronaviruses (HCoV) 229E and OC43. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults (≥ 18 years) admitted to the ward of a university teaching hospital for suspected viral infection from October 2012 to December 2017. Multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to test for respiratory viruses. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare mortality among patients with HCoV 229E and HCoV OC43 infections. The main outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. Of 8071 patients tested, 1689 were found to have a respiratory virus infection. Of these patients, 133 had HCoV infection, including 12 mixed infections, 44 HCoV 229E infections, and 77 HCoV OC43 infections. HCoV 229E infections peaked in January and February, while HCoV OC43 infections occurred throughout the year. The 30-day all-cause mortality was 25.0% among patients with HCoV 229E infection, and 9.1% among patients with HCoV OC43 infection (adjusted odds ratio: 3.58, 95% confidence interval: 1.19–10.75). Infections with HCoVs 229E and OC43 appear to have different seasonal patterns, and HCoV 229E might be more virulent than HCoV OC43.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#8

 

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Description Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain cancer and it is nearly impossible to remove the entire tumor with surgery or a single drug. EGFRvIII is the most frequent genetic change associated with glioblastoma, so EGFRvIII-based targeting therapies provide promise for treating glioblastoma. Herein, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene] (PPV) was used as the core to prepare a conjugated polymer nanoparticle (PPVN) modified with anti-EGFRvIII (PPVN-A) that exhibited high ROS generation ability under white light irradiation. PPVN-A could target EGFRvIII-overexpressed tumor cells and damaged more than 90% of tumor cells with the light illumination while PPVN without modification exhibited no obvious cytotoxicity toward these cells under the same condition. Thus, the photodynamic treatment of glioblastoma cells using PPVN-A could be achieved, indicating the potential of anti-EGFRvIII-modified nanoparticles as a therapeutic material for treating glioblastoma in clinic.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#9

 

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Description The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and pancreatic steatosis (PS) in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. 228 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD patients who admitted to the Faculty of Medicine of Demiroglu Bilim University between 2004 and 2019 were included in the study. Demographic, laboratory, histological and radiological findings of the patients were recorded retrospectively. Hepatosteatosis (HS) levels were measured by both CT and biopsy, while PS levels were measured by 3 different CT-based techniques. 89 (39%) of the patients were female and 139 (61%) were male. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.2 ± 4.0. Biochemical parameters were within normal limits. Liver biopsy showed a significant correlation with HS grade on CT scan (p < 0.001). When CT findings were compared, a significant correlation was found between PS and HS (p < 0.05), but there was no correlation between the HS level in biopsy and the pancreatic adiposity on CT (p > 0.05). Our study was the first to compare biopsy-proven NAFLD and PS, and no correlation was found between biopsy-proven NAFLD and PS.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#10

 

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Description Dental implant surgery on atrophied maxilla has many risks; in some patients, simultaneous sinus lifting with implant placement must be performed to increase the chances of successful implantation; this procedure can cause implant migration. Eleven patients were diagnosed with implant migration into the maxillary sinus in four anatomical areas: the sinus floor above the alveolar bone, near the junction of the sinus and nasal floor, near the floor of the orbit, and the most posterior aspect of the sinus. Surgical removal was performed through four different direct non-endoscopic transoral approaches depending on the location of the displaced implant. Surgical challenges, surgery duration and postoperative complications were reported. The least challenging surgical intervention was noted when removing the displaced implants from the floor of the sinus through the crestal approach. More challenges were experienced during the surgical removal of anteriorly displaced implants near the roof of the orbital floor due to surgical access and the proximity of vital anatomical structures. Bleeding from the pterygoid venous plexus was profound with the posterior lateral approach. The choice of an appropriate surgical approach to retrieve displaced dental implants from the maxillary sinus depends on the location of the implant and the surrounding vital anatomical structures.

#Medicine & Human body;#Hardware & Devices
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#11

 

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Description DPX is a novel delivery platform that generates targeted CD8 + T cells and drives antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells into tumours. Cancer cells upregulate phosphatidylserine (PS) on the cell surface as a mechanism to induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Development of anti-PS targeting antibodies have highlighted the ability of a PS-blockade to enhance tumour control by T cells by releasing immunosuppression. Here, C57BL/6 mice were implanted with HPV16 E7 target-expressing C3 tumours and subjected to low dose intermittent cyclophosphamide (CPA) in combination with DPX-R9F treatment targeting an E7 antigen with and without anti-PS and/or anti-PD-1 targeting antibodies. Immune responses were assessed via IFN-γ ELISPOT assay and the tumour microenvironment was further analyzed using RT-qPCR. We show that the combination of DPX-R9F and PS-targeting antibodies with and without anti-PD-1 demonstrated increased efficacy compared to untreated controls. All treatments containing DPX-R9F led to T cell activation as assessed by IFN-γ ELISPOT. Furthermore, DPX-R9F/anti-PS treatment significantly elevated cytotoxic T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells based on RT-qPCR analysis. Overall, our data indicates that anti-tumour responses are driven through a variety of immune cells within this model and highlights the need to investigate combination therapies which increase tumour immune infiltration, such as anti-phosphotidylserine.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#12

 

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Description Super-resolution microscopy techniques have pushed the limit of optical imaging to unprecedented spatial resolutions. However, one of the frontiers in nanoscopy is its application to intact living organisms. Here we describe the implementation and application of super-resolution single-particle tracking photoactivated localization microscopy (sptPALM) to probe single-molecule dynamics of membrane proteins in live roots of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We first discuss the advantages and limitations of sptPALM for studying the diffusion properties of membrane proteins and compare this to fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). We describe the technical details for handling and imaging the samples for sptPALM, with a particular emphasis on the specificity of imaging plant cells, such as their thick cell walls or high degree of autofluorescence. We then provide a practical guide from data collection to image analyses. In particular, we introduce our sptPALM_viewer software and describe how to install and use it for analyzing sptPALM experiments. Finally, we report an R statistical analysis pipeline to analyze and compare sptPALM experiments. Altogether, this protocol should enable plant researchers to perform sptPALM using a benchmarked reproducible protocol. Routinely, the procedure takes 3–4 h of imaging followed by 3–4 d of image processing and data analysis. This protocol describes how to perform single-particle tracking photoactivated localization microscopy (sptPALM) of membrane proteins in living plant tissues. The procedure covers all stages, from sample preparation to data analysis.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#13

 

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Description Biswas et al. show that B cell infiltration in ovarian cancer leads to humoral immune responses dominated by polyclonal IgA, which mark ovarian cancer cells to be removed by myeloid cells, and also sensitize cancer cells to T cell-mediated cytolysis thereby controlling tumour growth.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#14

 

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Name
Description The world is in urgent need of a vaccine that protects against all coronaviruses, even those we've not met yet, warn scientists, as plans for human trials of potential candidates ramp up

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#15

 

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Description The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#16

 

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Description Cannabis and its derivatives are being used increasingly by patients with cancer, including patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary brain malignancy. Despite promising preclinical data suggesting potential anti-cancer effects for cannabinoids in GBM, clinical and safety data are lacking. This editorial will discuss a recent Phase 1b trial of nabiximols oromucosal spray in combination with dose-intense temozolomide in patients with recurrent GBM in the context of other relevant findings in this field.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#17

 

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Description Preclinical data suggest some cannabinoids may exert antitumour effects against glioblastoma (GBM). Safety and preliminary efficacy of nabiximols oromucosal cannabinoid spray plus dose-intense temozolomide (DIT) was evaluated in patients with first recurrence of GBM. Part 1 was open-label and Part 2 was randomised, double-blind, and placebo-controlled. Both required individualised dose escalation. Patients received nabiximols (Part 1, n = 6; Part 2, n = 12) or placebo (Part 2 only, n = 9); maximum of 12 sprays/day with DIT for up to 12 months. Safety, efficacy, and temozolomide (TMZ) pharmacokinetics (PK) were monitored. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs; both parts) were vomiting, dizziness, fatigue, nausea and headache. Most patients experienced TEAEs that were grade 2 or 3 (CTCAE). In Part 2, 33% of both nabiximols- and placebo-treated patients were progression-free at 6 months. Survival at 1 year was 83% for nabiximols- and 44% for placebo-treated patients (p = 0.042), although two patients died within the first 40 days of enrolment in the placebo arm. There were no apparent effects of nabiximols on TMZ PK. With personalised dosing, nabiximols had acceptable safety and tolerability with no drug–drug interaction identified. The observed survival differences support further exploration in an adequately powered randomised controlled trial. ClinicalTrials.gov: Part 1– NCT01812603; Part 2– NCT01812616.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#18

 

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Description The abnormal regulation of alternative splicing is usually accompanied by the occurrence and development of tumors, which would produce multiple different isoforms and diversify protein expression. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review in order to describe the regulatory mechanisms of alternative splicing, as well as its functions in tumor cells, from proliferation and apoptosis to invasion and metastasis, and from angiogenesis to metabolism. The abnormal splicing events contributed to tumor progression as oncogenic drivers and/or bystander factors. The alterations in splicing factors detected in tumors and other mis-splicing events (i.e., long non-coding and circular RNAs) in tumorigenesis were also included. The findings of recent therapeutic approaches targeting splicing catalysis and splicing regulatory proteins to modulate pathogenically spliced events (including tumor-specific neo-antigens for cancer immunotherapy) were introduced. The emerging RNA-based strategies for the treatment of cancer with abnormally alternative splicing isoforms were also discussed. However, further studies are still required to address the association between alternative splicing and cancer in more detail.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#19

 

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Description The phenylalanine–tyrosine–dopa–dopamine pathway provides dopamine to the brain. In this process, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme that hydroxylates tyrosine and generates levodopa (l-dopa) with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) as a coenzyme. Here, we show that oral berberine (BBR) might supply H• through dihydroberberine (reduced BBR produced by bacterial nitroreductase) and promote the production of BH4 from dihydrobiopterin; the increased BH4 enhances TH activity, which accelerates the production of l-dopa by the gut bacteria. Oral BBR acts in a way similar to vitamins. The l-dopa produced by the intestinal bacteria enters the brain through the circulation and is transformed to dopamine. To verify the gut–brain dialog activated by BBR’s effect, Enterococcus faecalis or Enterococcus faecium was transplanted into Parkinson’s disease (PD) mice. The bacteria significantly increased brain dopamine and ameliorated PD manifestation in mice; additionally, combination of BBR with bacteria showed better therapeutic effect than that with bacteria alone. Moreover, 2,4,6-trimethyl-pyranylium tetrafluoroborate (TMP-TFB)-derivatized matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) imaging of dopamine identified elevated striatal dopamine levels in mouse brains with oral Enterococcus, and BBR strengthened the imaging intensity of brain dopamine. These results demonstrated that BBR was an agonist of TH in Enterococcus and could lead to the production of l-dopa in the gut. Furthermore, a study of 28 patients with hyperlipidemia confirmed that oral BBR increased blood/fecal l-dopa by the intestinal bacteria. Hence, BBR might improve the brain function by upregulating the biosynthesis of l-dopa in the gut microbiota through a vitamin-like effect.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#20

 

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Description Understanding how a tumour evolves and avoids immune recognition is paramount to improving cancer immunotherapy and patient outcome. Here we examine our recent integration of multi-region genomic, transcriptomic, epigenomic, pathology, and clinical data, highlight the need for a systematic examination of immune escape mechanisms, and discuss implications for immunotherapy approaches.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#21

 

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Name
Description The vaccination gap among states has narrowed, but key differences still illustrate why some have done better than others.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#22

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#23

 

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Name
Description There are also more skin tone variations for emoji, including couples kissing.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#24

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#25

 

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Name
Description This study aims to compare sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and one anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) in terms of remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in obese patients. All T2DM patients were followed-up for at least 36 months. The primary outcome was remission of T2DM. Secondary endpoints included weight reduction and the procedure’s impact on quality of life. In total, 53/1177 morbidly obese patients who underwent SG (Group A, n = 28) or OAGB (Group B, n = 25) had T2DM. Preoperatively, the mean Body Mass Index (BMI) values were 52.2 ± 8.5 kg/m2 and 52.9 ± 10.9 kg/m2 for Group A and Group B, respectively. Six patients in Group A were insulin dependent, while 8 were insulin dependent in Group B. After 36 months, diabetes remission was achieved by only 10 patients (35.7%) in Group A. However, in Group B, 22 patients (88%) remained off antidiabetic agents (p < 0.0001), with ΔHbA1c (%) reaching 1.4 ± 1.5% in Group A and 2.7 ± 2.1% in Group B (p = 0.02). Excess weight loss% (%EWL) was again significantly different between the two groups (MA = 79.8 ± 14.5%, MB = 93.3 ± 16.0%, p = 0.003). OAGB is more effective in improving glycaemic control and %EWL, with almost immediate resolution of diabetes, as well as long-term weight loss.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#26

 

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Description The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the entire world causing substantial numbers of cases and deaths in most countries. Many have implemented nationwide stringent control to avoid overburdening the health care system. This has paralyzed economic and social activities and may continue to do so until the large-scale availability of a vaccine. We propose an alternative exit strategy to develop herd immunity in a predictable and controllable way: a phased lift of control. This means that successive parts of the country (e.g. provinces) stop stringent control, and COVID-19-related IC admissions are distributed over the country as a whole. Importantly, vulnerable individuals need to be shielded until herd immunity has developed in their area. We explore the characteristics and duration of this strategy using a novel individual-based model for geographically stratified transmission of COVID-19 in a country. The model predicts that individuals will have to experience stringent control for about 14 months on average, but this duration may be almost halved by further developments (more IC beds, better treatments). Clearly, implementation of this strategy would have a profound impact on individuals and society, and should therefore be considered carefully by various other disciplines (e.g. health systems, ethics, economics) before actual implementation.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#27

 

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Description The human cochlea transforms sound waves into electrical signals in the acoustic nerve fibers with high acuity. This transformation occurs via vibrating anisotropic membranes (basilar and tectorial membranes) and frequency-specific hair cell receptors. Frequency-positions can be mapped within the cochlea to create a tonotopic chart which fits an almost-exponential function with lowest frequencies positioned apically and highest frequencies positioned at the cochlear base (Bekesy 1960, Greenwood 1961). To date, models of frequency positions have been based on a two-dimensional analysis with inaccurate representations of the cochlear hook region. In the present study, the first three-dimensional frequency analysis of the cochlea using dendritic mapping to obtain accurate tonotopic maps of the human basilar membrane/organ of Corti and the spiral ganglion was performed. A novel imaging technique, synchrotron radiation phase-contrast imaging, was used and a spiral ganglion frequency function was estimated by nonlinear least squares fitting a Greenwood-like function (F = A (10ax − K)) to the data. The three-dimensional tonotopic data presented herein has large implications for validating electrode position and creating customized frequency maps for cochlear implant recipients.

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#28

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#29

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#30

 

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Name
Description Precision medicine initiatives are being launched worldwide, each with the capacity to sequence many thousands to millions of human genomes. At the strategic planning level, all are debating the extent to which these resources will be directed towards rare diseases (and cancers) versus common diseases. However, these are not mutually exclusive choices. The organizational and governmental infrastructure created for rare diseases is extensible to common diseases. As we will explain, the underlying technology can also be used to identify drug targets for common diseases with a strategy focused on naturally occurring human knockouts. This flips on its head the prevailing modus operandi of studying people with diseases of interest, shifting the onus to defining traits worth emulating by pharmaceuticals, and searching phenotypically for people with these traits. This also shifts the question of what is rare or common from the many underlying causes to the possibility of a common final pathway.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#32

 

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Description Generation of mature red blood cells, consisting mainly of hemoglobin, is a remarkable example of coordinated action of various signaling networks. Chromatin condensation is an essential step for terminal erythroid differentiation and subsequent nuclear expulsion in mammals. Here, we profiled 3D genome organization in the blood cells from ten species belonging to different vertebrate classes. Our analysis of contact maps revealed a striking absence of such 3D interaction patterns as loops or TADs in blood cells of all analyzed representatives. We also detect large-scale chromatin rearrangements in blood cells from mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians: their contact maps display strong second diagonal pattern, representing an increased frequency of long-range contacts, unrelated to TADs or compartments. This pattern is completely atypical for interphase chromosome structure. We confirm that these principles of genome organization are conservative in vertebrate erythroid cells.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#33

 

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Description Respiratory viral (RV) infections represent a major threat for human health worldwide. Persons with HIV (PWH) have a compromised immune response and are thought to be at higher risk for severe RV disease. However, very little is known about the host immune response to RV infection in PWH. Here, we investigated gene expression changes in the peripheral blood of PWH co-infected with RV. Only very few differentially expressed genes could be detected between PWH with and without RV infection, suggesting that the immune response to RV in PWH is strongly dampened. Our data provides important insights into the host response to RV infections in HIV patients.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#34

 

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Description During social interactions, acoustic parameters of tetrapods’ vocalisations reflect the emotional state of the caller. Higher levels of spectral noise and the occurrence of irregularities (non-linear phenomena NLP) might be negative arousal indicators in alarm calls, although less is known about other distress vocalisations. Family dogs experience different levels of stress during separation from their owner and may vocalise extensively. Analysing their whines can provide evidence for the relationship between arousal and NLP. We recorded 167 family dogs’ separation behaviour including vocalisations, assessed their stress level based on behaviour and tested how these, their individual features, and owner reported separation-related problems (SRP) relate to their whines’ (N = 4086) spectral noise and NLP. Dogs with SRP produced NLP whines more likely. More active dogs and dogs that tried to escape produced noisier whines. Older dogs’ whines were more harmonic than younger ones’, but they also showed a higher NLP ratio. Our results show that vocal harshness and NLP are associated with arousal in contact calls, and thus might function as stress indicators. The higher occurrence of NLP in older dogs irrespective to separation stress suggests loss in precise neural control of the larynx, and hence can be a potential ageing indicator.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#35

 

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Description Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that infects a wide range of animals and causes zoonotic infections in humans. Although it normally only results in mild illness in healthy individuals, toxoplasmosis is a common opportunistic infection with high mortality in individuals who are immunocompromised, most commonly due to reactivation of infection in the central nervous system. In the acute phase of infection, interferon-dependent immune responses control rapid parasite expansion and mitigate acute disease symptoms. However, after dissemination the parasite differentiates into semi-dormant cysts that form within muscle cells and neurons, where they persist for life in the infected host. Control of infection in the central nervous system, a compartment of immune privilege, relies on modified immune responses that aim to balance infection control while limiting potential damage due to inflammation. In response to the activation of interferon-mediated pathways, the parasite deploys an array of effector proteins to escape immune clearance and ensure latent survival. Although these pathways are best studied in the laboratory mouse, emerging evidence points to unique mechanisms of control in human toxoplasmosis. In this Review, we explore some of these recent findings that extend our understanding for proliferation, establishment and control of toxoplasmosis in humans. Toxoplasmosis caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a common opportunistic infection with high mortality in individuals who are immunocompromised, most commonly due to reactivation of infection in the central nervous system (CNS). In this Review, Sibley and colleagues explore the interaction between host immune defences and parasite virulence factors with emphasis on bradyzoite differentiation and survival of T. gondii within the CNS.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#36

 

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Description TikTok released its latest transparency report, which breaks down just how much misinformation the platformed removed over the last six months of 2020.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#37

 

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Description Extremists and dogmatists struggle with certain kinds of cognitive processing, but tend to be impulsive and risk-loving.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#38

 

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Description From South Africa to Brazil, Bristol and Liverpool, a string of worrying coronavirus strains have emerged. But why? And can we prevent more from developing?

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 24 February 2021

#39

 

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Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#40

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#41

 

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Description A new way of detecting the coronavirus could increase surveillance of dangerous mutations and alert individuals to which variant of the virus they are carrying

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#42

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#43

 

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Description The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#44

 

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Description In the span of a few months, millions of people were laid off, furloughed, or transitioned to remote work. In…...

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#45

 

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Description The current treatment strategies in advanced malignancies remain limited. Notably, immunotherapies have raised hope for a successful control of these advanced diseases, but their therapeutic responses are suboptimal and vary considerably among individuals. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a major component of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and are often correlated with poor prognosis and therapy resistance, including immunotherapies. Thus, a deeper understanding of the complex roles of TAMs in immunotherapy regulation could provide new insight into the TME. Furthermore, targeting of TAMs is an emerging field of interest due to the hope that these strategies will synergize with current immunotherapies. In this review, we summarize recent studies investigating the involvement of TAMs in immune checkpoint inhibition, tumor vaccines and adoptive cell transfer therapies, and discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting TAMs as an adjuvant therapy in tumor immunotherapies.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#46

 

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Description N6-methyladenosine (m6A), and its reader protein YTHDF1, play a pivotal role in human tumorigenesis by affecting nearly every stage of RNA metabolism. Autophagy activation is one of the ways by which cancer cells survive hypoxia. However, the possible involvement of m6A modification of mRNA in hypoxia-induced autophagy was unexplored in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, specific variations in YTHDF1 expression were detected in YTHDF1-overexpressing, -knockout, and -knockdown HCC cells, HCC organoids, and HCC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) murine models. YTHDF1 expression and hypoxia-induced autophagy were significantly correlated in vitro; significant overexpression of YTHDF1 in HCC tissues was associated with poor prognosis. Multivariate cox regression analysis identified YTHDF1 expression as an independent prognostic factor in patients with HCC. Multiple HCC models confirmed that YTHDF1 deficiency inhibited HCC autophagy, growth, and metastasis. Luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that HIF-1α regulated YTHDF1 transcription by directly binding to its promoter region under hypoxia. The results of methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing, proteomics, and polysome profiling indicated that YTHDF1 contributed to the translation of autophagy-related genes ATG2A and ATG14 by binding to m6A-modified ATG2A and ATG14 mRNA, thus facilitating autophagy and autophagy-related malignancy of HCC. Taken together, HIF-1α-induced YTHDF1 expression was associated with hypoxia-induced autophagy and autophagy-related HCC progression via promoting translation of autophagy-related genes ATG2A and ATG14 in a m6A-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that YTHDF1 is a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for patients with HCC.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#47

 

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Description People in the UK will be wearing face masks and social distancing until 2022 and possibly 2023, predict infectious disease experts polled by New Scientist

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#48

 

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Description Companies focus on safety, immune response to vaccines in children and teens

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#49

 

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Description But outside experts warn sample sizes are small and call for more data

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#50

 

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Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#51

 

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Description Pfizer and Moderna said they're ramping up their supply of coronavirus vaccines, with shipments expected to double and possibly triple, according to congressional testimony.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#52

 

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Description With spring break on the horizon, public health experts in the U.S. are concerned about the consequences of increased travel and relaxed safety measures.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#53

 

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Description Although there are various Conus species with publicly available transcriptome and proteome data, no genome assembly has been reported yet. Here, using Chinese tubular cone snail (C. betulinus) as a representative, we sequenced and assembled the first Conus genome with original identification of 133 genome-widely distributed conopeptide genes. After integration of our genomics, transcriptomics, and peptidomics data in the same species, we established a primary genetic central dogma of diverse conopeptides, assuming a rough number ratio of ~1:1:1:10s for the total genes: transcripts: proteins: post-translationally modified peptides. This ratio may be special for this worm-hunting Conus species, due to the high diversity of various Conus genomes and the big number ranges of conopeptide genes, transcripts, and peptides in previous reports of diverse Conus species. Only a fraction (45.9%) of the identified conotopeptide genes from our achieved genome assembly are transcribed with transcriptomic evidence, and few genes individually correspond to multiple transcripts possibly due to intraspecies or mutation-based variances. Variable peptide processing at the proteomic level, generating a big diversity of venom conopeptides with alternative cleavage sites, post-translational modifications, and N-/C-terminal truncations, may explain how the 133 genes and ~123 transcripts can generate thousands of conopeptides in the venom of individual C. betulinus. We also predicted many conopeptides with high stereostructural similarities to the putative analgesic ω-MVIIA, addiction therapy AuIB and insecticide ImI, suggesting that our current genome assembly for C. betulinus is a valuable genetic resource for high-throughput prediction and development of potential pharmaceuticals.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#54

 

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Description Computer science pioneer Alan Turing first proposed the patterning mechanism in 1952.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#55

 

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Description The global health care and pharmaceutical industries bore the brunt of cyberattacks in 2020 as nation-state hackers and criminals targeted companies looking for information on COVID-19 as well as vaccine development, cybersecurity ...

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#56

 

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Description President Joe Biden says he wants to vaccinate teachers, but he can't compel states to move them up the vaccination priority queue.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#57

 

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Description Gov. Andrew Cuomo says New York excluded thousands of residents from its nursing home death toll to avoid "double counting" deaths. Other states did things differently.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#58

 

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Description New Jersey was an early epicenter for the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, yet information on hospitalized COVID-19 patients from this area is scarce. This study aimed to provide data on demographics and clinical features of a hospitalized patient population who were confirmed with infection by our in-house (CDI) real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. We included consecutive patients who were admitted to Hackensack Meridian Health system hospitals with laboratory-confirmed diagnoses of COVID-19 at Hackensack University Medical Center by the CDI virus test between March 12, 2020, and April 8, 2020. Clinical data and viral testing results were collected and analyzed for characteristics associated with outcomes, as well as the correlation with viral load. A total of 722 patients were included in the study, with a median age of 63 (interquartile range (IQR), 51–75) and 272 (37.7%) females. Mortality of this case series was 25.8%, with a statistically significant linear increase observed from age 40 to ≥ 80 by 10-year intervals. Viral load, as indicated by the cycle of threshold (Ct) values from the RT-PCR test, was significantly higher in the oldest patient group (≥ 80), and inversely correlated with survival. This is the first report to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes in a large hospitalized COVID-19 patient series from New Jersey. Findings from this study are valuable to the ongoing response of both nationwide healthcare networks and the medical research community.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#59

 

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Description There are also more skin tone variations for emoji, including couples kissing.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#60

 

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Description Posttraumatic ankle osteoarthritis (OA) represents a significant challenge to orthopedic surgeons, especially in cases of anterior talar translation and concomitant impaction of the anterior distal tibial plafond. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of an intra-articular osteotomy for the management of these patients. A total of 21 patients meeting our criteria were retrospectively reviewed. Sixteen patients sustained initial pilon fractures, while five patients had Weber type C ankle fractures. Anterior distal tibial plafond-plasty was performed to address the impaction and anterior translation of the talus. The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot score and visual analog scale (VAS) score were utilized as clinical outcomes. The lateral talar station (LTS), tibial lateral surface (TLS) angle, tibial anterior surface angle and talocrural angle were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. The modified Kellgren-Lawrence score was used for the evaluation of sagittal ankle OA. The average age at surgery was 35 years, and the average follow-up duration was 34 months. The AOFAS hindfoot score increased from 26 to 71 (p < 0.01), and the VAS score improved from 7 to 2 (p < 0.01). The LTS improved from 9.0 to 2.3 mm (p < 0.01), and the TLS angle improved from 72° to 81° (p < 0.01). Of the 21 patients, 18 showed improvement in or no worsening of ankle OA on the sagittal plane, while 3 developed advanced ankle OA. A congruent ankle joint on the sagittal plane could be achieved by anterior distal tibial plafond-plasty. This is a valuable treatment option for the salvage of posttraumatic ankle OA with anterior translation of the talus.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#61

 

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Description Allergic rhinitis (AR) and diabetes mellitus (DM) share a common cause in inflammation; however, potential relationships between them are not clear. Therefore, we aimed to explore the associations between AR and DM. In this cross-sectional study, data were extracted from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2018 and weighted based on sociodemographic characters. AR and DM were defined by diagnoses thereof. Since self-reporting was not perfect, in order to complement the validity, we additionally performed sensitivity analysis by defining DM according to HbA1c and medication history. After excluding invalid data, the number of final participants was 29,246 (mean age, 54.95 ± 14.27 years). We calculated the odds ratio (OR) of newly self-reported DM among AR patients without DM history by multivariable logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. A reverse association was also assessed. Patients with AR showed lower ORs for DM than those without AR (OR, 95% CI: men, 0.28, 0.19–0.42; women, 0.33, 0.24–0.46). Similarly, DM patients showed lower ORs for AR than patients without DM (men, 0.41, 0.31–0.56; women, 0.34, 0.25–0.46). The same results were obtained in sensitivity analysis defining DM according to HbA1c levels or DM treatment and in stratification analysis for age, residency, comorbidity, BMI, and menopause. In conclusion, we discovered that AR and DM show mutual inverse associations, regardless of sex, in individuals aged 30 years and older.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#62

 

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Description Two new studies in Cell report the use of CRISPR–Cas cytosine base editors (CBEs) in mammalian cells for high-throughput functional genomics screens.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#63

 

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Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#64

 

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Description The purpose of this study was to prevent anaemia caused on long-term phenytoin treatment among Epileptic patients. Therefore, two groups were categorised based on the duration of phenytoin namely, cases and control. The duration of Phenytoin treatment for case was > 2 years while control had < 1 year. The estimation of serum Folate and Vitamin B12 was carried out and the association between the deficiency of Vitamins with the duration of treatment were evaluated using Linear Regression Analysis. The statistical results shown that the mean value of Folate (2.61 ± 1.81) and the mean value of Vitamin B12 (284.68 ± 110.12) were considered to be low as the duration of Phenytoin treatment increases (> 2 years) compare to control with the Folate concentration of (7.01 ± 4.40) which was statistically significant (p < 0.000). The experimental results have proved that a long-term phenytoin treatment significantly affects the concentration of Folate and Vitamin B12 among the Epileptic patients vigorously.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#65

 

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Description A report in Molecular Cell describes short capped RNA sequencing (scaRNA-seq), which is used to show that, in differentiating cells, enhancers predominantly regulate gene expression by modulating transcription initiation, and not pause release as previously supposed.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#66

 

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Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#67

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#68

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#69

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#70

 

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Description Laboratory testing for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) consists of two pillars: the detection of viral RNA via rt-PCR as the diagnostic gold standard in acute cases, and the detection of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. However, concerning the latter, questions remain about their diagnostic and prognostic value and it is not clear whether all patients develop detectable antibodies. We examined sera from 347 Spanish COVID-19 patients, collected during the peak of the epidemic outbreak in Spain, for the presence of IgA and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and evaluated possible associations with age, sex and disease severity (as measured by duration of hospitalization, kind of respiratory support, treatment in ICU and death). The presence and to some degree the levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies depended mainly on the amount of time between onset of symptoms and the collection of serum. A subgroup of patients did not develop antibodies at the time of sample collection. Compared to the patients that did, no differences were found. The presence and level of antibodies was not associated with age, sex, duration of hospitalization, treatment in the ICU or death. The case-fatality rate increased exponentially with older age. Neither the presence, nor the levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies served as prognostic markers in our cohort. This is discussed as a possible consequence of the timing of the sample collection. Age is the most important risk factor for an adverse outcome in our cohort. Some patients appear not to develop antibodies within a reasonable time frame. It is unclear, however, why that is, as these patients differ in no respect examined by us from those who developed antibodies.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#71

 

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Description The brain’s structural connectivity plays a fundamental role in determining how neuron networks generate, process, and transfer information within and between brain regions. The underlying mechanisms are extremely difficult to study experimentally and, in many cases, large-scale model networks are of great help. However, the implementation of these models relies on experimental findings that are often sparse and limited. Their predicting power ultimately depends on how closely a model’s connectivity represents the real system. Here we argue that the data-driven probabilistic rules, widely used to build neuronal network models, may not be appropriate to represent the dynamics of the corresponding biological system. To solve this problem, we propose to use a new mathematical framework able to use sparse and limited experimental data to quantitatively reproduce the structural connectivity of biological brain networks at cellular level.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#72

 

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Name
Description The introduction of biological or absorbable synthetic meshes has provided an alternative to conventional repair for incisional hernia. The ability to predict the development of complications after hernia surgery is important, as it guides surgical planning and patient management. This retrospective study assessed whether the postoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) level can predict complications after incisional hernia repair using biological mesh reinforcement. Patients who underwent incisional hernia repair surgery using biological meshes between February 2009 and February 2015 were screened for study inclusion. Patients included in the study were divided into two groups: those with and without postoperative complications. The two groups were analysed based on sex, surgical operation, length of intensive care unit stay (ICU), complications and mortality. Laboratory values, including white blood cell (WBC) count and CRP levels, were determined preoperatively and up to postoperative day (POD) 10. Postoperative complications requiring further management occurred in 32 of the 60 patients (53.3%). Among 47 patients, the mean CRP and WBC levels were 6.6 mg/L and 9.073 G/L in the group without complications vs. 141.0 mg/L, 16.704 G/L in the group with complications (p < 0.001). Patients with complications also had a longer ICU stay (10.1 vs. 0.6 days, p < 0.0001). A cut-off was 101 mg/L and offered 80.00% sensitivity (IC 61.43% to 92.29) and 95.24% specificity (76.18% to 99.88%) for postoperative complication. The rate of postoperative complications before POD10 was 95% in the group with CRP > 100 mg/L vs. 46% in the group with CRP < 100 mg/L (p = 0.000372). A high postoperative CRP level (> 100 mg/L) up to POD10 may serve as a predictor of postoperative complications in patients undergoing incisional hernia using biological meshes.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#73

 

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Name
Description In order to increase the contribution of donor HSC cells, irradiation and DNA alkylating agents have been commonly used as experimental methods to eliminate HSCs for adult mice. But a technique of HSC deletion for mouse embryo for increase contribution of donor cells has not been published. Here, we established for the first time a procedure for placental HSC transplantation into E11.5 Runx1-deficient mice mated with G1-HRD-Runx1 transgenic mice (Runx1-/-::Tg mice) that have no HSCs in the fetal liver. Following the transplantation of fetal liver cells from mice (allogeneic) or rats (xenogeneic), high donor cell chimerism was observed in Runx1-/-::Tg embryos. Furthermore, chimerism analysis and colony assay data showed that donor fetal liver hematopoietic cells contributed to both white blood cells and red blood cells. Moreover, secondary transplantation into adult recipient mice indicated that the HSCs in rescued Runx1-/-::Tg embryos had normal abilities. These results suggest that mice lacking fetal liver HSCs are a powerful tool for hematopoiesis reconstruction during the embryonic stage and can potentially be used in basic research on HSCs or xenograft models.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#74

 

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Description Genetic resistance to blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans, Lm) of canola (Brassica napus, Bn) has been extensively studied, but the mechanisms underlying the host–pathogen interaction are still not well understood. Here, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed on a resistant doubled haploid Bn line carrying the resistance gene Rlm1 following inoculation with a virulent (avrLm1) or avirulent (AvrLm1) Lm isolate on cotyledons. A total of 6999 and 3015 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, respectively, in inoculated local tissues with compatible (susceptible) and incompatible (resistant) interactions. Functional enrichment analysis found several biological processes, including protein targeting to membrane, ribosome and negative regulation of programmed cell death, were over-represented exclusively among up-regulated DEGs in the resistant reaction, whereas significant enrichment of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) pathways observed for down-regulated DEGs occurred only in the susceptible reaction. A heat-map analysis showed that both biosynthesis and signaling of SA and JA were induced more significantly in the resistant reaction, implying that a threshold level of SA and JA signaling is required for the activation of Rlm1-mediated resistance. Co-expression network analysis revealed close correlation of a gene module with the resistance, involving DEGs regulating pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition, JA signaling and transcriptional reprogramming. Substantially fewer DEGs were identified in mock-inoculated (control) cotyledons, relative to those in inoculated local tissues, including those involved in SA pathways potentially contributing to systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Pre-inoculation of cotyledon with either an avirulent or virulent Lm isolate, however, failed to induce SAR on remote tissues of same plant despite elevated SA and PR1 protein. This study provides insights into the molecular mechanism of Rlm1-mediated resistance to blackleg.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#75

 

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Description Radiative communication using electromagnetic fields is the backbone of today’s wirelessly connected world, which implies that the physical signals are available for malicious interceptors to snoop within a 5–10 m distance, also increasing interference and reducing channel capacity. Recently, Electro-quasistatic Human Body Communication (EQS-HBC) was demonstrated which utilizes the human body’s conductive properties to communicate without radiating the signals outside the body. Previous experiments showed that an attack with an antenna was unsuccessful at a distance more than 1 cm from the body surface and 15 cm from an EQS-HBC device. However, since this is a new communication modality, it calls for an investigation of new attack modalities—that can potentially exploit the physics utilized in EQS-HBC to break the system. In this study, we present a novel attack method for EQS-HBC devices, using the body of the attacker itself as a coupling surface and capacitive inter-body coupling between the user and the attacker. We develop theoretical understanding backed by experimental results for inter-body coupling, as a function of distance between the subjects. We utilize this newly developed understanding to design EQS-HBC transmitters that minimizes the attack distance through inter-body coupling, as well as the interference among multiple EQS-HBC users due to inter-body coupling. This understanding will allow us to develop more secure and robust EQS-HBC based body area networks in the future.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#76

 

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Description Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has increased our understanding of the molecular basis of many primary mitochondrial diseases (PMDs). Despite this progress, many patients with suspected PMD remain without a genetic diagnosis, which restricts their access to in-depth genetic counselling, reproductive options and clinical trials, in addition to hampering efforts to understand the underlying disease mechanisms. Although they represent a considerable improvement over their predecessors, current methods for sequencing the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes have important limitations, and molecular diagnostic techniques are often manual and time consuming. However, recent advances in genomics and transcriptomics offer realistic solutions to these challenges. In this Review, we discuss the current genetic testing approach for PMDs and the opportunities that exist for increased use of whole-genome NGS of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the clinical environment. We consider the possible role for long-read approaches in sequencing of mtDNA and in the identification of novel nuclear genomic causes of PMDs. We examine the expanding applications of RNA sequencing, including the detection of cryptic variants that affect splicing and gene expression and the interpretation of rare and novel mitochondrial transfer RNA variants. In this Review, the authors discuss the unique challenges involved in performing genetic testing for primary mitochondrial diseases and consider the value of advanced approaches such as long-read sequencing, RNA sequencing and the interpretation of transfer RNA variants.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#77

 

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Description The complexity of glioblastoma is becoming increasingly recognized. Three recent studies used single-cell approaches that integrate cellular states, transcriptional trajectories, and metabolic alterations to uncover multiple dimensions of cellular and molecular heterogeneity and provide a framework for additional functional investigation and therapeutic development.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 23 February 2021

#78

 

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Description SASE specialist Perimeter 81 has brought on Bob Kilbride, former channel chief of VMware's CloudHealth, as its first channel chief.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#79

 

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Name
Description Covid vaccine: When will everyone be vaccinated? An experiment showed how to get thousands more vaccinated each week.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#80

 

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Name
Description The grim milestone comes as winter storms across much of the US stalled vaccination efforts.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#81

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#82

 

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Name
Description Erector spinae muscle (ESM) size has been reported as a predictor of prognosis in patients with some respiratory diseases. This study aimed to assess the association of ESM size on all-cause in-hospital mortality among elderly patients with pneumonia. We retrospectively included patients (age: ≥ 65 years) admitted to hospital from January 2015 to December 2017 for community-acquired pneumonia who underwent chest computed tomography (CT) on admission. The cross-sectional area of the ESM (ESMcsa) was measured on a single-slice CT image at the end of the 12th thoracic vertebra and adjusted by body surface area (BSA). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the influence of ESMcsa/BSA on in-hospital mortality. Among 736 patients who were admitted for pneumonia, 702 patients (95%) underwent chest CT. Of those, 689 patients (98%) for whom height and weight were measured to calculate BSA were included in this study. Patients in the non-survivor group were significantly older, had a greater frequency of respiratory failure, loss of consciousness, lower body mass index, hemoglobin, albumin, and ESMcsa/BSA. Multivariate analysis showed that a lower ESMcsa/BSA independently predicted in-hospital mortality after adjusting for these variables. In elderly patients with pneumonia, quantification of ESMcsa/BSA may be associated with in-hospital mortality.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#83

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#84

 

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Name
Description Sphingolipids, including ceramides, are a diverse group of structurally related lipids composed of a sphingoid base backbone coupled to a fatty acid side chain and modified terminal hydroxyl group. Recently, it has been shown that sphingolipids show antimicrobial activity against a broad range of pathogenic microorganisms. The antimicrobial mechanism, however, remains so far elusive. Here, we introduce ‘click-AT-CLEM’, a labeling technique for correlated light and electron microscopy (CLEM) based on the super-resolution array tomography (srAT) approach and bio-orthogonal click chemistry for imaging of azido-tagged sphingolipids to directly visualize their interaction with the model Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria meningitidis at subcellular level. We observed ultrastructural damage of bacteria and disruption of the bacterial outer membrane induced by two azido-modified sphingolipids by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Click-AT-CLEM imaging and mass spectrometry clearly revealed efficient incorporation of azido-tagged sphingolipids into the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria as underlying cause of their antimicrobial activity.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#85

 

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Name
Description Since the worldwide outbreak of the infectious disease COVID-19, several studies have been published to understand the structural mechanism of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. During the infection process, the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein plays a crucial role in the receptor recognition and cell membrane fusion process by interacting with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) receptor. However, new variants of these spike proteins emerge as the virus passes through the disease reservoir. This poses a major challenge for designing a potent antigen for an effective immune response against the spike protein. Through a normal mode analysis (NMA) we identified the highly flexible region in the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, starting from residue 475 up to residue 485. Structurally, the position S477 shows the highest flexibility among them. At the same time, S477 is hitherto the most frequently exchanged amino acid residue in the RBDs of SARS-CoV-2 mutants. Therefore, using MD simulations, we have investigated the role of S477 and its two frequent mutations (S477G and S477N) at the RBD during the binding to hACE2. We found that the amino acid exchanges S477G and S477N strengthen the binding of the SARS-COV-2 spike with the hACE2 receptor.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#86

 

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Description This study aimed to compare and verify the osseointegration performance of a novel implant (NI) in vivo, which could provide a useful scientific basis for the further development of NIs. Thirty-two NIs treated with hydrofluoric acid and anodization and sixteen control implants (CIs) were placed in the mandibles of 8 beagles. Micro-CT showed that the trabecular number (Tb.N) significantly increased and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) significantly decreased in the NIs at 2 weeks. Significant differences were found in the trabecular thickness, Tb.N, Tb.Sp, bone surface/bone volume ratio, and bone volume/total volume ratio between the two groups from the 2nd–4th weeks. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the bone volume density at 2, 4, 8, or 12 weeks or bone-implant contact at 2 or 4 weeks, but the BIC in the CIs was higher than that in the NIs at the 8th and 12th weeks. Meanwhile, the histological staining showed a similar osseointegration process between the two groups over time. Overall, the NIs could be used as new potential implants after further improvement.

#Medicine & Human body;#Hardware & Devices
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#87

 

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Description Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disorder of accelerated lung aging. Multiple pieces of evidence support that the aging biomarker short telomeres, which can be caused by mutations in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), contribute to COPD pathogenesis. We hypothesized that short telomere risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TERT, while not able to drive COPD development, nonetheless modify the disease presentation. We set out to test the SNP carrying status in a longitudinal study of smokers with COPD and found that rapid decline of FEV1 in lung function was associated with the minor allele of rs61748181 (adjusted odds ratio 2.49, p = 0.038). Biochemical evaluation of ex vivo engineered human cell models revealed that primary cells expressing the minor allele of rs61748181 had suboptimal telomere length maintenance due to reduced telomerase catalytic activity, despite having comparable cell growth kinetics as WT-TERT expressing cells. This ex vivo observation translated clinically in that shorter telomeres were found in minor allele carriers in a sub-population of COPD patients with non-declining lung function, over the 5-year period of the longitudinal study. Collectively, our data suggest that functional TERT SNPs with mild catalytic defects are nonetheless implicated in the clinical presentation of COPD.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#88

 

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Description To determine the correlation between the clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings and the hospitalization days in Coronavirus Infectious Disease-19 (COVID-19) discharged patients. We retrospectively identified 172 discharged patients with COVID-19 pneumonia from January 10, 2020, to February 28, 2020, in Hunan province. The patients were categorized into group 1 (≤ 19 days) and group 2 (> 19 days) based on the time from symptom onset to discharge. Cough during admission occurred more commonly in group 2 (68.4%) than in group 1 (53.1%, p = 0.042). White blood cell (p = 0.045), neutrophil counts (p = 0.023), Alanine aminotransferase (p = 0.029), Aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.027) and Lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.021) that were above normal were more common in group 2. Patients with single lesions were observed more in group 1(17.7%, p = 0.018) and multiple lesions observed more in group 2(86.8%, p = 0.012). The number of lobes involved (p = 0.008) in the CT score (p = 0.001) for each patient was all differences between the two groups with a statistically significant difference. Mixed ground-glass opacity (GGO) and consolidation appearances were observed in most patients. GGO components > consolidation appearance was more common in group 1 (25.0%) than in group 2 (8.0%) with a significant difference (0.015), GGO < consolidation was more common in group 2(71.1%, p = 0.012). From the logistic regression analysis, the CT score (OR, 1.223; 95% CI, 1.004 to 1.491, p = 0.046) and the appearance of GGO > consolidation (OR, 0.150; 95% CI, 0.034 to 0.660, p = 0.012) were independently associated with the hospitalization days. Thus, special attention should be paid to the role of radiological features in monitoring the disease prognosis.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#89

 

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Name
Description Facebook gave its conservative publishers and right-wing personalities preferential treatment on the platform out of fear they would complain.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#90

 

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Name
Description Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common malignancies diagnosed in Caucasian populations. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent skin cancer, followed by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Unfortunately, most European cancer registries do not record individual types of NMSC. To evaluate the incidence of primary BCCs and SCCs regarding age, sex, tumour site and tumour subtype to determine trends in epidemiology of both cancers. Retrospective analysis of BCCs and SCCs diagnosed and treated across seven sites in Poland from 1999 to 2019. We recorded 13,913 NMSCs occurring in 10,083 patients. BCC represented 85.2% of all cases. SCC patients were older than BCC patients (77.1 ± 11.3 years vs. 70.1 ± 12.3 years, p < 0.01). The nodular subtype was the most common subtype of BCC, followed by the superficial and infiltrative subtypes. The superficial BCC subtype was more common on photoprotected areas (p < 0.01), whereas the nodular BCC subtype occurred on the face (p < 0.01). The high-risk SCC subtypes were more common on face compared to low-risk SCC subtypes (p < 0.01). BCC and SCC are common malignancies developing at various ages and anatomical sites. These data underline the need for better registration policies regarding NMSC in order to improve prevention and treatment strategies for these tumours.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#91

 

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Name
Description Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an incurable disease, although symptoms are treated with a range of dilator drugs. Despite their clinical benefits, these drugs are limited by systemic side-effects. It is, therefore, increasingly recognised that using controlled drug-release nanoformulation, with future modifications for targeted drug delivery, may overcome these limitations. This study presents the first evaluation of a promising nanoformulation (highly porous iron-based metal–organic framework (MOF); nanoMIL-89) as a carrier for the PAH-drug sildenafil, which we have previously shown to be relatively non-toxic in vitro and well-tolerated in vivo. In this study, nanoMIL-89 was prepared and charged with a payload of sildenafil (generating Sil@nanoMIL-89). Sildenafil release was measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and its effect on cell viability and dilator function in mouse aorta were assessed. Results showed that Sil@nanoMIL-89 released sildenafil over 6 h, followed by a more sustained release over 72 h. Sil@nanoMIL-89 showed no significant toxicity in human blood outgrowth endothelial cells for concentrations up to100µg/ml; however, it reduced the viability of the human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs) at concentrations > 3 µg/ml without inducing cellular cytotoxicity. Finally, Sil@nanoMIL-89 induced vasodilation of mouse aorta after a lag phase of 2–4 h. To our knowledge, this study represents the first demonstration of a novel nanoformulation displaying delayed drug release corresponding to vasodilator activity. Further pharmacological assessment of our nanoformulation, including in PAH models, is required and constitutes the subject of ongoing investigations.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#92

 

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Name
Description Human ring chromosomes are often unstable during mitosis, and daughter cells can be partially or completely aneuploid. We studied the mitotic stability of four ring chromosomes, 8, 13, 18, and 22, in long-term cultures of skin fibroblasts and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by GTG karyotyping and aCGH. Ring chromosome loss and secondary aberrations were observed in all fibroblast cultures except for r(18). We found monosomy, fragmentation, and translocation of indexed chromosomes. In iPSCs, aCGH revealed striking differences in mitotic stability both between iPSC lines with different rings and, in some cases, between cell lines with the same ring chromosome. We registered the spontaneous rescue of karyotype 46,XY,r(8) to 46,XY in all six iPSC lines through ring chromosome loss and intact homologue duplication with isoUPD(8)pat occurrence, as proven by SNP genotype distribution analysis. In iPSCs with other ring chromosomes, karyotype correction was not observed. Our results suggest that spontaneous correction of the karyotype with ring chromosomes in iPSCs is not universal and that pluripotency is compatible with a wide range of derivative karyotypes. We conclude that marked variability in the frequency of secondary rearrangements exists in both fibroblast and iPSC cultures, expanding the clinical significance of the constitutional ring chromosome.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#93

 

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Name
Description Facial attraction has a great influence on our daily social interactions. Previous studies have mainly focused on the attraction from facial shape and expression. We recently found that faces with radiant skin appear to be more attractive than those with oily-shiny or matte skin. In the present study, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and psychological experiments to determine the human brain activity that reflects facial attractiveness modulated by these skin reflection types. In the fMRI experiment, female subjects were shown successive images of unfamiliar female faces with matte, oily-shiny, or radiant skin. The subjects compared each face with the immediately preceding face in terms of attractiveness, age, and skin reflection, all based on the skin. The medial part of the orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) was significantly more active when comparing attractiveness than when comparing skin reflection, suggesting that the mOFC is involved in processing facial attractiveness from skin reflection. In the psychological experiment, attractiveness rating was highest for radiant skin, followed by oily-shiny, and then matte skin. Comparison of the results of these experiments showed that mOFC activation level increased with attractiveness rating. These results suggest that the activation level of the mOFC reflects facial attractiveness from skin reflection.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#94

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#95

 

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Name
Description Antibodies represent powerful tools to examine signal transduction pathways. Here, we present a strategy integrating multiple state-of-the-art methods to produce, validate, and utilize antibodies. Focusing on understudied synaptic proteins, we generated 137 recombinant antibodies. We used yeast display antibody libraries from the B cells of immunized rabbits, followed by FACS sorting under stringent conditions to identify high affinity antibodies. The antibodies were validated by high-throughput functional screening, and genome editing. Next, we explored the temporal dynamics of signaling in single cells. A subset of antibodies targeting opioid receptors were used to examine the effect of treatment with opiates that have played central roles in the worsening of the ‘opioid epidemic.’ We show that morphine and fentanyl exhibit differential temporal dynamics of receptor phosphorylation. In summary, high-throughput approaches can lead to the identification of antibody-based tools required for an in-depth understanding of the temporal dynamics of opioid signaling. Lemos Duarte et al. describe a strategy to produce, validate, and utilize highly-specific recombinant antibodies. As a proof of principle, they demonstrate development and validation of a panel of antibodies against proteins relevant to signaling by opiates. Their antibody-based tool can be useful in understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of opioid signaling.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#96

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#97

 

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Name
Description Mortality in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains high, resulting in 860,000 deaths annually. Carcinoembryonic antigen is widely used in clinics for CRC patient follow-up, despite carrying a limited prognostic value. Thus, an obvious need exists for multivariate prognostic models. We analyzed 48 biomarkers using a multiplex immunoassay panel in preoperative serum samples from 328 CRC patients who underwent surgery at Helsinki University Hospital between 1998 and 2003. We performed a multivariate prognostic forward-stepping background model based on basic clinicopathological data, and a multivariate machine-learned prognostic model based on clinicopathological data and biomarker variables, calculating the disease-free survival using the value of importance score. From the 48 analyzed biomarkers, only IL-8 emerged as a significant prognostic factor for CRC patients in univariate analysis (HR 4.88; 95% CI 2.00–11.92; p = 0.024) after correcting for multiple comparisons. We also developed a multivariate model based on all 48 biomarkers using a random survival forest analysis. Variable selection based on a minimal depth and the value of importance yielded two tentative candidate CRC prognostic markers: IL-2Ra and IL-8. A multivariate prognostic model using machine-learning technologies improves the prognostic assessment of survival among surgically treated CRC patients.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#98

 

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Name
Description This study provides ultrastructural evidence that the HIV-1 capsid can enter the nucleus of an infected T cell line through the nuclear pore complex and fragments in the nucleoplasm to release the viral genome.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#99

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#100

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#101

 

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Name
Description Organoids develop genetic signatures of postnatal brains, possibly broadening their use as disease models

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#102

 

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Name
Description In her new podcast series, The Big Bang Theory actress, who holds a doctorate in neuroscience, breaks down questions about mental health in a world still coping with COVID.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#103

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#104

 

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Name
Description B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is a target for various immunotherapies and a biomarker for tumor load in multiple myeloma (MM). We report a case of irreversible BCMA loss in a patient with MM who was enrolled in the KarMMa trial ( NCT03361748 ) and progressed after anti-BCMA CAR T cell therapy. We identified selection of a clone with homozygous deletion of TNFRSF17 (BCMA) as the underlying mechanism of immune escape. Furthermore, we found heterozygous TNFRSF17 loss or monosomy 16 in 37 out of 168 patients with MM, including 28 out of 33 patients with hyperhaploid MM who had not been previously treated with BCMA-targeting therapies, suggesting that heterozygous TNFRSF17 deletion at baseline could theoretically be a risk factor for BCMA loss after immunotherapy. Biallelic loss of BCMA caused a patient with multiple myeloma to relapse after anti-BCMA CAR T cell treatment. Baseline heterozygous BCMA deletions might be a risk factor for this form of resistance.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#105

 

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Name
Description The G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 contributes to impaired cardiac function and remodelling and promotes immune cell recruitment after myocardial infarction in mice.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#106

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#107

 

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Name
Description Obtaining a consistent taxonomy of neuron types is challenging mainly because of the high dimensionality of the datasets. Coupled autoencoders are a step forward in achieving this goal.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#108

 

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Name
Description Deciphering the origins of the various cells in atherosclerotic plaques, the regulation of their fates and their functions is an essential step towards developing strategies to limit or even reverse disease progression to myocardial infarction. In this issue, Newman et al. advance our understanding of the roles of non-vascular smooth muscle cells in the formation and maintenance of the fibrous cap, a structure in human atherosclerotic plaques that protects them against rupture—the proximal event typically underlying myocardial infarctions.

#Medicine & Human body;#Psychology
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#109

 

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Name
Description Two recent papers report the first-in-human clinical trials investigating the efficacy and safety of faecal microbiota transplantation for metastatic melanoma that is refractory to cancer immunotherapy.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#110

 

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Name
Description The iPhone maker had initially aimed to help COPAN go from making several thousand kits per week to 1 million kits a week, with the firms also looking to create at least 50 new jobs in Southern California.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#111

 

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Name
Description Oscar Health, a health insurance start-up backed by Google parent Alphabet Inc, will raise as much as $1.05 billion in its initial public offering, according to a regulatory filings.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#112

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#113

 

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Name
Description One dose of coronavirus vaccine cut hospitalisations in Scotland by up to 94 per cent, while further analysis shows a significant drop in death rates in the over-80s

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#114

 

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Name
Description The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 22 February 2021

#115

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2021

#116

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2021

#117

 

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Name
Description N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent, abundant and conserved internal cotranscriptional modification in eukaryotic RNAs, especially within higher eukaryotic cells. m6A modification is modified by the m6A methyltransferases, or writers, such as METTL3/14/16, RBM15/15B, ZC3H3, VIRMA, CBLL1, WTAP, and KIAA1429, and, removed by the demethylases, or erasers, including FTO and ALKBH5. It is recognized by m6A-binding proteins YTHDF1/2/3, YTHDC1/2 IGF2BP1/2/3 and HNRNPA2B1, also known as “readers”. Recent studies have shown that m6A RNA modification plays essential role in both physiological and pathological conditions, especially in the initiation and progression of different types of human cancers. In this review, we discuss how m6A RNA methylation influences both the physiological and pathological progressions of hematopoietic, central nervous and reproductive systems. We will mainly focus on recent progress in identifying the biological functions and the underlying molecular mechanisms of m6A RNA methylation, its regulators and downstream target genes, during cancer progression in above systems. We propose that m6A RNA methylation process offer potential targets for cancer therapy in the future.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2021

#118

 

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Name
Description The South Africa coronavirus variant has raised fears around the world that new Covid-19 strains will render the current generation of vaccines ineffective.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2021

#119

 

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Name
Description When can I get the Covid vaccine? As doses of Pfizer and Moderna vaccines slowly increase, states scramble to find vaccinators.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2021

#120

 

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Name
Description The benefits and harms of corticosteroids for patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain unclear. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from December 31, 2019 to October 1, 2020 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated corticosteroids in severe COVID-19 patients. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at the longest follow-up. Secondary outcomes included a composite disease progression (progression to intubation, ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ICU transfer, or death among those not ventilated at enrollment) and incidence of serious adverse events. A random-effects model was applied to calculate risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to evaluate the certainty of the evidence. Seven RCTs involving 6250 patients were included, of which the Randomized Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy (RECOVERY) trial comprised nearly 78% of all included subjects. Results showed that corticosteroids were associated with a decreased all-cause mortality (27.3 vs. 31.1%; RR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.73–0.99; P = 0.04; low-certainty evidence). Trial sequential analysis suggested that more trials were still required to confirm the results. However, such survival benefit was absent if RECOVERY trial was excluded (RR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.65–1.06; P = 0.13). Furthermore, corticosteroids decreased the occurrence of composite disease progression (30.6 vs. 33.3%; RR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.64–0.92; P = 0.005), but not increased the incidence of serious adverse events (3.5 vs. 3.4%; RR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.39–3.43; P = 0.79).

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2021

#121

 

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Name
Description The variant, called B.1.525, contains a worrisome mutation called E484K.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2021

#122

 

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Name
Description The closer scientists look at the bacteria in the gut, the clearer its importance to our overall health becomes, and new research links a particular type of gut microbiome development with longer lifespans and a healthier old age.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2021

#123

 

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Name
Description The U.S. death toll from the coronavirus topped 500,000 on Sunday, according to an NBC News tally.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2021

#124

 

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Name
Description Covid-19 has claimed the lives of thousands in the United States. See the latest per-day and total death counts. This article is updated daily.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2021

#125

 

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Name
Description Evaluation of the comparative effectiveness of enzalutamide and abiraterone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is limited to meta-analyses of randomized trials that exclude patients with significant comorbidities. We evaluated overall survival (OS) in patients with chemotherapy-naive mCRPC treated with enzalutamide or abiraterone acetate (abiraterone) in a real-world single payer setting. A retrospective analysis (4/1/2014–3/31/2018) of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) database was conducted. Patients with mCRPC had ≥1 pharmacy claim for enzalutamide or abiraterone (first claim date = index date) following disease progression on surgical/medical castration, without chemotherapy <12 months prior to index date. Patients had continuous VHA enrollment for ≥12 months pre-index date and were followed until death, disenrollment, or end of study. Kaplan–Meier analysis and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models examined the OS treatment effect. Patients with chemotherapy-naive mCRPC (N = 3174; enzalutamide, n = 1229; abiraterone, n = 1945) had mean ages of 74 and 73 years, respectively. Median follow-up was 18.27 and 19.07 months with enzalutamide and abiraterone, respectively. Enzalutamide-treated patients had longer median treatment duration than abiraterone-treated patients (9.93 vs 8.47 months, respectively, p = 0.0008). After baseline comorbidity adjustment, enzalutamide-treated patients had a 16% reduced risk of death (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.76–0.94; p = 0.0012). For patients who remained on first line-therapy only, enzalutamide-treated patients had improved OS versus abiraterone-treated patients (HR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.62–0.82). Enzalutamide-treated patients who crossed over to abiraterone had a comparable risk of death versus abiraterone-treated patients who crossed over to enzalutamide (HR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.74–1.13). These results were confirmed by sensitivity analysis, which considered prognostic variables. Retrospective analysis of the VHA database indicated that chemotherapy-naive patients with mCRPC initiating therapy with enzalutamide had improved survival versus abiraterone.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2021

#126

 

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Name
Description Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is difficult to treat but one promising strategy is to block memory reconsolidation of the traumatic event. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of traumatic memory reactivation under the influence of propranolol, a noradrenergic beta-receptor blocker, in reducing PTSD symptoms as well as comorbid major depression (MD) symptoms. We conducted a double blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial in 66 adults diagnosed with longstanding PTSD. Propranolol or a placebo was administered 90 min before a brief memory reactivation session, once a week for 6 consecutive weeks. Measures included the SCID PTSD module, the PTSD Check List (PCL-S) and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). PTSD symptoms decreased both in the pre-reactivation propranolol group (39.28%) and the pre-reactivation placebo group (34.48 %). During the 6 treatment sessions, PCL-S and BDI-II scores decreased to similar extent in both groups and there were no treatment differences. During the 3-month follow-up period, there were no treatment effects for the mean PCL-S and BDI-II scores. However, in patients with severe PTSD symptoms (PCL-S ≥ 65) before treatment, PCL-S and BDI-II scores continued to decline 3 months after the end of treatment in the propranolol group while they increased in the placebo group. Repeated traumatic memory reactivation seemed to be effective for PTSD and comorbid MD symptoms. However, the efficacy of propranolol was not greater than that of placebo 1 week post treatment. Furthermore, in this traumatic memory reactivation, PTSD symptom severity at baseline might have influenced the post-treatment effect of propranolol.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2021

#127

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2021

#128

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 21 February 2021

#129

 

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Name
Description Covid-19 cases and deaths are falling in India and there are no signs of a second wave yet, which could be due to exposure to other seasonal coronaviruses

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 February 2021

#130

 

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Name
Description Facebook has been accused of not policing its own rule of barring apps from sharing sensitive medical data of users. Data fed into a Facebook analytics tool by app makers included medical diagnoses and whether users were pregnant, according to a report shared by New York financial services department on Thursday.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 February 2021

#131

 

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Name
Description Detroit is now giving Covid-19 vaccinations to people with ADHD, autism, vision or hearing impairments, and other intellectual and developmental disabilities.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 February 2021

#132

 

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Name
Description Without federal strategy or enough funding, US sequencing superpowers don't work.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 February 2021

#133

 

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Name
Description Mosaicisms caused by postzygotic mutational events are of increasing interest because of their potential association with various human diseases. Postzygotic somatic mutations have not been well characterized however in terms of their developmental lineage in humans. We conducted whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and targeted deep sequencing in 15 organs across three developmental lineages from a single male fetus with polycystic kidney disease (PKD) of 21 weeks gestational age. This fetus had no detectable neurological abnormalities at autopsy but germline mutations in the PKHD1 gene were identified that may have been associated with the PKD. Eight early embryonic mosaic variants with no alteration of protein function were detected. These variants were thought to have occurred at the two or four cell stages after fertilization with a mutational pattern involving frequent C>T and T>C transitions. In our current analyses, no tendency toward organ-specific mutation occurrences was found as the eight variants were detected in all 15 organs. However different allele fractions of these variants were found in different organs, suggesting a tissue-specific asymmetric growth of cells that reflected the developmental germ layer of each organ. This indicated that somatic mutation occurrences, even in early embryogenesis, can affect specific organ development or disease. Our current analyses demonstrate that multi-organ analysis is helpful for understanding genomic mosaicism. Our results also provide insights into the biological role of mosaicism in embryonic development and disease.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 February 2021

#134

 

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Name
Description Tooth agenesis is one of the most frequent congenital abnormalities found in the maxillofacial region. Oligodontia, a severe form of tooth agenesis, occurs as an isolated anomaly or as a syndromic feature. We performed whole exome sequencing analyses to identify causative mutation in a Japanese family with three affected individuals with non-syndromic oligodontia. After variant filtering procedures and validation by Sanger sequencing, we identified one missense mutation (c.668 C > T, p.Gly223Asp) in OPN3 at 1q43, encoding a photosensitive G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed in various tissues including brain, liver, and adipose. This mutation was predicted to be pathogenic in silico and was not found in the public databases. We further examined 48 genetically unrelated cases by targeted sequencing of the OPN3 gene region and found one additional missense variant in this gene (c.768 C > T, p.Met256Ile) that was also predicted to be pathogenic. Localization of OPN3 protein by immunohistochemical analysis using mouse embryo revealed its specific expression in the tooth gems from bud to bell stages and their surrounding tissues. These results indicated that OPN3 was involved in non-syndromic oligodontia, which has made an anchoring point for clinical application including DNA diagnostics.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 February 2021

#135

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 February 2021

#136

 

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Name
Description The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced the successful birth of a cloned black-footed ferret. This cloning is an innovative conservation effort.

#Medicine & Human body;#Psychology
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 20 February 2021

#137

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#138

 

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Name
Description MIT researchers have identified a new class of mutations that help bacteria develop antibiotic resistance. In a study of E. coli, they discovered that mutations to genes involved in metabolism can help bacteria to evade the toxic effects of several different antibiotics.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#139

 

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Name
Description The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#140

 

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Name
Description The healthy young ferret kit was bred using the genes of an animal that died more than 30 years ago.

#Medicine & Human body;#Psychology
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#141

 

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Name
Description Various repertoires of membrane protein interactions determine cellular responses to diverse environments around cells dynamically in space and time. Current assays, however, have limitations in unraveling these interactions in the physiological states in a living cell due to the lack of capability to probe the transient nature of these interactions on the crowded membrane. Here, we present a simple and robust assay that enables the investigation of transient protein interactions in living cells by using the single-molecule diffusional mobility shift assay (smDIMSA). Utilizing smDIMSA, we uncovered the interaction profile of EGFR with various membrane proteins and demonstrated the promiscuity of these interactions depending on the cancer cell line. The transient interaction profile obtained by smDIMSA will provide critical information to comprehend the crosstalk among various receptors on the plasma membrane. A new method for analyzing transient interactions between proteins in the outer membrane of living cells could help researchers better understand how cancer cells develop resistance to targeted drug therapies. A research team led by Do-Hyeon Kim and Sung Ho Ryu from Pohang University of Science and Technology, South Korea have developed a technique for investigating weak protein–protein interactions on the basis of changes in their rate of diffusion when bound to each other. Using this “single-molecule diffusional mobility shift assay,” the researchers showed that a cancer-linked protein called EGFR tends to bind with a range of other proteins, depending on the type of cancer cell studied. EGFR is the target of several drug therapies, and the variability of its interactions may account for its ability to circumvent drug-induced inhibition in resistant cancer cells.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#142

 

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Name
Description The Covid-19 vaccine developed by Pfizer and BioNTech is 85 percent effective at preventing symptomatic Covid-19 after one dose, according to a new study.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#143

 

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Name
Description Should I get the Covid vaccine? The CDC reports no serious safety problems with the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#144

 

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Name
Description The pharma giant and partner BioNTech have asked FDA to revise the vaccine's label.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#145

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#146

 

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Name
Description Facebook has started blocking sensitive health information that third-party apps had been sharing with the social network in violation of its own rules, said New York officials who investigated the situation.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#147

 

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Name
Description Lyft will give free and discounted rides to COVID-19 vaccination sites through CVS, which will be located in vaccination vans and community clinics.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#148

 

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Name
Description Looking for a more secure messenger app? Here are the key privacy differences among some of the biggest players -- and which one Elon Musk recommends.

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#149

 

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Name
Description Studying medulloblastoma, the most common malignant paediatric brain tumour, requires simple yet realistic in vitro models. In this study, we optimised a robust, reliable, three-dimensional (3D) culture method for medulloblastoma able to recapitulate the spatial conformation, cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions that exist in vivo and in patient tumours. We show that, when grown under the same stem cell enriching conditions, SHH subgroup medulloblastoma cell lines established tight, highly reproducible 3D spheroids that could be maintained for weeks in culture and formed pathophysiological oxygen gradients. 3D spheroid culture also increased resistance to standard-of-care chemotherapeutic drugs compared to 2D monolayer culture. We exemplify how this model can enhance in vitro therapeutic screening approaches through dual-inhibitor studies and continual monitoring of drug response. Next, we investigated the initial stages of metastatic dissemination using brain-specific hyaluronan hydrogel matrices. RNA sequencing revealed downregulation of cell cycle genes and upregulation of cell movement genes and key fibronectin interactions in migrating cells. Analyses of these upregulated genes in patients showed that their expression correlated with early relapse and overall poor prognosis. Our 3D spheroid model is a significant improvement over current in vitro techniques, providing the medulloblastoma research community with a well-characterised and functionally relevant culture method.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#150

 

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Name
Description Timely transition to flowering, maturity and plant height are important for agronomic adaptation and productivity of Indian mustard (B. juncea), which is a major edible oilseed crop of low input ecologies in Indian subcontinent. Breeding manipulation for these traits is difficult because of the involvement of multiple interacting genetic and environmental factors. Here, we report a genetic analysis of these traits using a population comprising 92 diverse genotypes of mustard. These genotypes were evaluated under deficient (N75), normal (N100) or excess (N125) conditions of nitrogen (N) application. Lower N availability induced early flowering and maturity in most genotypes, while high N conditions delayed both. A genotyping-by-sequencing approach helped to identify 406,888 SNP markers and undertake genome wide association studies (GWAS). 282 significant marker-trait associations (MTA's) were identified. We detected strong interactions between GWAS loci and nitrogen levels. Though some trait associated SNPs were detected repeatedly across fertility gradients, majority were identified under deficient or normal levels of N applications. Annotation of the genomic region (s) within ± 50 kb of the peak SNPs facilitated prediction of 30 candidate genes belonging to light perception, circadian, floral meristem identity, flowering regulation, gibberellic acid pathways and plant development. These included over one copy each of AGL24, AP1, FVE, FRI, GID1A and GNC. FLC and CO were predicted on chromosomes A02 and B08 respectively. CDF1, CO, FLC, AGL24, GNC and FAF2 appeared to influence the variation for plant height. Our findings may help in improving phenotypic plasticity of mustard across fertility gradients through marker-assisted breeding strategies.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#151

 

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Name
Description To investigate the acute clinical, immunological, and corneal nerve changes following corneal HSV-1 KOS-63 strain inoculation. Corneas of C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with either low dose (Ld) or high dose (Hd) HSV-1 KOS-63 or culture medium. Clinical evaluation was conducted up to 7 days post inoculation (dpi). Viral titers were assessed by standard plaque assay. Excised corneas were stained for CD45 and beta-III tubulin. Corneal flow cytometry was performed to assess changes in leukocyte subpopulations. Corneal sensation was measured using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Naïve, sham-infected (post scarification), and McKrae-infected C57BL/6 corneas served as two negative and positive controls, respectively. Compared to Ld infected mice, Hd HSV-1 KOS-63 demonstrated higher incidence of corneal opacity (1.5 ×) and neovascularization (2.6 × ; p < 0.05). At 7 dpi Hd infected mice showed more severe corneal opacity (2.23 vs. 0.87; p = 0.0003), neovascularization (6.00 vs. 0.75; p < 0.0001), and blepharitis (3.11 vs. 2.06; p = 0.001) compared to the Ld group. At 3 dpi epitheliopathy was significantly larger in the Hd group (23.59% vs. 3.44%; p = 0.001). Similarly, corneal opacity was significantly higher in Hd McKrae-infected corneas as compared with Ld McKrae-infected corneas at 3 and 5 dpi. No significant corneal opacity, neovascularization, blepharitis, and epitheliopathy were observed in naïve or sham-infected mice. Higher viral titers were detected in corneas (1 and 3 dpi) and trigeminal ganglia (TG) (3 and 5 dpi) in Hd versus Ld KOS-63 groups (p < 0.05). Leukocyte density showed a gradual increase over time from 1 to 7 dpi in both KOS-63 and McKrae-infected corneas. Corneal flow cytometric analysis (3 dpi) demonstrated a higher percentage of Gr-1 + (71.6 vs. 26.3) and CD11b + (90.6 vs. 41.1) cells in Hd versus Ld KOS-63 groups. Corneal nerve density significantly decreased in both Hd KOS-63 and Hd McKrae infected corneas in comparison with naïve and sham-infected corneas. At 3 dpi corneal nerve density was lower in the Hd versus Ld KOS-63 groups (16.79 vs. 57.41 mm/mm2; p = 0.004). Corneal sensation decreased accordingly at 5 and 7 dpi in both Ld and Hd KOS-63-infected mice. Corneal inoculation with HSV-1 KOS-63 strain shows acute keratitis and nerve degeneration in a dose-dependent fashion, demonstrating virulence of this strain.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#152

 

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Name
Description Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common non-cutaneous cancer in men and a notable cause of cancer mortality when it metastasises. The unfolded protein response (UPR) can be cytoprotective but when acutely activated can lead to cell death. In this study, we sought to enhance the acute activation of the UPR using radiation and ONC201, an UPR activator. Treating PCa cells with ONC201 quickly increased the expression of all the key regulators of the UPR and reduced the oxidative phosphorylation, with cell death occurring 72 h later. We exploited this time lag to sensitize prostate cancer cells to radiation through short-term treatment with ONC201. To understand how priming occurred, we performed RNA-Seq analysis and found that ONC201 suppressed the expression of cell cycle and DNA repair factors. In conclusion, we have shown that ONC201 can prime enhanced radiation response.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#153

 

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Name
Description Correctly estimating the hormone receptor status for estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PGR) is crucial for precision therapy of breast cancer. It is known that conventional diagnostics (immunohistochemistry, IHC) yields a significant rate of wrongly diagnosed receptor status. Here we demonstrate how Dempster Shafer decision Theory (DST) enhances diagnostic precision by adding information from gene expression. We downloaded data of 3753 breast cancer patients from Gene Expression Omnibus. Information from IHC and gene expression was fused according to DST, and the clinical criterion for receptor positivity was re-modelled along DST. Receptor status predicted according to DST was compared with conventional assessment via IHC and gene-expression, and deviations were flagged as questionable. The survival of questionable cases turned out significantly worse (Kaplan Meier p < 1%) than for patients with receptor status confirmed by DST, indicating a substantial enhancement of diagnostic precision via DST. This study is not only relevant for precision medicine but also paves the way for introducing decision theory into OMICS data science.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#154

 

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Name
Description High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is still a consolidation treatment choice for relapsed/refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) patients and some aggressive B-cell NHL as frontline therapy. Due to the shortage of carmustine, we switched to idarubicin-substituted BEAC (IEAC) conditioning regimen. We retrospectively compared the outcomes of 72 aggressive B-cell NHL patients treated with IEAC or BEAC regimens followed by ASCT as upfront consolidative treatment. The median time to neutrophil and platelet reconstitution showed no difference between IEAC and BEAC groups. IEAC regimen was well tolerated without increase of adverse events. Transplant-related mortality didn’t occur. The overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of IEAC group (33 and 23 months) were a little longer than that of BEAC group (30 and 18 months). However, due to the small sample numbers, there’s no significant difference in OS and PFS between IEAC and BEAC group with DLBCL or MCL. Multivariate analysis showed that AnnArbor staging, IPI score, lactate dehydrogenase level, remission of disease, modified regimen were related with PFS and OS. In conclusion, IEAC regimen was well tolerated and replacement with idarubicin could be an alternative when carmustine was not available.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#155

 

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Name
Description COVID-19 chatbots are widely used to screen for symptoms and disseminate information about the virus, yet little is known about the population subgroups that interact with this technology and the specific features that are used. An analysis of 1,000,740 patients invited to use a COVID-19 chatbot, 69,451 (6.94%) of which agreed to participate, shows differences in chatbot feature use by gender, race, and age. These results can inform future public health COVID-19 symptom screening and information dissemination strategies.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#156

 

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Name
Description Genetic factors are recognized to contribute to peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and other gastrointestinal diseases, such as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here, genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses based on 456,327 UK Biobank (UKB) individuals identify 8 independent and significant loci for PUD at, or near, genes MUC1, MUC6, FUT2, PSCA, ABO, CDX2, GAST and CCKBR. There are previously established roles in susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori infection, response to counteract infection-related damage, gastric acid secretion or gastrointestinal motility for these genes. Only two associations have been previously reported for duodenal ulcer, here replicated trans-ancestrally. The results highlight the role of host genetic susceptibility to infection. Post-GWAS analyses for PUD, GORD, IBS and IBD add insights into relationships between these gastrointestinal diseases and their relationships with depression, a commonly comorbid disorder. Genetic factors contribute to peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Here, the authors perform a genome-wide association analysis on PUD in the UK Biobank, highlighting shared architecture with other gastrointestinal disorders and possible causal links with depression.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#157

 

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Name
Description The intestine plays a fundamental role as a regulator of the mucosal immune response, mostly through the production and secretion of secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA) by the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Enteral stimulation, a balance between the commensal microbiota and pathogenic microorganisms, in addition to an adequate nutritional status is required for the optimal immune function of the intestine. Fasting subjects or those supported only with parenteral nutrition, show a progressive anatomical and physiological deterioration of the GALT, triggering a series of alterations resulting in a decrease in the intestinal immune response, modification in the type of microbiota, and changes that lead to or aggravate malnutrition. Patients with malnutrition present an increase in the rate of nosocomial infections, hospital length of stay, and mortality. An adequate nutritional assessment at hospital admission and avoiding long periods of fasting are paramount to prevent these unfavorable outcomes. Herein, we present a mini-state of the art review on the role and importance of enteral stimulation by GALT-mediated immune response.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#158

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#159

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#160

 

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Name
Description Faithful genome duplication requires regulation of origin firing to determine loci, timing and efficiency of replisome generation. Established kinase targets for eukaryotic origin firing regulation are the Mcm2-7 helicase, Sld3/Treslin/TICRR and Sld2/RecQL4. We report that metazoan Sld7, MTBP (Mdm2 binding protein), is targeted by at least three kinase pathways. MTBP was phosphorylated at CDK consensus sites by cell cycle cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) and Cdk8/19-cyclin C. Phospho-mimetic MTBP CDK site mutants, but not non-phosphorylatable mutants, promoted origin firing in human cells. MTBP was also phosphorylated at DNA damage checkpoint kinase consensus sites. Phospho-mimetic mutations at these sites inhibited MTBP’s origin firing capability. Whilst expressing a non-phospho MTBP mutant was insufficient to relieve the suppression of origin firing upon DNA damage, the mutant induced a genome-wide increase of origin firing in unperturbed cells. Our work establishes MTBP as a regulation platform of metazoan origin firing.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#161

 

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Name
Description The worldwide CoVid-19 pandemic has led to an unprecedented push across the whole of the scientific community to develop a potent antiviral drug and vaccine as soon as possible. Existing academic, governmental and industrial institutions and companies have engaged in large-scale screening of existing drugs, in vitro, in vivo and in silico. Here, we are using in silico modelling of possible SARS-CoV-2 drug targets, as deposited on the Protein Databank (PDB), and ascertain their dynamics, flexibility and rigidity. For example, for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein—using its complete homo-trimer configuration with 2905 residues—our method identifies a large-scale opening and closing of the S1 subunit through movement of the S $${}^ ext{B}$$ domain. We compute the full structural information of this process, allowing for docking studies with possible drug structures. In a dedicated database, we present similarly detailed results for the further, nearly 300, thus far resolved SARS-CoV-2-related protein structures in the PDB.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#162

 

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Name
Description This study reports that childhood antibiotic exposure alters the gut microbiota, resulting in reduced growth in boys and increased body mass index in boys and girls, from exposure in infancy and early childhood, respectively.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#164

 

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Name
Description Cleaning robot Franzi makes sure floors are spotless at the Munich hospital where she works, and has taken on a new role during the pandemic: cheering up patients and staff.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#165

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#166

 

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Name
Description The question of whether allogeneic chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells could replace autologous CAR T cell therapy has garnered considerable interest, but limited data have been available for comparisons to date. Now, Benjamin et al. have reported their experience with allogeneic anti-CD19 CAR T cells in 21 paediatric and adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#167

 

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Name
Description Valve replacement is currently the only treatment for calcific aortic valve disease. Studies of an uncommon, genetic form of aortic valve disease have yielded in vitro and mouse models of the disease and a transcriptomic disease signature. Machine learning-driven screens for compounds that normalize this signature promise to enable medical management of aortic valve disease.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#169

 

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Name
Description Hepatic veno-occlusive disease or sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) is a potentially life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). In the present prospective study, we aimed to investigate the incidence, management, and outcome of VOD/SOS in patients with thalassemia major (TM) who received allo-HSCT. VOD/SOS was diagnosed and classified based on the modified Seattle criteria. The prophylactic regimen for VOD/SOS was a combination treatment of dalteparin and lipo-PGE1. VOD/SOS was managed through an approach consisting of adequate supportive measures, short-term withdrawal of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), and the use of methylprednisolone and basiliximab for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. VOD/SOS was found in 54 of 521 patients (10.4%) at a median time of 12 days after allo-HSCT. The cumulative incidence of all-grade and moderate VOD/SOS was 10.4% and 4.2%, respectively. Among the 54 VOD/SOS patients, no patient developed severe grade and died from VOD/SOS. Besides, the cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality on day 100 for patients with or without VOD/SOS was 0% vs. 4.0% (P = 0.187), respectively, and the 3-year overall survival rates were 94.3% vs. 93.2% (P = 0.707), respectively. Collectively, we concluded that appropriate symptomatic therapy and short-term withdrawal of CNIs safely mitigated the mortality of VOD/SOS in TM patients who underwent allo-HSCT.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#170

 

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Name
Description Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play key roles in colorectal carcinogenesis. Here, we aimed to identify the risk SNP-induced lncRNAs and to investigate their roles in colorectal carcinogenesis. First, we identified rs6695584 as the causative SNP in 1q41 locus. The A>G mutation of rs6695584 created a protein-binding motif of BATF, altered the enhancer activity, and subsequently activated lncSLCC1 expression. Further validation in two independent CRC cohorts confirmed the upregulation of lncSLCC1 in CRC tissues, and revealed that increased lncSLCC1 expression was associated with poor survival in CRC patients. Mechanistically, lncRNA-SLCC1 interacted with AHR and transcriptionally activated HK2 expression, the crucial enzyme in glucose metabolism, thereby driving the glycolysis pathway and accelerating CRC tumor growth. The functional assays revealed that lncSLCC1 induced glycolysis activation and tumor growth in CRC mediated by HK2. In addition, HK2 was upregulated in colorectal cancer tissues and positively correlated with lncSLCC1 expression and patient survival. Taken together, our findings reveal a risk SNP-mediated oncogene lncRNA-SLCC1 promotes CRC through activating the glycolysis pathway.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#171

 

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Name
Description A recent study in Nature presents a method that integrates data from chromosome imaging, nuclear bodies and chromatin states to build a picture of the nuclear layout at the single-cell level.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 19 February 2021

#172

 

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Name
Description Men with anxiety disorders have been identified as high risk of developing erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this review is to define the prevalence and severity of ED in the male anxiety disorder population. A literature search of three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase and PsychINFO) and a grey literature registry was conducted. Inclusion criteria were studies that investigated adult males, documented diagnosis of anxiety disorders made by a qualified psychiatrist and use of a validated tool to diagnose ED such as International Index of Erectile Function or ICD-10/DSM-IV. The search yielded 1220 articles and 12 studies were selected. The anxiety disorders investigated were post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, social phobia/social anxiety disorder and panic disorder. We found that the median [IQR] prevalence of ED was 20.0 [5.1–41.2]% and the median [IQR] International Index of Erectile Function-5 scores were 17.62 [13.88–20.88], indicating a mild to moderate severity. Our review suggests a high prevalence of ED in the anxiety disorder population and ED may be more severe in this cohort, therefore advocating this is an important clinical topic. However, the evidence is limited due to the high heterogeneity between the studies and more research is required in this field.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#173

 

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Description President Joe Biden announced plans to contribute up to $4 billion to a global Covid-19 vaccine program. Administration officials said controlling the pandemic is in the U.S.'s national security interest.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#174

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#176

 

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Name
Description Panel advice on vaccines could counteract legacy of mistrust from past health scandals

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#177

 

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Name
Description In 2007 the German government passed smoke-free legislation, leaving the details of implementation to the individual federal states. In January 2008 Bavaria implemented one of the strictest laws in Germany. We investigated its impact on pregnancy outcomes and applied an interrupted time series (ITS) study design to assess any changes in preterm birth, small for gestational age (primary outcomes), and low birth weight, stillbirth and very preterm birth. We included 1,236,992 singleton births, comprising 83,691 preterm births and 112,143 small for gestational age newborns. For most outcomes we observed unclear effects. For very preterm births, we found an immediate drop of 10.4% (95%CI − 15.8, − 4.6%; p = 0.0006) and a gradual decrease of 0.5% (95%CI − 0.7, − 0.2%, p = 0.0010) after implementation of the legislation. The majority of subgroup and sensitivity analyses confirm these results. Although we found no statistically significant effect of the Bavarian smoke-free legislation on most pregnancy outcomes, a substantial decrease in very preterm births was observed. We cannot rule out that despite our rigorous methods and robustness checks, design-inherent limitations of the ITS study as well as country-specific factors, such as the ambivalent German policy context have influenced our estimation of the effects of the legislation.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#178

 

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Name
Description Unnecessary surgery could be prevented through continuity of care (COC). The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between COC, surgery and cost associated with chronic shoulder pain. We used the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service national patient sample (HIRA-NPS) in 2017. A total of 1717 patients were included. Bice–Boxerman Continuity of Care Index was used as the indicator for measuring the COC. Occurrence of surgery, associated costs, and direct medical costs were analysed. Logistic regression, a two-part model with recycled predictions and generalized linear model with gamma distribution were used. The majority of patients were 40–65 years old (high COC: 68.4%; low COC: 64.4%). The odds ratio (OR) for surgery was 0.41 in the high-COC group compared to the low COC group (95% CI, 0.20 to 0.84). Direct medical cost was 14.09% (95% CI, 8.12% to 19.66%) and 58.00% lower in surgery cost (95% CI, 57.95 to 58.05) in the high-COC group. Interaction with COC and shoulder impingement syndrome was significant lower in direct medical cost (15.05% [95% CI, 1.81% to 26.51%]). High COC was associated with low medical cost in patients diagnosed with chronic shoulder pain.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#179

 

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Name
Description Despite intensive research, the aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unknown. Cerebrospinal fluid proteomics has the potential to reveal mechanisms of MS pathogenesis, but analyses must account for disease heterogeneity. We previously reported explorative multivariate analysis by hierarchical clustering of proteomics data of MS patients and controls, which resulted in two groups of individuals. Grouping reflected increased levels of intrathecal inflammatory response proteins and decreased levels of proteins involved in neural development in one group relative to the other group. MS patients and controls were present in both groups. Here we reanalysed these data and we also reanalysed data from an independent cohort of patients diagnosed with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), who have symptoms of MS without evidence of dissemination in space and/or time. Some, but not all, CIS patients had intrathecal inflammation. The analyses reported here identified a common protein signature of MS/CIS that was not linked to elevated intrathecal inflammation. The signature included low levels of complement proteins, semaphorin-7A, reelin, neural cell adhesion molecules, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H2, transforming growth factor beta 1, follistatin-related protein 1, malate dehydrogenase 1 cytoplasmic, plasma retinol-binding protein, biotinidase, and transferrin, all known to play roles in neural development. Low levels of these proteins suggest that MS/CIS patients suffer from abnormally low oxidative capacity that results in disrupted neural development from an early stage of the disease.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#180

 

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Name
Description This PrimeView highlights the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a genetic disorder that is caused by mutations in DMD that prevent production of the muscle isoform of dystrophin.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#181

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#182

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#183

 

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Name
Description Wnt5a is a ligand of the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway involved in cell differentiation, motility, and inflammatory response. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is one of the most aggressive T-cell malignancies caused by infection of human T-cell leukemia virus type1 (HTLV-1). Among subtypes of ATL, acute-type ATL cells are particularly resistant to current multidrug chemotherapies and show remarkably high cell-proliferative and invasive phenotypes. Here we show a dramatic increase of WNT5A gene expression in acute-type ATL cells compared with those of indolent-type ATL cells. Treatment with IWP-2 or Wnt5a-specific knockdown significantly suppressed cell growth of ATL-derived T-cell lines. We demonstrated that the overexpression of c-Myb and FoxM1 was responsible for the synergistic activation of the WNT5A promoter. Also, a WNT5A transcript variant without the exon4 (the ΔE4-WNT5A mRNA), encoding ΔC-Wnt5 (1-136aa of 380aa), is overexpressed in acute-type ATL cells. The ΔC-Wnt5a is secreted extracellularly and enhances cellular migration/invasion to a greater extent compared with wildtype (WT)-Wnt5a. Moreover, the ΔC-Wnt5a secretion was not suppressed by IWP-2, indicating that this mutant Wnt5a is secreted via a different pathway from the WT-Wnt5a. Taken together, synergistic overexpression of the ΔC-Wnt5a by c-Myb and FoxM1 may be responsible for the malignant phenotype of acute-type ATL cells.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#184

 

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Name
Description Mental representations of one’s own body provide useful reference when negotiating physical environmental challenges. Body-awareness is a neuro-ontogenetic precursor for higher order self-representation, but there is a lack of an ecologically valid experimental approach to it among nonhuman species. We tested dogs (N = 32) in the ‘body as an obstacle’ task. They had to pick up and give an object to their owner, whilst standing on a small mat. In the test condition we attached the object to the mat, thus the dogs had to leave the mat because otherwise they could not lift the object. Dogs came off the mat more frequently and sooner in the test condition, than in the main control condition, where the object was attached to the ground. This is the first convincing evidence of body awareness through the understanding of the consequence of own actions in a species where previously no higher-order self-representation capacity was found. We urge for an ecologically valid approach, and following of bottom-up methods, in studying modularly constructed self-representation.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#185

 

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Name
Description Genetically engineered T cell immunotherapies have provided remarkable clinical success to treat B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia by harnessing a patient’s own T cells to kill cancer, and these approaches have the potential to provide therapeutic benefit for numerous other cancers, infectious diseases and autoimmunity. By introduction of either a transgenic T cell receptor or a chimeric antigen receptor, T cells can be programmed to target cancer cells. However, initial studies have made it clear that the field will need to implement more complex levels of genetic regulation of engineered T cells to ensure both safety and efficacy. Here, we review the principles by which our knowledge of genetics and genome engineering will drive the next generation of adoptive T cell therapies. This Review discusses strategies for the genetic engineering of adoptive T cell immunotherapies with a focus on approaches harnessing transgenic T cell receptors or chimeric antigen receptors to treat cancer. The authors also discuss the more complex levels of genetic regulation that will be needed to ensure both safety and efficacy.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#186

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#187

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#188

 

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Name
Description X-ray induced acoustic imaging (XAI) is an emerging biomedical imaging technique that can visualize X-ray absorption contrast at ultrasound resolution with less ionizing radiation exposure than conventional X-ray computed tomography. So far, medical linear accelerators or industrial portable X-ray tubes have been explored as X-ray excitation sources for XAI. Here, we demonstrate the first feasible synchrotron XAI (sXAI). The synchrotron generates X-rays, with a dominant energy of 4 to 30 keV, a pulse-width of 30 ps, a pulse-repetition period of 2 ns, and a bunch-repetition period of 940 ns. The X-ray induced acoustic (XA) signals are processed in the Fourier domain by matching the signal frequency with the bunch-repetition frequency. We successfully obtained two-dimensional XA images of various lead targets. This novel sXAI tool could complement conventional synchrotron applications.

#Medicine & Human body;#Aging
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#189

 

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Description Last year, one of the major tech events -- Mobile World Congress (MWC) got cancelled due to the pandemic situation. But it appears that this year, the tech trade show will definitely take place. As reported by Mobile World Live, the CEO of the GSM Association which organises the annual MWC tradeshows is planning to hold MWC in person.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#190

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#191

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#192

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#193

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#194

 

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Name
Description French President Emmanuel Macron on Thursday unveiled a plan to better arm public facilities and private companies against cybercriminals following ransomware attacks at two hospitals this month and an upsurge of similar ...

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#195

 

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Name
Description The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#196

 

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Description The New York attorney general is suing Amazon over COVID-19 safety protocols, accusing the company of being more concerned with making money than protecting its workers from getting sick.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#197

 

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Description The backdrop of COVID 19 caused an uptick in the usage of syringe emoji, according to Emojipedia, an online emoji dictionary. Before COVID 19, the usage of syringe emoji was mainly used in conversations about blood donation, drug administration, and getting tattoos.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#198

 

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Description Researchers have discovered a way to identify existing drugs that can be potentially repurposed to fight COVID-19 in the elderly. The researchers said they have plans to share their findings with pharmaceutical companies, but added that before any drugs can be repurposed for use on elderly COVID-19 patients, clinical testing will be required.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#199

 

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Name
Description Experts have found evidence of coronaviruses related to SARS-CoV-2 circulating in bats and pangolins in Southeast Asia.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#200

 

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Name
Description Predicting the risk of recurrence and response to chemotherapy in women with early breast cancer is crucial to optimise adjuvant treatment. Despite the common practice of using multigene tests to predict recurrence, existing recommendations are inconsistent. Our aim was to formulate healthcare recommendations for the question “Should multigene tests be used in women who have early invasive breast cancer, hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative, to guide the use of adjuvant chemotherapy?” The European Commission Initiative on Breast Cancer (ECIBC) Guidelines Development Group (GDG), a multidisciplinary guideline panel including experts and three patients, developed recommendations informed by systematic reviews of the evidence. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Evidence to Decision frameworks were used. Four multigene tests were evaluated: the 21-gene recurrence score (21-RS), the 70-gene signature (70-GS), the PAM50 risk of recurrence score (PAM50-RORS), and the 12-gene molecular score (12-MS). Five studies (2 marker-based design RCTs, two treatment interaction design RCTs and 1 pooled individual data analysis from observational studies) were included; no eligible studies on PAM50-RORS or 12-MS were identified and the GDG did not formulate recommendations for these tests. The ECIBC GDG suggests the use of the 21-RS for lymph node-negative women (conditional recommendation, very low certainty of evidence), recognising that benefits are probably larger in women at high risk of recurrence based on clinical characteristics. The ECIBC GDG suggests the use of the 70-GS for women at high clinical risk (conditional recommendation, low certainty of evidence), and recommends not using 70-GS in women at low clinical risk (strong recommendation, low certainty of evidence).

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#201

 

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Name
Description The impact of various breast-cancer treatments on patients with a BRCA2 mutation has not been studied. We sought to estimate the impact of bilateral oophorectomy and other treatments on breast cancer-specific survival among patients with a germline BRCA2 mutation. We identified 664 women with stage I–III breast cancer and a BRCA2 mutation by combining five different datasets (retrospective and prospective). Subjects were followed for 7.2 years from diagnosis to death from breast cancer. Tumour characteristics and cancer treatments were patient-reported and derived from medical records. Predictors of survival were determined using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for other treatments and for prognostic features. The 10-year breast-cancer survival for ER-positive patients was 78.9% and for ER-negative patients was 82.3% (adjusted HR = 1.23 (95% CI, 0.62–2.45, p = 0.55)). The 10-year breast-cancer survival for women who had a bilateral oophorectomy was 89.1% and for women who did not have an oophorectomy was 59.0% (adjusted HR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.28–0.72, p = 0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio for chemotherapy was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.65–1.53: p = 0.56). For women with breast cancer and a germline BRCA2 mutation, positive ER status does not predict superior survival. Oophorectomy is associated with a reduced risk of death from breast cancer and should be considered in the treatment plan.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#202

 

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Name
Description MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are aberrantly expressed in the pathophysiologic process of heart failure (HF). However, the functions of a certain miRNA in different cardiac cell types during HF are scarcely reported, which might be covered by the globe effects of it on the heart. In the current study, Langendorff system was applied to isolate cardiomyocytes (CMs) and cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) from transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced mice. Slight increase of miR-320 expression was observed in the whole heart tissue of TAC mice. Interestingly, miR-320 was significantly elevated in CMs but decreased in CFs from TAC mice at different time points. Then, recombinant adeno-associated virus 9 with cell-type-specific promoters were used to manipulate miR-320 expressions in vivo. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments showed the miR-320 overexpression in CMs exacerbated cardiac dysfunction, whereas overexpression of miR-320 in CFs alleviated cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy. Mechanically, downstream signaling pathway analyses revealed that miR-320 might induce various effects via targeting PLEKHM3 and IFITM1 in CMs and CFs, respectively. Moreover, miR-320 mediated effects could be abolished by PLEKHM3 re-expression in CMs or IFITM1 re-expression in CFs. Interestingly, miR-320 treated CFs were able to indirectly affect CMs function, but not vice versa. Meanwhile, upstream signaling pathway analyses showed that miR-320 expression and decay rate were rigorously manipulated by Ago2, which was regulated by a cluster of cell-type-specific TFs distinctively expressed in CMs and CFs, respectively. Together, we demonstrated that miR-320 functioned differently in various cell types of the heart during the progression of HF.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#203

 

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Name
Description In addition to the deregulation of gene transcriptions and post-translational protein modifications, the aberrant translation from mRNAs to proteins plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various cancers. Targeting mRNA translation are expected to become potential approaches for anticancer treatments. Protein translation is affected by many factors including translation initiation factors and RNA-binding proteins. Recently, modifications of mRNAs mainly N6-methyladenine (m6A) modification and noncoding RNAs, such as microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs are involved. In this review, we generally summarized the recent advances on the regulation of protein translation by the interplay between mRNA modifications and ncRNAs. By doing so, we hope this review could offer some hints for the development of novel approaches in precision therapy of human cancers.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#204

 

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Name
Description Pop-up vaccination site serves "whitest demographic, the richest demographic."

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#205

 

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Name
Description Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is defined as three distinct features: liver disease, hypoxemia, and intrapulmonary vasodilation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of pediatric HPS and to identify the risk factors for HPS in children with biliary atresia (BA). We performed a retrospective cohort study of all children who were diagnosed with HPS between 2000 and 2018 at Seoul National University Hospital. The clinical features and outcomes of the 10 patients diagnosed with HPS were reviewed. To clarify the risk factors of HPS in patients with BA, we reviewed 120 patients diagnosed with BA. Underlying liver disease was BA in 8 patients, portal vein agenesis in 1 patient, and portal vein thrombosis in 1 patient. A total of 7 patients underwent liver transplantation (LT). Currently, all seven patients, including 3 patients with severe HPS, survived after LT. The prevalence of HPS in children with BA was 7%. Polysplenia/interrupted inferior vena was the only risk factor for HPS in BA patients in multivariate analysis. The Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease score was not associated with the development of HPS. Children with severe HPS undergoing LT had excellent outcomes. Screening for HPS in children with BA is required regardless of the severity of liver diseases.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#206

 

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Name
Description Most spinal meningiomas arise from the thoracic dura in middle-aged and elderly women. Simpson grade 1 resection is recommended to avoid recurrence. For ventral and ventrolateral tumors, reconstruction after total dural resection is difficult, and spinal fluid leakage is likely. To overcome this concern, Saito et al. developed the technique of resecting the tumor with the inner dural layer, preserving the outer dural layer. Although meningioma rarely recurs, the recurrence period is approximately 8 years postoperatively. No studies have evaluated long-term (> 10-year) outcomes of the Saito method. Here, we report 10 cases of the Saito method with > 10-year follow-up and compare outcomes with those of other standard approaches. Twenty-nine pathology-confirmed meningioma patients underwent surgery in our department, ten with the Saito method. We investigated resection method (dura mater treatment), pathological type, and recurrence and compared pre- and postoperative clinical findings. The median follow-up was 132 months. Recurrence occurred after Simpson grades 3 and 4 resection. Simpson grades 1, 2, and the Saito method resulted in no recurrence. Neurological symptoms improved in all patients at final follow-up. This is the first report of long-term outcomes of the Saito method. The method achieved good neurological improvement with no recurrence in > 10-year follow-up.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#207

 

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Name
Description The factors predicting hand osteoarthritis (HOA) in patients remain unknown. We aimed to investigate the usefulness of serum hyaluronic acid (sHA) levels in predicting HOA progression from a 6-year longitudinal epidemiological study. A total of 417 participants in the Iwaki cohort were followed-up over 6 years. Hand and knee radiographs taken at baseline and follow-up were scored according to Kellgren–Lawrence grades and Kallman score. Participants were classified into the HOA group and the non-HOA group. sHA levels at baseline were determined by ELISA. Correlations between sHA levels, the number of involved joints, and Kallman score were estimated. Factors related to the incidence or progression of HOA over 6 years were analyzed. The prevalence of HOA was 19.9% at baseline, and 3.6 ± 2.1 joints were involved. sHA levels in the HOA group at baseline were significantly higher than in the non-HOA group (p < 0.001) and correlated with the number of involved joints (r = 0.399, p < 0.001) and Kallman score (r = 0.540, p < 0.001). The incidence rate was 14.5%, and the progression rate was 46.1% over 6 years. Higher sHA levels at baseline were the risk factor of HOA incidence. Thus, sHA levels predicted the incidence of HOA over 6 years.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#208

 

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Name
Description We aimed to investigate clinical features potentially useful in primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO) diagnosis in men presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Data from 1229 men presenting for LUTS as their primary complaint at a single centre were retrospectively analysed. All patients underwent a comprehensive medical and physical assessment, and completed the International Prostate Symptoms Score. All patients were investigated with uroflowmetry, and trans-rectal ultrasound imaging to define prostate volume. Urodynamic evaluation was performed when the diagnosis of benign prostatic enlargement was not confirmed and the patient presented a significant chance of detrusor overactivity or underactivity. As per our internal protocol, patients < 60 years old with bothersome LUTS and > 60 years with a prostate volume (PV) < 40 mL were also investigated with urethrocystoscopy to rule out urethral stricture. Logistic regression analysis tested clinical predictors of possible PBNO. Of 1229 patients, 136 (11%) featured a clinical profile which was consistent with PBNO. Overall, these patients were younger (p < 0.0001), had lower BMI (p < 0.0001), less comorbidities (p = 0.004) and lower PSA values (p < 0.0001), but worse IPSS scores (p = 0.01) and lower PV values (p < 0.0001) compared to patients with other-aetiology LUTS. At multivariable analysis, younger age (OR 0.90; p = 0.003) and higher IPSS scores (OR 1.12; p = 0.01) were more likely to be associated with this subset of patients, after accounting for other clinical variables. One out of ten young/middle-aged men presenting for LUTS may be affected from PBNO. Younger patients with more severe LUTS systematically deserve an extensive assessment to rule out PBNO, thus including urethrocystoscopy and urodynamics with voiding-cysto-urethrogram.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#209

 

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Name
Description Precocious puberty (PP) is an important endocrine disorder affecting children globally. Several genes, SNPs and comorbidities are reported to be associated with PP; however, this data is scattered across scientific literature and has not been systematically collated and analysed. In this study, we present PrecocityDB as the first manually curated online database on genes and their ontology terms, SNPs, and pathways associated with PP. A tool for visualizing SNP coordinates and allelic variation on each chromosome, for genes associated with PP is also incorporated in PrecocityDB. Pathway enrichment analysis of PP-associated genes revealed that endocrine and cancer-related pathways are highly enriched. Disease enrichment analysis indicated that individuals with PP seem to be highly likely to suffer from reproductive and metabolic disorders such as PCOS, hypogonadism, and insulin resistance. PrecocityDB is a useful resource for identification of comorbid conditions and disease risks due to shared genes in PP. PrecocityDB is freely accessible at http://www.precocity.bicnirrh.res.in . The database source code and content can be downloaded through GitHub ( https://github.com/bic-nirrh/precocity ).

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#210

 

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Name
Description We employ the Google and Apple mobility data to identify, quantify and classify different degrees of social distancing and characterise their imprint on the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe and in the United States. We identify the period of enacted social distancing via Google and Apple data, independently from the political decisions. Our analysis allows us to classify different shades of social distancing measures for the first wave of the pandemic. We observe a strong decrease in the infection rate occurring two to five weeks after the onset of mobility reduction. A universal time scale emerges, after which social distancing shows its impact. We further provide an actual measure of the impact of social distancing for each region, showing that the effect amounts to a reduction by 20–40% in the infection rate in Europe and 30–70% in the US.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#211

 

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Name
Description Short-term synaptic plasticity is a fast and robust modification in neuronal presynaptic output that can enhance release strength to drive facilitation or diminish it to promote depression. The mechanisms that determine whether neurons display short-term facilitation or depression are still unclear. Here we show that the Ca2+-binding protein Synaptotagmin 7 (Syt7) determines the sign of short-term synaptic plasticity by controlling the initial probability of synaptic vesicle (SV) fusion. Electrophysiological analysis of Syt7 null mutants at Drosophila embryonic neuromuscular junctions demonstrate loss of the protein converts the normally observed synaptic facilitation response during repetitive stimulation into synaptic depression. In contrast, overexpression of Syt7 dramatically enhanced the magnitude of short-term facilitation. These changes in short-term plasticity were mirrored by corresponding alterations in the initial evoked response, with SV release probability enhanced in Syt7 mutants and suppressed following Syt7 overexpression. Indeed, Syt7 mutants were able to display facilitation in lower [Ca2+] where release was reduced. These data suggest Syt7 does not act by directly sensing residual Ca2+ and argues for the existence of a distinct Ca2+ sensor beyond Syt7 that mediates facilitation. Instead, Syt7 normally suppresses synaptic transmission to maintain an output range where facilitation is available to the neuron.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#212

 

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Name
Description Serum vitamin D status exerts effects on glucose-insulin-homeostatic states underlying Diabetes-Mellitus, Type 2 (T2DM). This has been described in white and Asian population where low Vitamin D levels predicted future impairments in beta cell function and worsening of insulin resistance. This study aimed to examine the relationship between serum vitamin D, insulin resistance and beta cell function in a sub population of black Kenyan T2DM patients. The primary objective was to determine the levels of serum 25 hydroxy (25-OH) vitamin D, and estimate the insulin resistance, and beta cell function among T2DM patients at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH). This was a cross sectional study. 124 T2DM patients attending the MTRH Diabetes clinic between February and May 2016 were enrolled. Patients on insulin therapy and/or thiazolidinediones were excluded. Anthropometric, clinical and demographic data was obtained. Samples were drawn for estimation of serum 25-OH vitamin D, fasting insulin levels and fasting blood glucose levels. HOMA (Homeostatic model of assessment) model was used to estimate Beta cell secretion (HOMA-B) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR); while the Disposition index {(DI) hyperbola product of insulin sensitivity (1/HOMA-IR) and beta cell secretion} was used to estimate the beta cell function. The relationships between serum vitamin D, insulin resistance and beta cell function were explored using a linear regression model. The study participants had a mean age of 56.2 (± 9.2) years, and a mean BMI of 26.9 kg/m2 (4.3). Forty nine percent (n = 61) were males. Vitamin D deficiency was present in 71.1% (n = 88) of the respondents. Relatively low levels of insulin resistance and higher levels of beta cell dysfunction were observed {median HOMA-IR of 2.3 (0.7, 6.5) and Disposition Index (DI) of 25.5 (14.3, 47.2)}. Vitamin D levels exhibited a low positive correlation with DI [r = 0.22 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.37)], but was not significantly correlated with HOMA-IR [r = 0.07(95% CI: − 0.11, 0.25)]. These results indicate that beta cell dysfunction rather than insulin resistance as the predominant defect among black T2DM patients seeking care at the MTRH diabetes clinic. Vitamin D deficiency is also prevalent among them and exhibits a low positive correlation with beta cell dysfunction. There was no correlation observed between Vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#213

 

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Name
Description Nutritional intake can promote early neonatal brain development in very preterm born neonates (< 32 weeks’ gestation). In a group of 7-year-old very preterm born children followed since birth, we examined whether early nutrient intake in the first weeks of life would be associated with long-term brain function and neurocognitive skills at school age. Children underwent resting-state functional MRI (fMRI), intelligence testing (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 5th Ed) and visual-motor processing (Beery-Buktenica, 5th Ed) at 7 years. Relationships were assessed between neonatal macronutrient intakes, functional connectivity strength between thalamic and default mode networks (DMN), and neuro-cognitive function using multivariable regression. Greater functional connectivity strength between thalamic networks and DMN was associated with greater intake of protein in the first week (β = 0.17; 95% CI 0.11, 0.23, p < 0.001) but lower intakes of fat (β = − 0.06; 95% CI − 0.09, − 0.02, p = 0.001) and carbohydrates (β = − 0.03; 95% CI − 0.04, − 0.01, p = 0.003). Connectivity strength was also associated with protein intake during the first month (β = 0.22; 95% CI 0.06, 0.37, p = 0.006). Importantly, greater thalamic-DMN connectivity strength was associated with higher processing speed indices (β = 26.9; 95% CI 4.21, 49.49, p = 0.02) and visual processing scores (β = 9.03; 95% CI 2.27, 15.79, p = 0.009). Optimizing early protein intake may contribute to promoting long-term brain health in preterm-born children.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#214

 

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Name
Description Understanding the mortality impact of COVID-19 requires not only counting the dead, but analyzing how premature the deaths are. We calculate years of life lost (YLL) across 81 countries due to COVID-19 attributable deaths, and also conduct an analysis based on estimated excess deaths. We find that over 20.5 million years of life have been lost to COVID-19 globally. As of January 6, 2021, YLL in heavily affected countries are 2–9 times the average seasonal influenza; three quarters of the YLL result from deaths in ages below 75 and almost a third from deaths below 55; and men have lost 45% more life years than women. The results confirm the large mortality impact of COVID-19 among the elderly. They also call for heightened awareness in devising policies that protect vulnerable demographics losing the largest number of life-years.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#215

 

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Name
Description Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) has emerged as least invasive interventions for gynecologic disease. However, SILS is slow to gain in popularity due to difficulties in triangulation and instrument crowding. Besides, the costly instruments may influence patients’ will to have this procedure, and limit other medical expense as well. To optimize outcome and reduce cost, the objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and safety for patients undergoing adnexal surgeries using conventional laparoscopic instruments with SILS (SILS-C), and to compare with those of patients subject to TP using conventional laparoscopic instruments (TP-C). This is a retrospective case–control study. The data dated from April 2011 to April 2018. Patients who received concomitant multiple surgeries, were diagnosed with suspected advanced stage ovarian malignancy, or required frozen sections for intraoperative pathologic diagnosis were excluded. Demographic data, including the age, body weight, height, previous abdominal surgery were obtained. The surgical outcomes were compared using conventional statistical methods. 259 patients received SILS-C. The operating time was 63.83 ± 25.31 min. Blood loss was 2.38 ± 6.09 c.c. 58 patients (24.38%) needed addition of port to complete surgery. 384 patients received TP-C. Compared with SILS-C, the operating time was shorter (57.32 ± 26.38 min, OR = 0.984, CI = 0.975–0.992). The patients were further divided into unilateral or bilateral adnexectomy, and unilateral or bilateral cystectomy. Other than the operating time in unilateral cystectomy (66.12 ± 19.5 vs. 58.27 ± 23.92 min, p = .002), no statistical differences were observed in the subgroup analysis. Single incision laparoscopic surgery using conventional laparoscopic instruments is feasible and safe as initial approach to adnexal lesions. In complex setting as unilateral cystectomy or pelvic adhesions, two-port access may be considered.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#216

 

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Name
Description Extracorporeal treatment with low intensity shock-wave therapy (LI-ESWT) is a recently introduced non-invasive method which purposes the restoration of the pathophysiological alterations at the base of vasculogenic ED in male patients. The evidence in favour of the neoangiogenic potential of this treatment derived from in vitro studies and on animal models. The purpose of this study, in which the Power Doppler method was applied, is to demonstrate ‘objectively’ the real efficacy of LI-ESWT at the level of the microcirculation of the corpora cavernosa (neoangiogenesis) in patients affected by vasculogenic ED. Data from this study show, for the first time, that LI-ESWT treatment promotes neovascularisation of the functional arteries in patients affected by vasculogenic ED.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#218

 

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Name
Description Treatment options in multiple myeloma (MM) are increasing with the introduction of complex multi-novel-agent-based regimens investigated in randomized clinical trials. However, application in the real-world setting, including feasibility of and adherence to these regimens, may be limited due to varying patient-, treatment-, and disease-related factors. Furthermore, approximately 40% of real-world MM patients do not meet the criteria for phase 3 studies on which approvals are based, resulting in a lack of representative phase 3 data for these patients. Therefore, treatment decisions must be tailored based on additional considerations beyond clinical trial efficacy and safety, such as treatment feasibility (including frequency of clinic/hospital attendance), tolerability, effects on quality of life (QoL), and impact of comorbidities. There are multiple factors of importance to real-world MM patients, including disease symptoms, treatment burden and toxicities, ability to participate in daily activities, financial burden, access to treatment and treatment centers, and convenience of treatment. All of these factors are drivers of QoL and treatment satisfaction/compliance. Importantly, given the heterogeneity of MM, individual patients may have different perspectives regarding the most relevant considerations and goals of their treatment. Patient perspectives/goals may also change as they move through their treatment course. Thus, the ‘efficacy’ of treatment means different things to different patients, and treatment decision-making in the context of personalized medicine must be guided by an individual’s composite definition of what constitutes the best treatment choice. This review summarizes the various factors of importance and practical issues that must be considered when determining real-world treatment choices. It assesses the current instruments, methodologies, and recent initiatives for analyzing the MM patient experience. Finally, it suggests options for enhancing data collection on patients and treatments to provide a more holistic definition of the effectiveness of a regimen in the real-world setting.

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#219

 

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Name
Description

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021

#220

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Medicine & Human body
Field # Medicine & Human body
Updated 18 February 2021