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#1

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 10 June 2021

#2

 

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Description Maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation (FAS) has been documented to be associated with decreased risk of nonsyndromic oral clefts (NsOC). However, the results remain inconclusive. In this population-based case–control study of 807 singletons affected by NsOC and 8070 healthy neonates who were born between October 2010 and September 2015 in Chengdu, China, we examined the association of maternal FAS with the risk of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NsCL/P), and cleft palate (NsCP). Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidential intervals (CI). Significant associations were found between maternal periconceptional FAS and decreased risk of NsCL/P (aOR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.33–0.51). This protective effect was also detected for NsCL (aOR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.30–0.58) and NsCLP (aOR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.31–0.54). Both maternal FAS started before and after the last menstrual period (LMP) were inversely associated with NsCL/P (before LMP, aOR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.33–0.56; after LMP, aOR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.33–0.51). The association between NsCP and maternal FAS initiating before LMP was also found (aOR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.30–0.90). The findings suggest that maternal periconceptional FAS can reduce the risk of each subtype of NsCL/P in offspring, while the potential effect on NsCP needs further investigations.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 10 June 2021

#3

 

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Description While SARS-CoV-2 is causing modern human history’s most serious health crisis and upending our way of life, clinical and basic research on the virus is advancing rapidly, leading to fascinating discoveries. Two studies have revealed how the viral virulence factor, nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1), binds human ribosomes to inhibit host cell translation. Here, we examine the main conclusions on the molecular activity of Nsp1 and its role in suppressing innate immune responses. We discuss different scenarios potentially explaining how the viral RNA can bypass its own translation blockage and speculate on the suitability of Nsp1 as a therapeutic target. Simeoni et al discuss how recent structural work has improved our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 Nsp1-mediated translation inhibition and how Nsp1 inhibition could impact host immune responses and suppress viral replication.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 10 June 2021

#4

 

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Description West Papua’s Bintuni Bay is Indonesia’s largest contiguous mangrove block, only second to the world’s largest mangrove in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh. As almost 40% of these mangroves are designated production forest, we assessed the effects of commercial logging on forest structure, biomass recovery, and soil carbon stocks and burial in five-year intervals, up to 25 years post-harvest. Through remote sensing and field surveys, we found that canopy structure and species diversity were gradually enhanced following biomass recovery. Carbon pools preserved in soil were supported by similar rates of carbon burial before and after logging. Our results show that mangrove forest management maintained between 70 and 75% of the total ecosystem carbon stocks, and 15–20% returned to the ecosystem after 15–25 years. This analysis suggests that mangroves managed through selective logging provide an opportunity for coastal nature-based climate solutions, while provisioning other ecosystem services, including wood and wood products.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 10 June 2021

#5

 

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Description The structure and properties of organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites are impacted by the order–disorder transition, whose driving forces from the organic cation and the inorganic framework cannot easily be disentangled. Herein, we report the design, synthesis and properties of a cage-in-framework perovskite AthMn(N3)3, where Ath+ is an organic cation 4-azatricyclo[2.2.1.02,6]heptanium. Ath+ features a rigid and spheroidal profile, such that its molecular reorientation does not alter the cubic lattice symmetry of the Mn(N3)3− host framework. This order–disorder transition is well characterized by NMR, crystallography, and calorimetry, and associated with the realignment of Ath+ dipole from antiferroelectric to paraelectric. As a result, an abrupt rise in the dielectric constant was observed during the transition. Our work introduces a family of perovskite structures and provides direct insights to the order–disorder transition of hybrid materials. In hybrid perovskites, the driving forces of an order–disorder transition that arise from the organic cation and inorganic framework cannot be easily untangled. Here, the authors introduce a cage-in-framework structure in which reorientation of the cage cation does not alter the cubic symmetry of the perovskite lattice.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 10 June 2021

#6

 

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Description Asymmetric C(sp3)−H functionalization is a persistent challenge in organic synthesis. Here, we report an asymmetric benzylic C−H acylation of alkylarenes employing carboxylic acids as acyl surrogates for the synthesis of α-aryl ketones via nickel and photoredox dual catalysis. This mild yet straightforward protocol transforms a diverse array of feedstock carboxylic acids and simple alkyl benzenes into highly valuable α-aryl ketones with high enantioselectivities. The utility of this method is showcased in the gram-scale synthesis and late-stage modification of medicinally relevant molecules. Mechanistic studies suggest a photocatalytically generated bromine radical can perform benzylic C−H cleavage to activate alkylarenes as nucleophilic coupling partners which can then engage in a nickel-catalyzed asymmetric acyl cross-coupling reaction. This bromine-radical-mediated C−H activation strategy can be also applied to the enantioselective coupling of alkylarenes with chloroformate for the synthesis of chiral α-aryl esters. Chiral α-aryl ketones are versatile building blocks, and represent important pharmacophores existing in many drug molecules such as ibuprofen and naproxen. Here the authors for such ketones but using nickel and photoredox dual catalysis in asymmetric benzylic C−H acylation of alkylarenes and employing carboxylic acids as acyl surrogates.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 10 June 2021

#7

 

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Description The billions of Brood X cicadas swarming across the East and parts of the Midwest have caused several unusual disruptions over the past week.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#8

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#9

 

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Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#10

 

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Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#11

 

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Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#12

 

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Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#13

 

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Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#14

 

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Description Transcription-coupled repair of DNA lesions takes place across all domains of life. A transcription-elongation factor, ELOF1, highly conserved in eukaryotes, has now been shown to play a key role in this process. Importantly, these findings also include evidence of a second transcription-coupled repair pathway in mammalian cells.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#15

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#16

 

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#Theoretical sciences;#Materials
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#17

 

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#Theoretical sciences;#Materials
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#18

 

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Description The two-fluid model of superfluids predicts a second, quantum mechanical form of sound. Ultracold atom experiments have now measured second sound in the unusual two-dimensional superfluid described by the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#19

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#20

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#21

 

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Description A year-long inquiry into voice assistants such as Alexa and Siri and other internet-connected devices has led to among more than 200 companies expressing concerns of potential anti-competitive practices, EU antitrust regulators said on Wednesday.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#22

 

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Description Short period, femtosecond transient gratings in a sample can now be produced by X-rays. The approach promises to reveal the excitation behaviour of complex materials with high temporal and spatial resolution.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#23

 

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Description Even as Asia's leading physicists push the boundaries in quantum and space technologies, they retain a deep reverence for ancient traditions that others may never fathom.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#24

 

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Description In the situation of high maternal morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, less than 80% of pregnant women receive antenatal care services. To date, the overall effect of antenatal care (ANC) follow up on essential newborn practice have not been estimated in East Africa. Therefore, this study aims to identify the effect of ANC follow up on essential newborn care practice in East Africa. We reported this review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). We searched articles using PubMed, Cochrane library, African journal online (AJOL), and HINARI electronic databases as well as Google/Google scholar search engines. Heterogeneity and publication bias between studies were assessed using I2 test statistics and Egger’s significance test. Forest plots were used to present the findings. In this review, 27 studies containing 34,440 study participants were included. The pooled estimate of essential newborn care practice was 38% (95% CI 30.10–45.89) in the study area. Women who had one or more antenatal care follow up were about 3.71 times more likely practiced essential newborn care compared to women who had no ANC follow up [OR 3.71, 95% CI 2.35, 5.88]. Similarly, women who had four or more ANC follow up were 2.11 times more likely practiced essential newborn care compared to women who had less than four ANC follow up (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.33, 3.35). Our study showed that the practice of ENBC was low in East Africa. Accordingly, those women who had more antenatal follow up were more likely practiced Essential newborn care. Thus, to improve the practice of essential newborn care more emphasis should be given on increasing antenatal care follow up of pregnant women in East Africa.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#25

 

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Description The worldwide shortage of medical-grade ventilators is a well-known issue, that has become one of the central topics during the COVID-19 pandemic. Given that these machines are expensive and have long lead times, one approach is to vacate them for patients in critical conditions while patients with mild to moderate symptoms are treated with stripped-down ventilators. We propose a mass-producible solution that can create such ventilators with minimum effort. The central part is a module that can be attached to CPAP machines and repurpose them as low-pressure ventilators. Here, we describe the concept and first measurements which underline the potential of our solution. Our approach may serve as a starting point for open-access ventilator technologies.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#26

 

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Description To predict natural ureter lengths based on clinical images. We reviewed our image database of patients who underwent multiphasic computed tomography urography from January 2019 to April 2020. Natural ureteral length (ULCTU) was measured using a three-dimensional curved multiplanar reformation technique. Patient parameters including age, height, and height of the lumbar spine, the index of ureteral length using kidney/ureter/bladder (KUB) radiographs (C-P and C-PS) and computed tomography (ULCT) were collected. ULCTU correlated most strongly with ULCT. R square and adjusted R square values from multivariate regression were 0.686 and 0.678 (left side) and 0.516 and 0.503 (right side), respectively. ULCTU could be estimated by the regression model in three different scenarios as follows: We provide equations to predict ULCTU based on CT, KUB or CT plus KUB for different clinical scenarios. The formula based on CT plus KUB provided the most accurate estimation, while the others had lower validation values but could still meet clinical needs.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#27

 

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Description The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of high-intensity jack-knife stretching for 60 s on flexibility of the hamstrings. Twelve healthy participants underwent jack-knife stretching for 60 s (3 repetitions of 20 s stretching with 30 s intervals) at two different intensities based on the point of discomfort (POD and PODmax). To examine any change in flexibility, knee extension range of motion (ROM), passive torque at end ROM, and muscle–tendon unit stiffness were measured before and after stretching. To evaluate hamstrings pain, a numerical rating scale (NRS) was described. The knee extension ROM (p < 0.01) and passive torque at end ROM (p < 0.05) were significantly increased at both intensities. The muscle–tendon unit stiffness was significantly decreased in PODmax intensity (p < 0.01), but there was no change in POD intensity (p = 0.18). The median values of NRS during the stretching were 0 and 6–7 in POD and PODmax intensity, respectively, although it was 0 immediately after the stretching protocol in both intensities. These data suggested that high-intensity jack-knife stretching is an effective and safe method to decrease muscle–tendon unit stiffness of the hamstrings.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#28

 

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Description In the present study, corrosion inhibition performances of some pyrazolo [3,4-b] quinoline-3,5-dione derivatives against the corrosion of copper metal were investigated using B3LYP/6-311++g(d,p) calculation level in aqueous media. Additionally, interaction energies were calculated for all the pyrazoloquinoline derivatives compounds. In the calculations it is observed that studied molecules adsorb on metal surface with the help of electron donor heteroatoms in their molecular structures. Chemical thermodynamic parameters regarding the interaction between inhibitor molecule and copper surface were estimated and discussed. Density of the electron profile analysis and chemical electrostatic potential of nuclear charges in the molecule were applied to consider the nature of a number of probable interactions between Cu metal surface and inhibitors in terms of bond critical point (BCP). Calculated quantum chemical parameters showed that the pyrazoloquinoline derivatives including the OH and NO2 exhibit high inhibition performance.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#29

 

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Description The last decades have witnessed a sudden increase in myopia incidence among youngsters that have been related to modern lifestyle along with the use of emerging technologies affecting visual exposure. Increasing exposures to known risk factors for myopia, such as time spent indoors, close-distance work, or low-light conditions are thought to be responsible for this public health issue. In most cases, development of myopia is secondary to a vitreous chamber enlargement, although the related mechanisms and the potential interaction between central and peripheral retinal area remain unclear. For a better understanding, we performed a classical twin study where objective refractive error along 70° of horizontal retinal arc was measured in 100 twin pairs of university students, 78% of which showed manifest myopia. We found the variance of shared environmental origin (range 0.34 to 0.67) explained most of the objective refractive error variance within central 42° of the retina (22° temporal to 19° nasal), whereas additive genetic variance (range 0.34 to 0.76) was predominant in the peripheral retinal areas measured. In this sample of millennial university students, with a large prevalence of myopia, environmental exposures were mostly responsible for inter-individual variation in the retinal horizontal area surrounding the macula, while their relative weight on phenotypic variance was gradually descending, and replaced by the variance of genetic origin, towards the retinal periphery.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#30

 

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Description Migrasomes function as a mitochondrial quality control mechanism in migrating cells, and affect neutrophil viability.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#31

 

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Description Automatic recognition of unique characteristics of an object can provide a powerful solution to verify its authenticity and safety. It can mitigate the growth of one of the largest underground industries—that of counterfeit goods–flowing through the global supply chain. In this article, we propose the novel concept of material biometrics, in which the intrinsic chemical properties of structural materials are used to generate unique identifiers for authenticating individual products. For this purpose, the objects to be protected are modified via programmable additive manufacturing of built-in chemical “tags” that generate signatures depending on their chemical composition, quantity, and location. We report a material biometrics-enabled manufacturing flow in which plastic objects are protected using spatially-distributed tags that are optically invisible and difficult to clone. The resulting multi-bit signatures have high entropy and can be non-invasively detected for product authentication using $$^{35}$$ Cl nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#32

 

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Description The rate coefficients for OH + CH3OH and OH + CH3OH (+ X) (X = NH3, H2O) reactions were calculated using microcanonical, and canonical variational transition state theory (CVT) between 200 and 400 K based on potential energy surface constructed using CCSD(T)//M06-2X/6-311++G(3df,3pd). The results show that OH + CH3OH is dominated by the hydrogen atoms abstraction from CH3 position in both free and ammonia/water catalyzed ones. This result is in consistent with previous experimental and theoretical studies. The calculated rate coefficient for the OH + CH3OH (8.8 × 10−13 cm3 molecule−1 s−1), for OH + CH3OH (+ NH3) [1.9 × 10−21 cm3 molecule−1 s−1] and for OH + CH3OH (+ H2O) [8.1 × 10−16 cm3 molecule−1 s−1] at 300 K. The rate coefficient is at least 8 order magnitude [for OH + CH3OH(+ NH3) reaction] and 3 orders magnitude [OH + CH3OH (+ H2O)] are smaller than free OH + CH3OH reaction. Our calculations predict that the catalytic effect of single ammonia and water molecule on OH + CH3OH reaction has no effect under tropospheric conditions because the dominated ammonia and water-assisted reaction depends on ammonia and water concentration, respectively. As a result, the total effective reaction rate coefficients are smaller. The current study provides a comprehensive example of how basic and neutral catalysts effect the most important atmospheric prototype alcohol reactions.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 June 2021

#33

 

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Description During the processing of biomolecules by ultrafiltration, the lysozyme enzyme undergoes conformational changes, which can affect its antibacterial activity. Operational conditions are considered to be one of the main parameters responsible for such changes, especially when using the same membrane and molecule. The present study demonstrates that, the same cut-off membrane (commercial data) can result in different properties of the protein after filtration, due to their different pore network. The filtration of lysozyme, regardless of the membrane, produces a decrease in the membrane hydraulic permeability (between 10 and 30%) and an increase in its selectivity in terms of observed rejection rate (30%). For the filtrated lysozyme, it appears that the HPLC retention time increases depending on the membrane used. The antibacterial activity of the filtrated samples is lower than the native protein and decreases with the increase of the applied pressure reaching 55–60% loss for 12 bar which has not been reported in the literature before. The observed results by SEC-HPLC and bacteriological tests, suggest that the conformation of the filtrated molecules are indeed modified. These results highlight the relationship between protein conformation or activity and the imposed shear stress.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 June 2021

#34

 

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Description Vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM), which featuring helical phase front, have been regarded as an alternative spatial degree of freedom for optical mode coding and multiplexing. For most reported OAM-based mode coding schemes, data information is only encoded by different OAM mode states. In this paper, we introduce a novel design technique to construct vortex array phase grating (VAPGs) for the flexible generation of vortex arrays, and employ the proposed VAPGs to realize multi-dimensional space/mode/amplitude coding/decoding. By designing VAPGs with different parameters and loading them on to a single spatial light modulator (SLM), we successfully generate vortex array with different mode states and relative power in the experiments. Moreover, a 10-bit multi-dimensional space/mode/amplitude data coding/decoding scheme for image transfer in free-space link with a zero bit-error-rate is experimentally demonstrated, which confirm the feasibility of our proposed VAPG-based coding/decoding scheme.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 June 2021

#35

 

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Description Three-dimensional integration with through-silicon vias (TSVs) is a promising microelectronic interconnection technology. Three-component additives are commonly used for void-free TSV filling. However, optimising the additive concentrations is an expensive process. To avoid this, a single-component additive was developed: 3-(2-(4,5-dihydrothiazol-2-yl) disulfanyl) propane-1-sulfonic acid/sulfonate (SH110). Sodium 3,3′-dithiodipropane sulfonate (SPS) and SH110 were used as additives for TSV electroplating copper filling. SH110 resulted in void-free filling, whereas large keyhole voids were found for SPS. To understand how the additives affect the filling mechanism, linear sweep voltammetry of the plating solutions was carried out. The interactions between the Cu surface and additives were simulated by molecular dynamics (MD) analysis using Materials Studio software, and quantum chemistry calculations were conducted using GAUSSIAN 09W. SH110 adsorbs to the Cu surface by both 4,5-dihydrothiazole (DHT) and 3-mercaptopropane sulfonate (MPS) moieties, while SPS is adsorbed only by MPS moieties. MD simulations indicated that the adsorption of the coplanar MPS moiety is the main factor governing acceleration. Quantum chemistry calculations showed that DHT provides an inhibitory effect for TSV filling, while MPS acts as an accelerator for SH110. SH110 is an excellent additive exhibiting both the acceleration and the suppression necessary for achieving void-free TSV filling.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 June 2021

#36

 

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Description The reflection coefficient of a microwave surface wave incident at the termination of a metasurface is explored. Two different surface types are examined. One is a square array of square metallic patches on a dielectric-coated metallic ground plane, the other a Sievenpiper ‘mushroom’ array. In the latter the surface wave fields are more confined within the structure. Comparison of the measured surface-wave reflection spectra is made with that obtained from analytic theory and numerical modelling. The reflection coefficient is shown to be dependent on both the momentum mismatch between the surface wave and the freely propagating modes as well as the different field distributions of the two modes.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 June 2021

#37

 

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Description A new study has identified a novel microRNA present in the blood that could potentially be used as a diagnostic test to distinguish between acute myocarditis and myocardial infarction.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 June 2021

#38

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 June 2021

#39

 

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Description SARS-CoV-2 infection activates TLR2 signaling, which results in the robust expression of proinflammatory cytokines that may contribute to disease in severe COVID-19. Inhibition of this signaling pathway represents a potential target for COVID-19 therapeutics.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 June 2021

#40

 

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Description Webb’s work helped fundamentally reshape basic research and advanced manufacturing in the generation and application of photonics across disciplines, from fundamental and applied physics to the biosciences.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 June 2021

#41

 

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Description What will be the cutting-edge photonics research in the coming decade? Prof. Chen and Segev share their perspective by highlighting quantum, topological, and AI photonics on eLight.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 June 2021

#42

 

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Description The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between hyperuricemia and osteoporosis in a Korean population. Data from participants of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study who were ≥ 40 years old were collected from 2004 to 2016. Among 173,209 participants, 11,781 with hyperuricemia (> 7.0 mg/dL in men and > 6.0 mg/dL in women) and 156,580 controls were selected based on serum measurements. Odds ratios (ORs) of osteoporosis between individuals with hyperuricemia and controls were analyzed using a logistic regression model. In the adjusted model, age, sex, income group, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia history and nutritional intake were adjusted. The adjusted OR (aOR) of osteoporosis was 0.79 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71–0.87, P < 0.001]. In subgroup analyses according to age and sex, statistical significance was observed in men > 60 years old and in women > 50 years old. In another subgroup analysis according to past medical history, significant differences were found according to hypertension (aOR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.73–0.94, and 0.75, 95% CI = 0.64–0.87), diabetes mellitus (aOR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.69–0.86), and hyperlipidemia (aOR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61–0.89, and 0.81, 95% CI = 0.72–0.91). This study demonstrated that hyperuricemia was associated with a decreased risk of osteoporosis.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 June 2021

#43

 

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Description To describe effectiveness of repeat dexamethasone for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and to evaluate adverse effects on growth. Retrospective study of infants treated with 1 or 2 courses of dexamethasone for BPD. Effectiveness was defined as successful step-down in respiratory support by end of treatment. Adverse effects on growth were analyzed and compared to untreated controls. A total of 132 dexamethasone-treated infants were identified. In total, 52% (69/132) of infants treated with initial dexamethasone achieved step-down in respiratory support compared to 38% (20/52) of infants with repeat dexamethasone. Growth trajectory did not significantly differ among infants treated with 1 or 2 courses of dexamethasone compared with controls (weight: P = 0.23, length: P = 0.68, and head circumference: P = 0.77). Repeat dexamethasone for BPD was less effective in weaning respiratory support compared to initial course. Changes in growth parameters to discharge were comparable between controls and infants treated with 1 or 2 dexamethasone courses.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 June 2021

#44

 

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Description A recent preprint describes that human exhausted T cells turn on an active migratory programme in tumours that could reflect an unexplored function.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 June 2021

#45

 

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Description A recent preprint looking at the fate of exhausted human T cells after resolution of chronic HCV infection shows that they cannot completely recover and retain ‘traces’ of exhaustion markers.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 June 2021

#46

 

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Description The epigenetic mechanisms coordinating the maintenance of adult cellular lineages and the inhibition of alternative cell fates remain poorly understood. Here we show that targeted ablation of the histone chaperone HIRA in myogenic cells leads to extensive transcriptional modifications, consistent with a role in maintaining skeletal muscle cellular identity. We demonstrate that conditional ablation of HIRA in muscle stem cells of adult mice compromises their capacity to regenerate and self-renew, leading to tissue repair failure. Chromatin analysis of Hira-deficient cells show a significant reduction of histone variant H3.3 deposition and H3K27ac modification at regulatory regions of muscle genes. Additionally, we find that genes from alternative lineages are ectopically expressed in Hira-mutant cells via MLL1/MLL2-mediated increase of H3K4me3 mark at silent promoter regions. Therefore, we conclude that HIRA sustains the chromatin landscape governing muscle cell lineage identity via incorporation of H3.3 at muscle gene regulatory regions, while preventing the expression of alternative lineage genes. The epigenetic mechanisms coordinating the maintenance of adult cellular lineages remain poorly understood. Here the authors demonstrate that HIRA, a H3.3 histone chaperone, establishes the chromatin landscape required for skeletal muscle cell identity.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 June 2021

#47

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 June 2021

#48

 

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Description Optically active fullerenes, including C60 and C70 derivatives carrying organic substituents, are used in a range of applications because of their unique spectroscopic, catalytic, and chiral recognition properties. However, their inherent photoexcited chirality is yet to be elucidated because of their very poor fluorescence quantum yield (Φf). We synthesised a new chiral C70 derivative, X70A, with 20% yield, by reacting bis-borylated xanthene with C70 in a one-step double addition reaction, followed by a successful optical resolution. The isolation of two separate X70A enantiomers was confirmed by mirror-image circular dichroism spectroscopy in the range of 300–750 nm. In toluene, the enantiomeric pair of X70A clearly revealed mirror-image circularly polarised luminescence (CPL) spectra with a high |glum| value of 7.0 ×  10−3 at 690 nm. The first fullerene-based deep-red CPL of X70A should provide a new guideline for the design of chiral nanocarbon materials.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 June 2021

#49

 

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Description The optical properties of topological photonics have attracted much interest recently because its potential applications for robust unidirectional transmission that are immune to scattering at disorder. However, researches on topological series coupled ring resonators (T-SCRR) have been much less discussed. The existence of topological interface-states (TIS) in the T-SCRR is described for the first time in this article. An approach has been developed to achieve this goal via the band structure of dielectric binary ring resonators and the Zak phase of each bandgap. It is found that an ultra-high-Q with complete transmission is obtained by the conjugated topological series coupled ring resonators due to the excitation of conjugated topological interface-states, which is different from those in conventional TIS. Furthermore, the problem of transmission decreases resulting from high-Q increases in the traditional photonic system is significantly improved by this approach. These findings could pave a novel path for developing advanced high-Q filters, optical sensors, switches, resonators, communications and quantum information processors.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 June 2021

#50

 

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Description The future envisaged global-scale quantum-communication network will comprise various nodes interconnected via optical fibers or free-space channels, depending on the link distance. The free-space segment of such a network should guarantee certain key requirements, such as daytime operation and the compatibility with the complementary telecom-based fiber infrastructure. In addition, space-to-ground links will require the capability of designing light and compact quantum devices to be placed in orbit. For these reasons, investigating available solutions matching all the above requirements is still necessary. Here we present a full prototype for daylight quantum key distribution at 1550 nm exploiting an integrated silicon-photonics chip as state encoder. We tested our prototype in the urban area of Padua (Italy) over a 145 m-long free-space link, obtaining a quantum bit error rate around 0.5% and an averaged secret key rate of 30 kbps during a whole sunny day (from 11:00 to 20:00). The developed chip represents a cost-effective solution for portable free-space transmitters and a promising resource to design quantum optical payloads for future satellite missions.

#Theoretical sciences;#Hardware & Devices
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 June 2021

#51

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 June 2021

#52

 

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Name
Description The limited availability of nasopharyngeal carcinoma-related progression biomarker array kits that offer physicians comprehensive information is disadvantageous for monitoring cancer progression. To develop a biomarker array kit, systematic identification and differentiation of a large number of distinct molecular surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) reporters with high spectral temporal resolution is a major challenge. To address this unmet need, we use the chemistry of metal carbonyls to construct a series of unique SERS reporters with the potential to provide logical and highly multiplex information during testing. In this study, we report that geometric control over metal carbonyls on nanotags can produce 14 distinct barcodes that can be decoded unambiguously using commercial Raman spectroscopy. These metal carbonyl nanobarcodes are tested on human blood samples and show strong sensitivity (0.07 ng/mL limit of detection, average CV of 6.1% and >92% degree of recovery) and multiplexing capabilities for MMPs. SERS assays have potential for multiplexed detection of biomarkers but differentiation of SERS tags remains a challenge. Here, the authors report the creation of 14 distinct geometrically controlled metal carbonyl tags and demonstrate multiplexed detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma biomarkers from patient blood.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 June 2021

#53

 

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Description The more we find out about the human microbiome, the more we discover just how many facets of our existence are influenced by the invisible microscopic organisms that dwell inside us.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 June 2021

#54

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 June 2021

#55

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 June 2021

#56

 

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Description Visual input to primary visual cortex (V1) depends on highly adaptive filtering in the retina. In turn, isolation of V1 computations requires experimental control of retinal adaptation to infer its spatio-temporal-chromatic output. Here, we measure the balance of input to mouse V1, in the anesthetized setup, from the three main photoreceptor opsins—M-opsin, S-opsin, and rhodopsin—as a function of two stimulus dimensions. The first dimension is the level of light adaptation within the mesopic range, which governs the balance of rod and cone inputs to cortex. The second stimulus dimension is retinotopic position, which governs the balance of S- and M-cone opsin input due to the opsin expression gradient in the retina. The fitted model predicts opsin input under arbitrary lighting environments, which provides a much-needed handle on in-vivo studies of the mouse visual system. We use it here to reveal that V1 is rod-mediated in common laboratory settings yet cone-mediated in natural daylight. Next, we compare functional properties of V1 under rod and cone-mediated inputs. The results show that cone-mediated V1 responds to 2.5-fold higher temporal frequencies than rod-mediated V1. Furthermore, cone-mediated V1 has smaller receptive fields, yet similar spatial frequency tuning. V1 responses in rod-deficient (Gnat1−/−) mice confirm that the effects are due to differences in photoreceptor opsin contribution.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 June 2021

#57

 

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Name
Description Biological technologies are fundamentally unlike any other because biology evolves. Bioengineering therefore requires novel design methodologies with evolution at their core. Knowledge about evolution is currently applied to the design of biosystems ad hoc. Unless we have an engineering theory of evolution, we will neither be able to meet evolution’s potential as an engineering tool, nor understand or limit its unintended consequences for our biological designs. Here, we propose the evotype as a helpful concept for engineering the evolutionary potential of biosystems, or other self-adaptive technologies, potentially beyond the realm of biology. Effective biological engineering requires the acknowledgement of evolution and its consideration during the design process. In this perspective, the authors present the concept of the evotype to reason about and shape the evolutionary potential of natural and engineered biosystems.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 June 2021

#58

 

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Name
Description

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 June 2021

#59

 

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Name
Description Biomass-derived materials have recently received considerable attention as lightweight, low-cost, and green microwave absorbers. On the other hand, sulfide nanostructures due to their narrow band gaps have demonstrated significant microwave characteristics. In this research, carbon microtubes were fabricated using a biowaste and then functionalized by a novel complementary solvothermal and sonochemistry method. The functionalized carbon microtubes (FCMT) were ornamented by CuCo2S4 nanoparticles as a novel spinel sulfide microwave absorber. The prepared structures illustrated narrow energy band gap and deposition of the sulfide structures augmented the polarizability, desirable for dielectric loss and microwave attenuation. Eventually, the architected structures were blended by polyacrylonitrile (PAN) to estimate their microwave absorbing and antibacterial characteristics. The antibacterial properties against Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were scrupulously assessed. Noteworthy, the maximum reflection loss (RL) of the CuCo2S4/PAN with a thickness of 1.75 mm was 61.88 dB at 11.60 GHz, while the architected FCMT/PAN composite gained a broadband efficient bandwidth as wide as 7.91 GHz (RL > 10 dB) and 3.25 GHz (RL > 20 dB) with a thickness of 2.00 mm. More significantly, FCMT/CuCo2S4/PAN demonstrated an efficient bandwidth of 2.04 GHz (RL > 20 dB) with only 1.75 mm in thickness. Interestingly, FCMT/CuCo2S4/PAN and CuCo2S4/PAN composites demonstrated an electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency of more than 90 and 97% at the entire x and ku-band frequencies, respectively.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 June 2021

#60

 

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Description Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and miR-21a-5p plays an important role in the occurrence and progression of hyperlipidemia. Here, we aimed to investigate the mechanism of aerobic exercise improved hyperlipidemia through enhancing miR-21a-5p expression. In this study, high-fat/high-cholesterol diet mice received 8 weeks of aerobic exercise intervention, then we collected plasma and liver samples, we found that there had a notable improvement in weight gain, blood lipid level, and liver steatosis in hyperlipidemia mice after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise intervention. Besides, aerobic exercise significantly up-regulated the expression of miR-21a-5p and provoked favorable changes in the expression of target genes. Knockdown of miR-21a-5p resulted in dysregulation of lipid metabolism and increased expression of FABP7, HMGCR, ACAT1, and OLR1. While aerobic exercise could alleviate miR-21a-5p knock-down induced lipid metabolism disorder. Taken together, these results demonstrated that aerobic exercise improved hyperlipidemia through miR-21a-5p-induced inhibition of target genes FABP7, HMGCR, ACAT1, and OLR1.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 June 2021

#61

 

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Description Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a relatively rare subtype of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. To identify molecular biomarkers in MCL, we performed immunohistochemistry tissue arrays using biopsies from 64 MCL patients diagnosed in West China Hospital from 2012 to 2016. TP53 mutation status in those patients was also examined by sequencing. The sequencing results showed TP53 mutations were highly heterogeneous in MCL. We identified four novel TP53 mutations in MCL: P151R, G199R, V218E, and G325R. The MCL patients with TP53 mutations had inferior progression-free survival (PFS, p = 0.002) and overall survival (OS, p = 0.011). Tissue array results showed the expression of p53, Sox11, or Pax5 alone did not correlate with the patient PFS and OS. However, the MCL patients with triple-positive expression of p53/Sox11/Pax5 had inferior PFS (p = 0.008) and OS (p = 0.002). Such risk stratification was independent to the mantle cell lymphoma international prognostic index (MIPI), Ki-67 value, and TP53 mutation status of the patients. The triple-positive patients might represent a subtype of high-risk MCL. Our findings might indicate a novel way to stratify MCL and predict patients’ prognosis.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 June 2021

#62

 

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Description Corneal biomechanical parameters were compared in 100 keratoconus eyes with abnormal elevation on the back corneal surface only (group 1), versus both the back and front surfaces (group 2). Scheimpflug tomography with Pentacam HR, corneal biomechanical assessments using Corvis ST and Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) and corneal epithelium thickness maps using anterior segment optical coherence tomography were assessed. There were no significant differences in the IOP measured using Corvis ST and ORA, age or sex between the two groups. Statistically significant differences were found in all corneal shape parameters and all new parameters of Corvis ST: corneal stiffness parameter at first applanation (SP-A1), integrated inverse radius (IR) and deformation amplitude ratio (DAR)) between groups (p < 0.001). The classic parameters of ORA including corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were about 1.00 mmHg higher in group 1 (p < 0.001). In conclusion, keratoconus eyes with abnormal elevation limited to the back corneal surface have lower grade, stiffer corneal biomechanical parameters and less asymmetric shape. This is consistent with progressive biomechanical weakening from the first detectable back surface elevation to manifestation on the front surface as the severity overwhelms the ability of the epithelium to compensate.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 June 2021

#63

 

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Name
Description

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 June 2021

#64

 

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Name
Description Researchers, funders, database managers and journals all have a role to play in accounting for diversity and prioritizing inclusion at the basic science level.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 June 2021

#65

 

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Name
Description An approach involving barcoded viral tracing provides insights into cell–cell interactions at single-cell resolution.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 June 2021

#66

 

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Name
Description The iNMF algorithm efficiently integrates large-scale, continually arriving single-cell multi-omic datasets.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 June 2021

#67

 

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Name
Description Van der Waals heterostructures serve as a platform for memory devices with ultra-fast writing speeds and non-volatile retention times, motivating their use in integrated circuits and systems.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 June 2021

#68

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 June 2021

#69

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 June 2021

#70

 

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Name
Description One of the most breathtakingly beautiful sights our skies can muster is the dancing glow of auroral lights. Yet this fascinating phenomenon is still not fully understood.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 June 2021

#71

 

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Description CEO Tim Cook had asked Apple employees start working from the office for at least three days a week starting from September.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 05 June 2021

#72

 

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Name
Description To evaluate the physiological impact of high CPAP (≥9 cmH2O) vs. NIPPV at equivalent mean airway pressures. In this cross-over study, preterm neonates on high CPAP or NIPPV were placed on the alternate mode. After 30 min, left and right ventricular cardiac output and work of breathing indices were assessed, following which patients were placed back on the original mode and a similar procedure ensued. Fifteen infants with mean (SD) postmenstrual age 32.7 (3.0) weeks, and weight 1569 (564) grams were included. No differences in LVO [320 (63) vs. 331 (86) mL/kg/min, P = 0.46] or RVO [420 (135) vs. 437 (141) mL/kg/min, P = 0.19] were noted during high CPAP vs. NIPPV, along with no differences in work of breathing indices. High CPAP pressures did not adversely impact cardiac output or work of breathing compared to NIPPV at equivalent mean airway pressure.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 05 June 2021

#73

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 05 June 2021