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Today: 20 July 2018, Friday.

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#1

 

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Description The RSTAR can't stop, won't stop.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 18 July 2018

#2

 

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Description Even when people have well-connected social networks beyond their home cities and across state lines, they are still most frequently interacting with people who are very geographically near.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 18 July 2018

#3

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 18 July 2018

#4

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 18 July 2018

#5

 

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Description 53BP1 is a chromatin-binding protein that regulates the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by suppressing the nucleolytic resection of DNA termini1,2. This function of 53BP1 requires interactions with PTIP3 and RIF14,5,6,7,8,9, the latter of which recruits REV7 (also known as MAD2L2) to break sites10,11. How 53BP1-pathway proteins shield DNA ends is currently unknown, but there are two models that provide the best potential explanation of their action. In one model the 53BP1 complex strengthens the nucleosomal barrier to end-resection nucleases12,13, and in the other 53BP1 recruits effector proteins with end-protection activity. Here we identify a 53BP1 effector complex, shieldin, that includes C20orf196 (also known as SHLD1), FAM35A (SHLD2), CTC-534A2.2 (SHLD3) and REV7. Shieldin localizes to double-strand-break sites in a 53BP1- and RIF1-dependent manner, and its SHLD2 subunit binds to single-stranded DNA via OB-fold domains that are analogous to those of RPA1 and POT1. Loss of shieldin impairs non-homologous end-joining, leads to defective immunoglobulin class switching and causes hyper-resection. Mutations in genes that encode shieldin subunits also cause resistance to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition in BRCA1-deficient cells and tumours, owing to restoration of homologous recombination. Finally, we show that binding of single-stranded DNA by SHLD2 is critical for shieldin function, consistent with a model in which shieldin protects DNA ends to mediate 53BP1-dependent DNA repair.

#Medicine & Human body;#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 18 July 2018

#6

 

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Description In DNA repair, the resection of double-strand breaks dictates the choice between homology-directed repair—which requires a 3′ overhang—and classical non-homologous end joining, which can join unresected ends1,2. BRCA1-mutant cancers show minimal resection of double-strand breaks, which renders them deficient in homology-directed repair and sensitive to inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1)3,4,5,6,7,8. When BRCA1 is absent, the resection of double-strand breaks is thought to be prevented by 53BP1, RIF1 and the REV7–SHLD1–SHLD2–SHLD3 (shieldin) complex, and loss of these factors diminishes sensitivity to PARP1 inhibitors4,6,7,8,9. Here we address the mechanism by which 53BP1–RIF1–shieldin regulates the generation of recombinogenic 3′ overhangs. We report that CTC1–STN1–TEN1 (CST)10, a complex similar to replication protein A that functions as an accessory factor of polymerase-α (Polα)–primase11, is a downstream effector in the 53BP1 pathway. CST interacts with shieldin and localizes with Polα to sites of DNA damage in a 53BP1- and shieldin-dependent manner. As with loss of 53BP1, RIF1 or shieldin, the depletion of CST leads to increased resection. In BRCA1-deficient cells, CST blocks RAD51 loading and promotes the efficacy of PARP1 inhibitors. In addition, Polα inhibition diminishes the effect of PARP1 inhibitors. These data suggest that CST–Polα-mediated fill-in helps to control the repair of double-strand breaks by 53BP1, RIF1 and shieldin.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 18 July 2018

#7

 

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Description Polymer networks can have a range of desirable properties such as mechanical strength, wide compositional diversity between different materials, permanent porosity, convenient processability and broad solvent compatibility1,2. Designing polymer networks from the bottom up with new structural motifs and chemical compositions can be used to impart dynamic features such as malleability or self-healing, or to allow the material to respond to environmental stimuli3,4,5,6,7,8. However, many existing systems exhibit only one operational state that is defined by the material’s composition and topology3,4,5,6; or their responsiveness may be irreversible7,9,10 and limited to a single network property11,12 (such as stiffness). Here we use cooperative self-assembly as a design principle to prepare a material that can be switched between two topological states. By using networks of polymer-linked metal–organic cages in which the cages change shape and size on irradiation, we can reversibly switch the network topology with ultraviolet or green light. This photoswitching produces coherent changes in several network properties at once, including branch functionality, junction fluctuations, defect tolerance, shear modulus, stress-relaxation behaviour and self-healing. Topology-switching materials could prove useful in fields such as soft robotics and photo-actuators as well as providing model systems for fundamental polymer physics studies.

#Materials;#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 18 July 2018

#8

 

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Description T cell development and selection are coordinated in the thymus by a specialized niche of diverse stromal populations1,2,3. Although much progress has been made over the years in identifying the functions of the different cell types of the thymic stromal compartment, there is no comprehensive characterization of their diversity and heterogeneity. Here we combined massively parallel single-cell RNA-sequencing4,5, spatial mapping, chromatin profiling and gene targeting to characterize de novo the entire stromal compartment of the mouse thymus. We identified dozens of cell states, with thymic epithelial cells (TECs) showing the highest degree of heterogeneity. Our analysis highlights four major medullary TEC (mTEC I–IV) populations, with distinct molecular functions, epigenetic landscapes and lineage regulators. Specifically, mTEC IV constitutes a new and highly divergent TEC lineage with molecular characteristics of the gut chemosensory epithelial tuft cells. Mice deficient in Pou2f3, a master regulator of tuft cells, have complete and specific depletion of mTEC IV cells, which results in increased levels of thymus-resident type-2 innate lymphoid cells. Overall, our study provides a comprehensive characterization of the thymic stroma and identifies a new tuft-like TEC population, which is critical for shaping the immune niche in the thymus.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 18 July 2018

#9

 

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Description It is a century since the first génération perdue came of age. The phrase is attributed to US writer Gertrude Stein, who heard it as a casual insult aimed by a garage boss at a young French mechanic who was working — too slowly — on Stein’s car. The term is now generally used to describe a group of people who are lost to society. So when European officials spoke at a conference session last week called ‘The lost generation of European scientists’, for many participants the name would have conjured up thoughts of an exodus of talented early-career researchers, who are fed up with the insecurity of short-term jobs and with dwindling opportunities in academia. And so it should have: in many disciplines, that issue is real, growing and serious. Young and early-career researchers need the problem to be taken seriously — and so does the rest of the scientific community. Figures are difficult to come by, but less than one-fifth of US postdocs secure a tenured research position, and the situation is even more competitive in Europe.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 18 July 2018

#10

 

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Description UK-developed titanium cryostat arrives at the South Dakota site of LUX-ZEPLIN, a Berkeley Lab-led project. A worker inspects the titanium cryostat for the LUX-ZEPLIN experiment in a clean room. (Credit: Matt Kapust/SURF) Note: This article is adapted from a press release by the U.K. Scie

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 17 July 2018

#11

 

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Description Brown University researchers and collaborators from Tsinghua University in China have shown that nanoclusters made from boron and lanthanide elements form highly stable and symmetric structures with interesting magnetic properties. The findings, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 17 July 2018

#12

 

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Description A letter written by Albert Einstein outlined his regrets about the plight of a European scholar hoping to immigrate to the U.S.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 17 July 2018

#13

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 17 July 2018

#14

 

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Description An international team of scientists, including from the University of Adelaide and Curtin University, has found the first evidence of a source of high-energy particles called neutrinos: an energetic galaxy about 4 billion light years from Earth. The observations were made by the IceCube Neutrino

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 17 July 2018

#15

 

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Description The publisher of Science last month ended a pilot partnership that allowed open-access (OA) publishing for researchers funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The trial was an effort to accommodate a policy clash between the Gates Foundation, which has enforced strict OA demands since 2017, and publishers that run subscription journals which don’t comply with those terms. So far, 26 papers in Science and four sister subscription journals have been published under the 18-month experiment, and more may appear, says Meagan Phelan, a spokesperson for Science's publisher, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in Washington DC. Neither Gates nor AAAS commented on why the deal ended, but Phelan says the pilot was "planned for a duration that would allow both organizations to closely explore what researchers need and value from journal publications and related services". “We are reviewing the outcomes of our collaboration and remain open to future partnerships,” she adds. The two organizations expect to publish a report on their trial by the end of this year, including results from an open-access survey conducted of Gates-funded authors.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 13 July 2018

#16

 

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Description Move over, black and white x-rays. New Zealand company MARS Bioimaging has developed the world's first full-color, 3D X-rays, using CERN technology.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 13 July 2018

#17

 

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Description In the last half-century, neutrino detectors have spotted particles cast out by the sun, supernova 1987A and a supermassive black hole.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 13 July 2018