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News for Theoretical sciences





#1

 

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Description Season 2 of the YouTube original series revisits more old-school staples with special guests including Bill Gates and a couple of CNETers.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 10 April 2021

#2

 

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Description This study aims to compare oncologic and functional outcomes after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) and segmental ureterectomy (SU) in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). We retrospectively collected data on patients who underwent either RNU or SU of UTUC. Propensity score matching was performed among 394 cases to yield a final cohort of 40 RNU and 40 SU cases. Kaplan–Meier analysis and the log-rank test were used to compare overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), progression-free survival (PFS), and intravesical recurrence-free survival (IVRFS) between the groups. We also compared the change in postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). There was no significant difference in terms of CSS, PFS, and IVRFS between the RNU and SU groups, but the RNU group had a better OS than the SU group (p = 0.032). Postoperative eGFR was better preserved in the SU group than in the RNU group (p < 0.001). SU provides comparable CSS, PFS, and IVRFS for patients with UTUC compared to RNU, even in patients with advanced-stage and/or high-grade cancer. Further, SU achieves better preservation of renal function.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 April 2021

#3

 

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Description Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) is a potent neurotoxin that serves as an effective therapeutic for several neuromuscular disorders via induction of temporary muscular paralysis. Specific binding and internalization of BoNT/A into neuronal cells is mediated by its binding domain (HC/A), which binds to gangliosides, including GT1b, and protein cell surface receptors, including SV2. Previously, recombinant HC/A was also shown to bind to FGFR3. As FGFR dimerization is an indirect measure of ligand-receptor binding, an FCS & TIRF receptor dimerization assay was developed to measure rHC/A-induced dimerization of fluorescently tagged FGFR subtypes (FGFR1-3) in cells. rHC/A dimerized FGFR subtypes in the rank order FGFR3c (EC50 ≈ 27 nM) > FGFR2b (EC50 ≈ 70 nM) > FGFR1c (EC50 ≈ 163 nM); rHC/A dimerized FGFR3c with similar potency as the native FGFR3c ligand, FGF9 (EC50 ≈ 18 nM). Mutating the ganglioside binding site in HC/A, or removal of GT1b from the media, resulted in decreased dimerization. Interestingly, reduced dimerization was also observed with an SV2 mutant variant of HC/A. Overall, the results suggest that the FCS & TIRF receptor dimerization assay can assess FGFR dimerization with known and novel ligands and support a model wherein HC/A, either directly or indirectly, interacts with FGFRs and induces receptor dimerization.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 April 2021

#4

 

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Description Various space missions have measured the total solar irradiance (TSI) since 1978. Among them the experiments Precision Monitoring of Solar Variability (PREMOS) on the PICARD satellite (2010–2014) and the Variability of Irradiance and Gravity Oscillations (VIRGO) on the mission Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, which started in 1996 and is still operational. Like most TSI experiments, they employ a dual-channel approach with different exposure rates to track and correct the inevitable degradation of their radiometers. Until now, the process of degradation correction has been mostly a manual process based on assumed knowledge of the sensor hardware. Here we present a new data-driven process to assess and correct instrument degradation using a machine-learning and data fusion algorithm, that does not require deep knowledge of the sensor hardware. We apply the algorithm to the TSI records of PREMOS and VIRGO and compare the results to the previously published results. The data fusion part of the algorithm can also be used to combine data from different instruments and missions into a composite time series. Based on the fusion of the degradation-corrected VIRGO/PMO6 and VIRGO/DIARAD time series, we find no significant change (i.e $$-0.17pm 0.29$$  W/m $$^2$$ ) between the TSI levels during the two most recent solar minima in 2008/09 and 2019/20. The new algorithm can be applied to any TSI experiment that employs a multi-channel philosophy for degradation tracking. It does not require deep technical knowledge of the individual radiometers.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 April 2021

#5

 

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Description Dopamine is a prototypical neuromodulator that controls circuit function through G protein-coupled receptor signalling. Neuromodulators are volume transmitters, with release followed by diffusion for widespread receptor activation on many target cells. Yet, we are only beginning to understand the specific organization of dopamine transmission in space and time. Although some roles of dopamine are mediated by slow and diffuse signalling, recent studies suggest that certain dopamine functions necessitate spatiotemporal precision. Here, we review the literature describing dopamine signalling in the striatum, including its release mechanisms and receptor organization. We then propose the domain-overlap model, in which release and receptors are arranged relative to one another in micrometre-scale structures. This architecture is different from both point-to-point synaptic transmission and the widespread organization that is often proposed for neuromodulation. It enables the activation of receptor subsets that are within micrometre-scale domains of release sites during baseline activity and broader receptor activation with domain overlap when firing is synchronized across dopamine neuron populations. This signalling structure, together with the properties of dopamine release, may explain how switches in firing modes support broad and dynamic roles for dopamine and may lead to distinct pathway modulation. Dopamine is often portrayed as a diffuse, slow neuromodulator, yet such signalling cannot explain its broad and sometimes rapid roles. Here, Liu, Goel and Kaeser review recent insights into dopamine release and receptors and present a new framework — the domain-overlap model — for dopamine signalling.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 April 2021

#6

 

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Description Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a hallmark of malignant evolution that underpins cancer progression and therapeutic evasion. There are few established experimental systems to study CIN and ultimately develop potential therapeutic options. A new study now identifies the MSL chromatin complex as a potential vulnerability against CIN in cancer cells.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 April 2021

#7

 

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Description The US Department of Justice’s ‘China Initiative’ is unfairly targeting Chinese American academics for their alleged ties with the Chinese government. A more proportionate approach is urgently needed.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 April 2021

#8

 

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Description

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 April 2021

#9

 

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Description What does it mean for an individual to be ‘important’ or for a connection to be ‘outstanding’? The answer depends on context, as Sarah Shugars and Samuel V. Scarpino explain.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 April 2021

#10

 

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Description Scientific progress has always been driven by the ability to build an instrument to answer a specific question. But spreading the news of how to replicate that tool is an evolving art, ripe for an open-source revolution.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 April 2021

#11

 

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Description But this may not be the end of the story.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 April 2021

#12

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 April 2021

#13

 

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Description Type 1 narcolepsy is strongly (98%) associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQA1*01:02/DQB1*06:02 (DQ0602) and highly associated with T cell receptor (TCR) alpha locus polymorphism as well as other immune regulatory loci. Increased incidence of narcolepsy was detected following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and linked to Pandemrix vaccination, strongly supporting that narcolepsy is an autoimmune disorder. Although recent results suggest CD4+ T cell reactivity to neuropeptide hypocretin/orexin and cross-reactive flu peptide is involved, identification of other autoantigens has remained elusive. Here we study whether autoimmunity directed against Regulatory Factor X4 (RFX4), a protein co-localized with hypocretin, is involved in some cases of narcolepsy. Studying human serum, we found that autoantibodies against RFX4 were rare. Using RFX4 peptides bound to DQ0602 tetramers, antigen RFX4-86, -95, and -60 specific human CD4+ T cells were detected in 4/10 patients and 2 unaffected siblings, but not in others. Following culture with each cognate peptide, enriched autoreactive TCRαβ clones were isolated by single-cell sorting and TCR sequenced. Homologous clones bearing TRBV4-2 and recognizing RFX4-86 in patients and one twin control of patient were identified. These results suggest the involvement of RFX4 CD4+ T cell autoreactivity in some cases of narcolepsy, but also in healthy donors.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 April 2021

#14

 

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Description The therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is out of the question. Yet, recent drawbacks have resulted in a strategic shift towards the application of MSC-derived cell-free products such as extracellular vesicles (EVs). Recent reports revealed that functional properties of MSCs, including EV secretion patterns, correlate with microenvironmental cues. These findings highlight the urgent need for defining the optimal circumstances for EV preparation. Considering the limitations of primary cells, we employed immortalized cells as an alternative source to prepare therapeutically sufficient EV numbers. Herein, the effects of different conditional environments are explored on human TERT-immortalized MSCs (hTERT-MSCs). The latter were transduced to overexpress IDO1, PTGS2, and TGF-β1 transgenes either alone or in combination, and their immunomodulatory properties were analyzed thereafter. Likewise, EVs derived from these various MSCs were extensively characterized. hTERT-MSCs-IDO1 exerted superior inhibitory effects on lymphocytes, significantly more than hTERT-MSCs-IFN-γ. As such, IDO1 overexpression promoted the immunomodulatory properties of such enriched EVs. Considering the limitations of cell therapy like tumor formation and possible immune responses in the host, the results presented herein might be considered as a feasible model for the induction of immunomodulation in off-the-shelf and cell-free therapeutics, especially for autoimmune diseases.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 April 2021

#15

 

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Description Oxidative plant cell-wall processing enzymes are of great importance in biology and biotechnology. Yet, our insight into the functional interplay amongst such oxidative enzymes remains limited. Here, a phylogenetic analysis of the auxiliary activity 7 family (AA7), currently harbouring oligosaccharide flavo-oxidases, reveals a striking abundance of AA7-genes in phytopathogenic fungi and Oomycetes. Expression of five fungal enzymes, including three from unexplored clades, expands the AA7-substrate range and unveils a cellooligosaccharide dehydrogenase activity, previously unknown within AA7. Sequence and structural analyses identify unique signatures distinguishing the strict dehydrogenase clade from canonical AA7 oxidases. The discovered dehydrogenase directly is able to transfer electrons to an AA9 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) and fuel cellulose degradation by LPMOs without exogenous reductants. The expansion of redox-profiles and substrate range highlights the functional diversity within AA7 and sets the stage for harnessing AA7 dehydrogenases to fine-tune LPMO activity in biotechnological conversion of plant feedstocks. Microbial oxidoreductases are key in biomass breakdown. Here, the authors expand the specificity and redox scope within fungal auxiliary activity 7 family (AA7) enzymes and show that AA7 oligosaccharide dehydrogenases can directly fuel cellulose degradation by lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 April 2021

#16

 

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Description In this work we present a method to dynamically control the propagation of spin-wave packets. By altering an external magnetic field the refraction of the spin wave at a temporal inhomogeneity is enabled. Since the inhomogeneity is spatially invariant, the spin-wave impulse remains conserved while the frequency is shifted. We demonstrate the stopping and rebound of a traveling Backward-Volume type spin-wave packet.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 April 2021

#17

 

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Description The gaseous product concentration in direct electrochemical CO2 reduction is usually hurdled by the electrode’s Faradaic efficiency, current density, and inevitable mixing with the unreacted CO2. A concentrated gaseous product with high purity will greatly lower the barrier for large-scale CO2 fixation and follow-up industrial usage. Here, we developed a pneumatic trough setup to collect the CO2 reduction product from a precisely engineered nanotwinned electrocatalyst, without using ion-exchange membrane. The silver catalyst’s twin boundary density can be tuned from 0.3 to 1.5 × 104 cm−1. With the lengthy and winding twin boundaries, this catalyst exhibits a Faradaic efficiency up to 92% at −1.0 V and a turnover frequency of 127 s−1 in converting CO2 to CO. Through a tandem electrochemical-CVD system, we successfully produced CO with a volume percentage of up to 52%, and further transformed it into single layer graphene film. Isolating purified electrosynthesis product is a major challenge in electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction. Here, the authors report a nanotwinned silver electrocatalyst and a pneumatic-trough cell system to produce a 52% concentrated CO, which is further utilized as a carbon feedstock for graphene production.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 09 April 2021

#18

 

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Description The restrictions come because of worries supercomputers could be used in the development of weapons of mass destruction and more.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 April 2021

#19

 

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Description An important role that the leading-edge cross-section shape plays in the wing flight performance is well known in aeronautics. However, little is known about the shape of the leading-edge cross section of an insect’s wing and its contribution to remarkable qualities of insect flight. In this paper, we reveal, in the first time, the shape of the leading-edge cross section of a cicada’s wing and analyze its variability along the wing. We also identify and quantify similarities in characteristic dimensions of this shape in the wings of three different cicada species.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 April 2021

#20

 

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Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 April 2021

#21

 

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Description The non-equilibrium dynamics of the superspin glass state of a dense assembly of ~ 2 nm MnFe2O4 nanoparticles was investigated by means of magnetization, ac susceptibility and Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements and compared to the results of Monte Carlo simulations for a mesoscopic model that includes particles morphology and interparticle interactions. The zero-field cooled (ZFC), thermoremanent (TRM), and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) were recorded after specific cooling protocols and compared to those of archetypal spin glasses and their dimensionality. The system is found to display glassy magnetic features. We illustrate in detail, by a number of experiments, the dynamical properties of the low-temperature superspin glass phase. We observe that these glassy features are quite similar to those of atomic spin glasses. Some differences are observed, and interestingly, the non-atomic nature of the superspin glass is also reflected by an observed superspin dimensionality crossover. Monte Carlo simulations—that explicitly take into account core and surface contributions to the magnetic properties of these ultrasmall nanoparticles in direct contact, as well as interparticle interactions—evidence effects of the interplay between (intraparticle) core/surface exchange coupling and (interparticle) dipolar and exchange interactions.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 April 2021

#22

 

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Description The conserved chromatin remodeller DECREASED IN DNA METHYLATION 1 (DDM1) has long been an enigma given its powerful but likely indirect effect in maintaining plant DNA methylation. In this issue of Nature Cell Biology, Osakabe et al. show that the direct action of DDM1 is deposition of the H2A.W histone variant to silence transposable elements.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 April 2021

#23

 

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Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 April 2021

#24

 

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Description The aim of this study was to compare secondary loss of reduction outcomes in dual plating fixation and dual plating combined with compression bolt fixation for bicondylar tibial plateau fractures (TPFs). We performed a retrospective study from January 2015 to April 2019. A consecutive series of 72 bicondylar TPFs underwent surgical treatment and was divided into two groups: group 1 (dual plating, n = 46) and group 2 (dual plating combined with compression bolts, n = 26). The outcomes collected included demographic characteristics, imaging characteristics, intraoperative indicators, clinical outcomes and reduction quality after surgery. Functional outcome was rated according to the Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score and Lysholm score. The secondary loss of reduction rate in group 2 was reduced compared with that in group 1 (P = 0.025), and the mean HSS score of group 2 was higher than that of group 1 (P = 0.013). The rate of complications was 30.4% (14/46) in group 1 and 30.8% (8/26) in group 2 (P = 0.976). Compared with single dual plating fixation, dual plating combined with compressing bolt fixation reduced the secondary loss of reduction rate for patients with bicondylar TPFs and showed better functional outcomes.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 April 2021

#25

 

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Description The feasibility and surgical effort of a pre-lacrimal window approach (PLWA) depends on the width of the bony window anterior to the nasolacrimal duct. This study aimed to investigate gender-specific differences in feasibility of PLWA. A consecutive series of paranasal computed tomography scans from 50 females (n = 100) and 50 males (n = 100) were retrospectively analyzed. The primary outcome measure was the antero-posterior length of the bony pre-lacrimal window (BPLWA). The secondary outcome measure was the distribution of Simmen’s PLWA feasibility types (major, moderate and minor surgical effort). On average, males had a 1.5 mm (95% CI 0.8–2.2) significantly higher BPLW length in comparison to females [t(198) = 4.4, p < 0.0001]. The requirement of major surgical effort occurred 29% more frequently in females [χ2(1) = 17.7, p < 0.0001], whereas the necessity of moderate surgical effort was 21% more prevalent in males [χ2(1) = 8.8, p = 0.003]. The need of only minor surgical effort was twice as high in males compared to females [χ2(1) = 3, p = 0.081]. Our data indicates that females require more significant surgical effort during a PLWA to gain access to the maxillary sinus. These results are highly informative as a high amount of bone removal and nasolacrimal duct dislocation are associated with a higher likelihood of complications.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 April 2021

#26

 

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Description DNA replication inhibitors are utilized extensively in studies of molecular biology and as chemotherapy agents in clinical settings. The inhibition of DNA replication often triggers double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) at stalled DNA replication sites, resulting in cytotoxicity. In East Asia, some traditional medicines are administered as anticancer drugs, although the mechanisms underlying their pharmacological effects are not entirely understood. In this study, we screened Japanese herbal medicines and identified two benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs), berberine and coptisine. These alkaloids mildly induced DSBs, and this effect was dependent on the function of topoisomerase I (Topo I) and MUS81-EME1 structure-specific endonuclease. Biochemical analysis revealed that the action of BIAs involves inhibiting the catalytic activity of Topo I rather than inducing the accumulation of the Topo I-DNA complex, which is different from the action of camptothecin (CPT). Furthermore, the results showed that BIAs can act as inhibitors of Topo I, even against CPT-resistant mutants, and that the action of these BIAs was independent of CPT. These results suggest that using a combination of BIAs and CPT might increase their efficiency in eliminating cancer cells.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 April 2021

#27

 

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Description Repetitive uses of antifungals result in a worldwide crisis of drug resistance; therefore, natural fungicides with minimal side-effects are currently sought after. This study aimed to investigate antifungal property of 19, 20-epoxycytochalasin Q (ECQ), derived from medicinal mushroom Xylaria sp. BCC 1067 of tropical forests. In a model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ECQ is more toxic in the erg6∆ strain, which has previously been shown to allow higher uptake of many hydrophilic toxins. We selected one pathway to study the effects of ECQ at very high levels on transcription: the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway, which is unlikely to be the primary target of ECQ. Ergosterol serves many functions that cholesterol does in human cells. ECQ’s transcriptional effects were correlated with altered sterol and triacylglycerol levels. In the ECQ-treated Δerg6 strain, which presumably takes up far more ECQ than the wild-type strain, there was cell rupture. Increased actin aggregation and lipid droplets assembly were also found in the erg6∆ mutant. Thereby, ECQ is suggested to sensitize yeast cells lacking ERG6 through actin-targeting and consequently but not primarily led to disruption of lipid homeostasis. Investigation of cytochalasins may provide valuable insight with potential biopharmaceutical applications in treatments of fungal infection, cancer or metabolic disorder.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 08 April 2021

#28

 

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Description Particles called muons spin slightly faster than our best models of physics predict, which may mean that there are more particles and forces that we haven't yet discovered

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 April 2021

#29

 

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Description IL-2 is the master-regulator cytokine for T cell dependent responses and is crucial for proliferation and survival of T cells. However, IL-2-based treatments remained marginal, in part due to short half-life. Thus, we aimed to extend IL-2 half-life by flanking the IL-2 core with sequences derived from the extensively glycosylated hinge region of the NCR2 receptor. We termed this modified IL-2: “S2A”. Importantly, S2A blood half-life was extended 14-fold compared to the clinical grade IL-2, Proleukin. Low doses inoculation of S2A significantly enhanced induction of Tregs (CD4+ Regulatory T cells) in vivo, as compared to Proleukin, while both S2A and Proleukin induced low levels of CD8+ T cells. In a B16 metastatic melanoma model, S2A treatment was unable to reduce the metastatic capacity of B16 melanoma, while enhancing induction and recruitment of Tregs, compared to Proleukin. Conversely, in two autoimmune models, rheumatoid arthritis and DSS-induced colitis, S2A treatment significantly reduced the progression of disease compared to Proleukin. Our results suggest new avenues for generating long-acting IL-2 for long-standing treatment and a new technique for manipulating short-life proteins for clinical and research uses.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 April 2021

#30

 

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Description Postbiotic RS5, produced by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum RS5, has been identified as a promising alternative feed supplement for various livestock. This study aimed to lower the production cost by enhancing the antimicrobial activity of the postbiotic RS5 by improving the culture density of L. plantarum RS5 and reducing the cost of growth medium. A combination of conventional and statistical-based approaches (Fractional Factorial Design and Central Composite Design of Response Surface Methodology) was employed to develop a refined medium for the enhancement of the antimicrobial activity of postbiotic RS5. A refined medium containing 20 g/L of glucose, 27.84 g/L of yeast extract, 5.75 g/L of sodium acetate, 1.12 g/L of Tween 80 and 0.05 g/L of manganese sulphate enhanced the antimicrobial activity of postbiotic RS5 by 108%. The cost of the production medium was reduced by 85% as compared to the commercially available de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium that is typically used for Lactobacillus cultivation. Hence, the refined medium has made the postbiotic RS5 more feasible and cost-effective to be adopted as a feed supplement for various livestock industries.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 April 2021

#31

 

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Description Something unseen is influencing a wobbling speck of existence, and the findings could lead to a bigger quantum uproar than the Higgs boson did.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 April 2021

#32

 

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Description Surface plasmons have found a wide range of applications in plasmonic and nanophotonic devices. The combination of plasmonics with three-dimensional photonic crystals has enormous potential for the efficient localization of light in high surface area photoelectrodes. However, the metals traditionally used for plasmonics are difficult to form into three-dimensional periodic structures and have limited optical penetration depth at operational frequencies, which limits their use in nanofabricated photonic crystal devices. The recent decade has seen an expansion of the plasmonic material portfolio into conducting ceramics, driven by their potential for improved stability, and their conformal growth via atomic layer deposition has been established. In this work, we have created three-dimensional photonic crystals with an ultrathin plasmonic titanium nitride coating that preserves photonic activity. Plasmonic titanium nitride enhances optical fields within the photonic electrode while maintaining sufficient light penetration. Additionally, we show that post-growth annealing can tune the plasmonic resonance of titanium nitride to overlap with the photonic resonance, potentially enabling coupled-phenomena applications for these three-dimensional nanophotonic systems. Through characterization of the tuning knobs of bead size, deposition temperature and cycle count, and annealing conditions, we can create an electrically- and plasmonically-active photonic crystal as-desired for a particular application of choice.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 April 2021

#33

 

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Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 April 2021

#34

 

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Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 April 2021

#35

 

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Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 April 2021

#36

 

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Description Only a 1-in-40,000 chance that combined results are due to a statistical fluctuation.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 April 2021

#37

 

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Description This paper proposes a metasurface design approach with perforated labyrinthine path coil structure to manipulate the acoustic transmission with inexpensive materials. The medium in the labyrinthine path coils in this design is air, but not limited to air. A systematic approach has been proposed for the unit cell design of acoustic metamaterials with adjustable resonance peak frequencies and bandgap width. The theory demonstrates that the length of pipe segments determines resonance peak frequencies and the cross-sectional area ratio adjusts the bandgap width. The proposed design approach uses an equivalent pipe circuit based analytical model to design the high transmission (high pass) and high reflection (low pass) unit cell. The simulation and experiment has been performed to evaluate the validity of the theory. Although there exists some assumptions in the theory, the theory still has enough accuracy to guide the metasurface design illustrated by the simulation and experiment results.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 April 2021

#38

 

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Description This study aimed to explore the effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on bladder smooth muscle cells (BSMCs) under high glucose (HG) treatment in vitro. BSMCs from Sprague–Dawley rat bladders were cultured and passaged in vitro. The third-generation cells were cultured and divided into control group, HG group, HG + CGRP group, HG + CGRP + asiatic acid (AA, p-p38 activator) group, CGRP group, AA group, HG + CGRP + CGRP-8-37 (CGRP receptor antagonist) group and HG + LY2228820 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) group. The cell viability, apoptosis, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels of BSMCs were observed by the relevant detection kits. The expressions of α-SM-actin, p38 and p-p38 were detected by qRT-PCR or Western blot analysis. Compared with the control group, the cell viability, SOD and α-SM-actin levels of BSMCs were decreased and apoptotic cells, MDA and p-p38 levels were increased after HG treatment, while these changes could be partly reversed when BSMCs were treated with HG and CGRP or LY2228820 together. Moreover, AA or CGRP-8-37 could suppress the effect of CGRP on BSMCs under HG condition. Our data indicate that CGRP protects BSMCs from oxidative stress induced by HG in vitro, and inhibit the α-SM-actin expression decrease through inhibiting the intracellular p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 April 2021

#39

 

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Description In this paper, we report Cooper Pairs Distribution function $${D}_{cp}(omega ,{T}_{c})$$ for bcc Niobium under pressure. This function reveals information about the superconductor state through the determination of the spectral regions for Cooper-pairs formation. $${D}_{cp}(omega ,{T}_{c})$$ is built from the well-established Eliashberg spectral function and phonon density of states, calculated by first-principles. $${D}_{cp}(omega ,{T}_{c})$$ for Nb suggests that the low-frequency vibration region $$left(omega <6 ,{ ext{meV}} ight)$$ is where Cooper-pairs are possible. From $${D}_{cp}(omega ,{T}_{c})$$ , it is possible to obtain the $${N}_{cp}$$ parameter, which is proportional to the total number of Cooper-Pairs formed at a temperature $${T}_{c}$$ . The $${N}_{cp}$$ parameter allows an approach to the understanding of the Nb $${T}_{c}$$ anomalies, measured around 5 and 50 GPa.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 April 2021

#40

 

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Description Despite intensive studies on the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games, there have been few investigations into locality effects in interaction games, adaptation, and punishment. Here we analyze locality effects using an agent-based model of a regular graph. Our simulation shows that a situation containing a local game, local punishment, and global adaptation leads to the most robustly cooperative regime. Further, we show an interesting feature in local punishment. Previous studies showed that a local game and global adaptation are likely to generate cooperation. However, they did not consider punishment. We show that if local punishment is introduced in spatial public goods games, a situation satisfying either local game or local adaptation is likely to generate cooperation. We thus propose two principles. One is if interactions in games can be restricted locally, it is likely to generate cooperation independent of the interaction situations on punishment and adaptation. The other is if the games must be played globally, a cooperative regime requires both local punishment and local adaptation.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 April 2021

#41

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 April 2021

#42

 

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Description Germanium nanoparticles enable optical trapping at high spatiotemporal resolution.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 07 April 2021

#43

 

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Name
Description To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal conbercept (IVC) in pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). A meta-analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs) using online databases was performed. The intraoperative outcome measures were the incidence of intraoperative bleeding and endodiathermy application, and the mean surgical time. The postoperative outcome measures were mean change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) from baseline, postoperative vitreous clear-up time and incidence of recurrent vitreous hemorrhage (VH). Eight RCTs were selected for meta-analysis. They included 409 eyes (215 eyes in IVC group and 194 eyes in no conbercept group). Preoperative IVC application was associated with less intraoperative bleeding and endodiathermy applications (RR = 0.34, 95% CI, 0.23–0.50, P < 0.00001, and RR = 0.26, 95% CI, 0.12–0.56, P = 0.0005) compared to no conbercept. It also shortened surgical time (WMD = −15.87, 95% CI, −22.04 to −9.69, P < 0.00001). In addition, preoperative or intraoperative IVC achieved better BCVA outcome (WMD = −0.37, 95% CI, −0.62 to −0.13, P = 0.003), shorter vitreous clear-up time postoperatively (WMD = −5.44, 95% CI, −6.31 to −4.57, P < 0.00001) and a lower rate of VH recurrence (RR = 0.45, 95% CI, 0.22–0.91, P = 0.03). IVC is an effective adjuvant in PPV for PDR, with better intraoperative and postoperative outcomes.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 06 April 2021

#44

 

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Description

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 06 April 2021

#45

 

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Description The left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) is key to prognosis in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Circulating microRNAs have emerged as reliable biomarkers for heart diseases, included DCM. Clinicians need improved tools for greater clarification of DCM EF categorization, to identify high-risk patients. Thus, we investigated whether microRNA profiles can categorize DCM patients based on their EF. 179-differentially expressed circulating microRNAs were screened in two groups: (1) non-idiopathic DCM; (2) idiopathic DCM. Then, 26 microRNAs were identified and validated in the plasma of ischemic-DCM (n = 60), idiopathic-DCM (n = 55) and healthy individuals (n = 44). We identified fourteen microRNAs associated with echocardiographic variables that differentiated idiopathic DCM according to the EF degree. A predictive model of a three-microRNA (miR-130b-3p, miR-150-5p and miR-210-3p) combined with clinical variables (left bundle branch block, left ventricle end-systolic dimension, lower systolic blood pressure and smoking habit) was obtained for idiopathic DCM with a severely reduced-EF. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis supported the discriminative potential of the diagnosis. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that miR-150-5p and miR-210-3p target genes might interact with each other with a high connectivity degree. In conclusion, our results revealed a three-microRNA signature combined with clinical variables that highly discriminate idiopathic DCM categorization. This is a potential novel prognostic biomarker with high clinical value.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 06 April 2021

#46

 

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Description Methods that enable site selective acylation of sp3 C-H bonds in complex organic molecules are not well explored, particularly if compared with analogous transformations of aromatic and vinylic sp2 C-H bonds. We report herein a direct acylation of benzylic C-H bonds by merging N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) and photoredox catalysis. The method allows the preparation of a diverse range of benzylic ketones with good functional group tolerance under mild conditions. The reaction can be used to install acyl groups on highly functionalized natural product derived compounds and the C-H functionalization works with excellent site selectivity. The combination of NHC and photoredox catalysis offers options in preparing benzyl aryl ketones. Direct acylation of sp3 C−H bonds in complex organic molecules is not well established compared to that of sp2 C−H bonds. Here, the authors report the combination of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) and photoredox catalysis for the direct and site-selective acylation of benzylic C−H bonds.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 06 April 2021

#47

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 06 April 2021

#48

 

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Description The time truncated plan for the Weibull distribution under the indeterminacy is presented. The plan parameters of the proposed plan are determined by fixing the indeterminacy parameter. The plan parameters are given for various values of indeterminacy parameters. From the results, it can be concluded that the values of sample size reduce as indeterminacy values increase. The application of the proposed plan is given using wind speed data. From the wind speed example, it is concluded that the proposed plan is helpful to test the average wind speed at smaller values of sample size as compared to existing sampling plan.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 06 April 2021

#49

 

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Description Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα)-positive interstitial cells (ICs) are widely distributed in various organs and may be involved in the motility of various tubular organs. We, for the first time, aimed to investigate the distribution, immunohistochemical characteristics, and ultrastructure of PDGFRα-positive ICs in murine vas deferens, using confocal laser scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and immuno-electron microscopy (immuno-EM). For immunofluorescence, we used antibodies against PDGFRα and other markers of ICs. PDGFRα-positive ICs were distributed widely in the lamina propria, smooth muscles, and serosal layers. Although most PDGFRα-positive ICs labeled CD34, they did not label CD34 in the subepithelial layers. Additionally, PDGFRα-positive ICs were in close proximity to each other, as also to the surrounding cells. TEM and immuno-EM findings revealed that PDGFRα-positive ICs established close physical interactions with adjacent ICs. Extracellular vesicles were also detected around the PDGFRα-positive ICs. Our morphological findings suggest that PDGFRα-positive ICs may have several subpopulations, which can play an important role in intercellular signaling via direct contact with the IC network and the extracellular vesicles in the murine vas deferens. Further investigation on PDGFRα-positive ICs in the vas deferens may lead to understanding the vas deferens mortility.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 06 April 2021

#50

 

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Description Periodontal ligament (PDL) possesses a stem/progenitor population to maintain the homeostasis of periodontal tissue. However, transcription factors that regulate this population have not yet been identified. Thus, we aimed to identify a molecule related to the osteogenic differentiation of PDL progenitors using a single cell-based strategy in this study. We first devised a new protocol to isolate PDL cells from the surface of adult murine molars and established 35 new single cell-derived clones from the PDL explant. Among these clones, six clones with high (high clones, n = 3) and low (low clones, n = 3) osteogenic potential were selected. Despite a clear difference in the osteogenic potential of these clones, no significant differences in their cell morphology, progenitor cell marker expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, proliferation rate, and differentiation-related gene and protein expression were observed. RNA-seq analysis of these clones revealed that Z-DNA binding protein-1 (Zbp1) was significantly expressed in the high osteogenic clones, indicating that Zbp1 could be a possible marker and regulator of the osteogenic differentiation of PDL progenitor cells. Zbp1-positive cells were distributed sparsely throughout the PDL. In vitro Zbp1 expression in the PDL clones remained at a high level during osteogenic differentiation. The CRISPR/Cas9 mediated Zbp1 knockout in the high clones resulted in a delay in cell differentiation. On the other hand, Zbp1 overexpression in the low clones promoted cell differentiation. These findings suggested that Zbp1 marked the PDL progenitors with high osteogenic potential and promoted their osteogenic differentiation. Clarifying the mechanism of differentiation of PDL cells by Zbp1 and other factors in future studies will facilitate a better understanding of periodontal tissue homeostasis and repair, possibly leading to the development of novel therapeutic measures.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 06 April 2021

#51

 

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Description In the current work, the unsteady thermal flow of Maxwell power-law nanofluid with Welan gum solution on a stretching surface has been considered. The flow is also exposed to Joule heating and magnetic effects. The Marangoni convection equation is also proposed for current investigation in light of the constitutive equations for the Maxwell power law model. For non-dimensionalization, a group of similar variables has been employed to obtain a set of ordinary differential equations. This set of dimensionless equations is then solved with the help of the homotopy analysis method (HAM). It has been established in this work that, the effects of momentum relaxation time upon the thickness of the film is quite obvious in comparison to heat relaxation time. It is also noticed in this work that improvement in the Marangoni convection process leads to a decline in the thickness of the fluid’s film.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 06 April 2021

#52

 

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Description Astronomers detected X-rays flaring out of Uranus for the first time. It could be a case of solar scattering, or some as-yet unknown process.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 06 April 2021

#53

 

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Name
Description

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 06 April 2021

#54

 

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Description Infants who are small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of neonatal and infant death, non-communicable diseases and growth retardation. However, the epidemiological characteristics of SGA remain unclear. We aim to explore the prevalence of SGA and to examine its socioeconomic associations by using data from 21 cities. 10,515,494 single live birth records between 2014 and 2019 from the Guangdong Women and Children Health Information System were included in the study. Descriptive statistical methods were used to analyze the prevalence trend of SGA and its distribution. We also analyze the associations between the prevalence of SGA and per-capita GDP. The prevalence of SGA in Guangdong Province from the years 2014–2019 was 13.17%, 12.96%, 11.96%, 12.72%, 11.45%, 11.30% respectively, and the overall prevalence was 12.28%. The prevalence of term SGA infants in Guangdong Province was 12.50%, which was much higher than that of preterm SGA (7.71%). There was a significant negative correlation between the SGA prevalence and per-capita GDP in 21 cities of Guangdong Province. The level of economic development may affect the prevalence of SGA. The prevalence of SGA in full term infants is significantly higher than in premature infants, suggesting that most SGA infants may be born at a later gestational age.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 05 April 2021

#55

 

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Description Salmonella enterica nomenclature has evolved over the past one hundred years into a highly sophisticated naming convention based on the recognition of antigens by specific antibodies. This serotyping scheme has led to the definition of over 2500 serovars which are well understood, have standing in nomenclature and, for the majority, biological relevance. Therefore, it is highly desirable for any change in naming convention to maintain backwards compatibility with the information linked to these serovars. The routine use of whole genome sequencing and the well-established link between sequence types and serovars presents an opportunity to update the scheme by incorporating the phylogenetically relevant sequence data whilst preserving the best of serotyping nomenclature. Advantages include: overcoming the variability in antibody preparations; removing the need to use laboratory animals and implementing a truly universal system. However, the issue of trying to reproduce the phenotyping gold standard needs to be relaxed if we are to fully embrace the genomic era. We have used whole genome sequence data from over 46,000 isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica to define clusters in two stages: Multi Locus Sequence Typing followed by antigen prediction. Sequence type—serotype discrepancies were resolved using core SNP clustering to determine the phylogenetic groups and this was confirmed by overlaying the antigenic prediction onto the core SNP clusters and testing the separation of clusters using cgMLST Hierarchical Clustering. This allowed us to define any major antigenic clusters within an ST—here called the MAC type and written as ST-serovar. Using this method, 99.96% of Salmonella isolates reported in the UK were assigned a MAC type and linked to a serovar name taken from the Kauffmann and White scheme. We propose a change for reporting of Salmonella enterica sub-types using the ST followed by serovar.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 05 April 2021

#56

 

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Description Despite numerous research efforts, the precise mechanisms of concussion have yet to be fully uncovered. Clinical studies on high-risk populations, such as contact sports athletes, have become more common and give insight on the link between impact severity and brain injury risk through the use of wearable sensors and neurological testing. However, as the number of institutions operating these studies grows, there is a growing need for a platform to share these data to facilitate our understanding of concussion mechanisms and aid in the development of suitable diagnostic tools. To that end, this paper puts forth two contributions: (1) a centralized, open-access platform for storing and sharing head impact data, in collaboration with the Federal Interagency Traumatic Brain Injury Research informatics system (FITBIR), and (2) a deep learning impact detection algorithm (MiGNet) to differentiate between true head impacts and false positives for the previously biomechanically validated instrumented mouthguard sensor (MiG2.0), all of which easily interfaces with FITBIR. We report 96% accuracy using MiGNet, based on a neural network model, improving on previous work based on Support Vector Machines achieving 91% accuracy, on an out of sample dataset of high school and collegiate football head impacts. The integrated MiG2.0 and FITBIR system serve as a collaborative research tool to be disseminated across multiple institutions towards creating a standardized dataset for furthering the knowledge of concussion biomechanics.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 05 April 2021

#57

 

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Description This study attempts to analyze the relationship between free-throw efficiency and the time of arm muscle activation in players from 3 basketball teams with different levels of experience was investigated. During the experiment each player made 20 free throws during which the activation time of his right and left biceps and triceps brachii muscles were measured with the use of surface electromyography and high-speed cameras. Significant differences in muscle activation time (t) during a free throw were found between the groups of basketball players (p = 0.038) (novices: t = 0.664 ± 0.225 s, intermediate-level players: t = 1.15 ± 0.146 s, experts: t = 1.01 ± 0.388 s). In the right triceps brachii muscle in expert basketball players the coefficient of variation (CV) amounted to 44.60% at 81% efficiency, and in novices to 27.12% at 53% efficiency. The time of arm muscle activation during a free throw and its fluctuations vary along with the training experience of basketball players. In all studied groups of players, the variability of muscle activation time in accurate free throws is greater than in inaccurate free throws. Free-throw speed is irrelevant for free-throw efficiency.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 05 April 2021

#58

 

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Description The generation of hydrogel droplets using droplet microfluidics has emerged as a powerful tool with many applications in biology and medicine. Here, a microfluidic system to control the position of particles (beads or astrocyte cells) in hydrogel droplets using bulk acoustic standing waves is presented. The chip consisted of a droplet generator and a 380 µm wide acoustic focusing channel. Droplets comprising hydrogel precursor solution (polyethylene glycol tetraacrylate or a combination of polyethylene glycol tetraacrylate and gelatine methacrylate), photoinitiator and particles were generated. The droplets passed along the acoustic focusing channel where a half wavelength acoustic standing wave field was generated, and the particles were focused to the centre line of the droplets (i.e. the pressure nodal line) by the acoustic force. The droplets were cross-linked by exposure to UV-light, freezing the particles in their positions. With the acoustics applied, 89 ± 19% of the particles (polystyrene beads, 10 µm diameter) were positioned in an area ± 10% from the centre line. As proof-of-principle for biological particles, astrocytes were focused in hydrogel droplets using the same principle. The viability of the astrocytes after 7 days in culture was 72 ± 22% when exposed to the acoustic focusing compared with 70 ± 19% for samples not exposed to the acoustic focusing. This technology provides a platform to control the spatial position of bioparticles in hydrogel droplets, and opens up for the generation of more complex biological hydrogel structures.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 05 April 2021

#59

 

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Description We aimed to assess the clinicopathological features and to determine the prognostic factors of cervical adenocarcinoma (AC). Relevant data were extracted from surveillance, epidemiology and end results database from 2004 to 2015. The log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard analysis were subsequently utilized to identify independent prognostic factors. A total of 3102 patients were identified. The enrolled patients were characterized by higher proportion of early FIGO stage (stage I: 65.9%; stage II: 14.1%), low pathological grade (grade I/II: 49.1%) and tumor size ≤ 4 cm (46.8%). The 5- and 10-year cancer-specific survival rates of these patients were 74.47% and 70.00%, respectively. Meanwhile, the 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 71.52% and 65.17%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that married status, surgery as well as chemotherapy were independent favorable prognostic indicators. Additionally, aged > 45, tumor grade III/IV, tumor size > 4 cm, advanced FIGO stage and pelvic lymph node metastasis (LNM) were unfavorable prognostic factors (all P < 0.01). Stratified analysis found that patients without surgery could significantly benefit from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In addition, chemotherapy could significantly improve the survival in stage II–IV patients and radiotherapy could only improve the survival in stage III patients (all P < 0.01). Marital status, age, grade, tumor size, FIGO stage, surgery, pelvic LNM and chemotherapy were significantly associated with the prognosis of cervical AC.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 05 April 2021

#60

 

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Description We developed a three-dimensional (3D) synthetic animated mouse based on computed tomography scans that is actuated using animation and semirandom, joint-constrained movements to generate synthetic behavioral data with ground-truth label locations. Image-domain translation produced realistic synthetic videos used to train two-dimensional (2D) and 3D pose estimation models with accuracy similar to typical manual training datasets. The outputs from the 3D model-based pose estimation yielded better definition of behavioral clusters than 2D videos and may facilitate automated ethological classification. Bolaños et al. present a realistic three-dimensional virtual mouse model that can be animated and that facilitates the training of pose estimation algorithms.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 05 April 2021

#61

 

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Description Gradients in the concentration of a solute can drive particle transport by inducing interfacial flows via imbalances in the osmotic pressure near surfaces. Now it seems that this mechanism is directing traffic on the cell membrane.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 05 April 2021

#62

 

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Description Understanding how catalytic asymmetric reactions with racemic starting materials can operate would enable new enantioselective cross-coupling reactions that give chiral products. Here we propose a catalytic cycle for the highly enantioselective Rh(i)-catalysed Suzuki–Miyaura coupling of boronic acids and racemic allyl halides. Natural abundance 13C kinetic isotope effects provide quantitative information about the transition-state structures of two key elementary steps in the catalytic cycle, transmetallation and oxidative addition. Experiments with configurationally stable, deuterium-labelled substrates revealed that oxidative addition can happen via syn- or anti-pathways, which control diastereoselectivity. Density functional theory calculations attribute the extremely high enantioselectivity to reductive elimination from a common Rh complex formed from both allyl halide enantiomers. Our conclusions are supported by analysis of the reaction kinetics. These insights into the sequence of bond-forming steps and their transition-state structures will contribute to our understanding of asymmetric Rh–allyl chemistry and enable the discovery and application of asymmetric reactions with racemic substrates. A major drive in current chemistry research is to develop asymmetric versions of widely used carbon–carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Suzuki-Miyaura cross-couplings. Now, the origins of diastereo- and enantioselectivity in a Rh-catalysed cross-coupling of boronic acid and racemic allyl halides have been established.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 05 April 2021

#63

 

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Description Among the most actively studied issues in the cuprates are the natures of the pseudogap and strange metal states and their relationship to superconductivity1. There is general agreement that the low-energy physics of the Mott-insulating parent state is well captured by a two-dimensional spin S = 1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model2. However, recent observations of a large thermal Hall conductivity in several parent cuprates appear to defy this simple model and suggest proximity to a magneto-chiral state that breaks all mirror planes that are perpendicular to the CuO2 layers3–6. Here we use optical second harmonic generation to directly resolve the point group symmetries of the model parent cuprate Sr2CuO2Cl2. We report evidence of an order parameter that breaks all perpendicular mirror planes and is consistent with a magneto-chiral state in zero magnetic field. Although this order is clearly coupled to the antiferromagnetism, we are unable to realize its time-reversed partner by thermal cycling through the antiferromagnetic transition temperature or by sampling different spatial locations. This suggests that the order onsets above the Néel temperature and may be relevant to the mechanism of pseudogap formation. Several cuprate superconductors were recently shown to have chiral phonons. Here second harmonic generation measurements show that antiferromagnetism breaks all mirror symmetries in a related compound, consistent with a chiral state.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 05 April 2021

#64

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 05 April 2021