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#1

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 21 September 2018

#2

 

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Description Matter falling into blackhole at 30% of the speed of light"/> Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 21 September 2018

#3

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 21 September 2018

#4

 

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Description Yale scientists have demonstrated a new method to control the behavior of light on a silicon chip — specifically, its direction — by using sound waves. This discovery appears in the journal Nature Photonics. For decades, researchers have tried to adapt widely used optical technologies — including

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 20 September 2018

#5

 

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Description Air pollution was once celebrated. Industrialists in Victorian Britain would point to the smoky streets of the Industrial Revolution and see only the signs of wealth and progress. Alerted in the 1960s to the stink of an Alabama paper mill some 30 kilometres away that was reaching the state capital, Governor George Wallace remarked: “Yeah, that’s the smell of prosperity.” Public attitudes have changed. Clean air to breathe is widely recognized by the United Nations and others as a universal human right, essential to physical well-being. But a change in mindset about air does little to actually clean it. More than four million people still die each year from exposure to polluted outside air — an intolerable situation, and one that is perpetuated by urbanization and regulatory impotence. Nine out of ten people live in places where outdoor air pollution exceeds guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO). Hotspots are congested urban areas in low- and middle-income countries such as India, Nigeria and China. In some megacities — Mexico City, for example — authorities have begun to adopt cleaner vehicle standards. But fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide from vehicular traffic, energy production, industry and heating remain a serious public-health risk in most built-up areas. Even many cities in wealthy Europe fail to meet the WHO standards. A report last week by the European Court of Auditors, which regularly scrutinizes the effectiveness of European Union policies and programmes, concludes that action taken so far to improve air quality is not sufficiently protecting citizens from pollution. Cities that auditors visited for the report — including Brussels, Kraków, Milan and Sofia — have made little or no progress since 2009 in reducing particulate matter pollution (Kraków and Sofia) or since 2012 in reducing nitrogen dioxide levels (Brussels and Milan). Although emissions of air pollutants have been decreasing overall, most member states still do not fully comply with stringent EU air-quality standards set up in 2008. The European Commission has already taken several member states to court over their failure to introduce appropriate measures. Meanwhile, a 2015 scandal over faked Volkswagen vehicle emission tests in the United States has helped to bring the problem to greater public and political attention by offering a corporate villain. Low-emission zones in London (a persistent offender when it comes to breaching clean-air regulations) and many other European cities now ban badly polluting vehicles or restrict their access. That is good news for some metropolitan neighbourhoods, but it is only a first step. Little overall benefit is gained, for example, if diesel cars that are no longer wanted in Europe are pushed by manufacturers into markets abroad. Effectively tackling the causes and effects of air pollution requires a more joined-up approach. Air-quality regulations in the EU, for example, must be taken into account more fully when setting policies on climate, transport, enterprise, trade and innovation. Science, too, can do more to mitigate health risks from poor air quality. It is important to unpick how different types and levels of pollution affect human health. The epidemiological research needed to do that requires more-consistent methodologies to monitor and report pollution and human exposure to it.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 September 2018

#6

 

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Description Three years ago, as I prepared to start as a lecturer in the University of Bath’s psychology department, I reflected on my own undergraduate training. What should I emulate? What would I like to improve? The ‘reproducibility crisis’ was in full swing. Many of the standard research practices I had been taught were now shown to be flawed, from P-value hacking to ‘HARKing’ — hypothesizing after the results are known — and an over-reliance on underpowered studies (that is, drawing oversized conclusions from undersized samples). It struck me that the research dissertation students do in their final year is almost a bootcamp for instilling these bad habits. Vast numbers of projects, limited time and resources, small sample sizes, the potential for undisclosed analytic flexibility (P-hacking) and a premium on novelty: together, a recipe for irreproducible results. Most undergraduate dissertations turn into exercises tallying the limitations of the research design — frustrating for both student and supervisor. However, each year a few students get lucky and publish, securing a huge CV advantage. I wondered what lesson this was teaching. Were we embedding a culture that rewards chance results over robust methods? In an effort to disrupt this culture, I set up the GW4 Undergraduate Psychology Consortium with colleagues at the universities of Bath, Bristol, Cardiff and Exeter. We wanted to embed rigorous research practices into undergraduate education, incorporating procedures such as pre-registration of study protocols, designing studies with sufficient statistical power and transparent reporting of methods and results. The difficulty was working out how. Rigorous research methods often take more time and resources than a student project allows. Our solution was collaboration. By working together, students could pool their efforts in data collection to reach samples sizes sufficient for meaningful analyses. The Consortium is now entering its third year. We are still evolving, but we have settled into a productive routine. It works best if a PhD student or postdoc develops the primary research question for the undergraduates to tackle, drafts a ‘bare-bones’ study protocol and manages the study. Over the UK summer break, this protocol is circulated to undergraduate students (usually from two to five students at each institution), and each of them plans a secondary research question and suitable method.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 September 2018

#7

 

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Description About 61 percent of the world’s 356 turtle species are threatened or already extinct, and the decline could have ecological consequences. These findings are according to a new paper in Bioscience synthesizing the global status of turtles and their ecological roles by scientists from the U.S. Geologi

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 September 2018

#8

 

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Description New experiments that rely on very large machines have begun to probe the weak points of particle physics.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 September 2018

#9

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 September 2018

#10

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 September 2018

#11

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 September 2018

#12

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 September 2018

#13

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 September 2018

#14

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 September 2018

#15

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 September 2018

#16

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 September 2018

#17

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 September 2018

#18

 

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Description The team tested their device by recording themselves singing "Mary Had a Little Lamb"

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 September 2018

#19

 

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Description First particle tracks recorded by mega-project studying neutrinos - short science news daily - physics

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 19 September 2018

#20

 

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Description A prototype detector demonstrates the technology needed for the DUNE experiment.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 18 September 2018

#21

 

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Description Berkeley Lab contributes to big step in Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. Inside the first ProtoDUNE detector, before it was filled with liquid argon. (Credit: CERN) Note: This article was adapted from an original press release published by Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. View

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 18 September 2018

#22

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 18 September 2018

#23

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 18 September 2018

#24

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 18 September 2018

#25

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 17 September 2018

#26

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 17 September 2018

#27

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 17 September 2018

#28

 

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Description For the first time, scientists have performed an iconic physics experiment with a positron - the antimatter counterpart of an electron, one of the fundamental particles.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 17 September 2018

#29

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 17 September 2018