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#1

 

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Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#2

 

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Description Cesar Cernuda, in one of his first interviews since joining NetApp as its new president, talked with CRN about NetApp’s cloud future.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#3

 

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Description Humans are capable of learning many new walking patterns. People have learned to snowshoe up mountains, racewalk marathons, and march in precise synchrony. But what is required to learn a new walking pattern? Here, we demonstrate that people can learn new walking patterns without actually walking. Through a series of experiments, we observe that stepping with only one leg can facilitate learning of an entirely new walking pattern (i.e., split-belt treadmill walking). We find that the nervous system learns from the relative speed difference between the legs—whether or not both legs are moving—and can transfer this learning to novel gaits. We also show that locomotor learning requires active movement: observing another person adapt their gait did not result in significantly faster learning. These findings reveal that people can learn new walking patterns without bilateral gait training, as stepping with one leg can facilitate adaptive learning that transfers to novel gait patterns.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#4

 

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Description This study investigated Staphylococcus aureus carriage in patients with microbial keratitis (MK). 215 patients with MK, 60 healthy controls and 35 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were included. Corneal scrapes were collected from patients with MK. Conjunctival, nasal and throat swabs were collected from the non-MK groups on a single occasion and from the MK group at presentation and then at 6 and 12 weeks. Samples were processed using conventional diagnostic culture. 68 (31.6%) episodes of clinically suspected MK were classed as recurrent. Patients with recurrent MK had a higher isolation rate of S. aureus from their cornea than those with a single episode (p < 0.01) and a higher isolation rate of S. aureus from their conjunctiva compared to control participants, 20.6% (14/68) versus 3% (5/60) respectively (p = 0.01). Significantly more patients with recurrent MK (12/68, 17.6%) were found to have S. aureus isolated from both their conjunctiva and nose than those with a single episode of MK (7/147, 4.8% p = 0.002) and compared to patients in the control group (3/60, 5.0% p = 0.03). The results indicate that patients with recurrent MK have higher rates of carriage of S. aureus suggesting endogenous site colonisation as a possible source of recurrent infection.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#5

 

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Description We discovered that knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons) during suction feeding can produce millimeter-sized cavitation bubbles and flow accelerations up to ~ 450 times the acceleration of gravity. Knifefish may use this powerful suction-induced cavitation to cause physical damage on prey hiding in narrow refuges, therefore facilitating capture.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#6

 

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Description Anopheles gambiae s.s. is a key vector of Plasmodium parasites. Repellents, which may be a promising alternative to pesticides used to control malaria mosquitoes. Although citronellal is a known mosquito repellent, its repellency characteristics are largely unknown. Determining the specific odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and odorant receptors (ORs) that detect and transfer the citronellal molecule in A. gambiae s.s. will help to define the mode of action of this compound. In this research, we assessed the repellent activity of citronellal in A. gambiae s.s. using a Y-tube olfactory meter, screened candidate citronellal-binding OBPs and ORs using reverse molecular docking, clarified the binding properties of predicted proteins for citronellal using fluorescence competition binding assay. Results showed that citronellal had a dosage effect on repelling A. gambiae s.s.. The 50% repellent rate was determined to be 4.02 nmol. Results of simulated molecular docking showed that the only proteins that bound tightly with citronellal were AgamOBP4 and AgamORC7. Fluorescence competitive binding assays confirmed the simulations. This research determined that citronellal was captured by AgamOBP4 and transmitted to AgamORC7 in A. gambiae s.s.. Our study will be beneficial in the further understanding the repellent mechanism of citronellal against A. gambiae s.s..

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#7

 

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Description Tilapia is one of the most commercially valuable species in aquaculture with over 5 million tonnes of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, produced worldwide every year. It has become increasingly important to keep track of the inheritance of the selected traits under continuous improvement (e.g. growth rate, size at maturity or genetic gender), as selective breeding has also resulted in genes that can hitchhike as part of the process. The goal of this study was to generate a Local Ancestry Interence workflow that harnessed existing tilapia genotyping-by-sequencing studies, such as Double Digest RAD-seq derived Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism markers. We developed a workflow and implemented a suite of tools to resolve the local ancestry of each chromosomal locus based on reference panels of tilapia species of known origin. We used tilapia species, wild populations and breeding programmes to validate our methods. The precision of the pipeline was evaluated on the basis of its ability to identify the genetic makeup of samples of known ancestry. The easy and inexpensive application of local ancestry inference in breeding programmes will facilitate the monitoring of the genetic profile of individuals of interest, the tracking of the movement of genes from parents to offspring and the detection of hybrids and their origin.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#8

 

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Description When ovarian stimulation is unfeasible, in vitro maturation (IVM) represents an alternative option for fertility preservation (FP). This retrospective study aims to evaluate the feasibility of performing within a short time frame two IVM cycles for FP. Seventeen women with breast cancer, 18–40 years of age, having undergone 2 cycles of IVM followed by oocyte vitrification were included. Non parametric analyses were used. No difference was observed between IVM1 and IVM2 outcomes. No complication was reported. The respective contributions of IVM1 and IVM2 for the number of cryopreserved oocytes were comparable irrespective of the delay between both procedures, even when performed during the same menstrual cycle. Those findings suggest that repeating IVM cycles may constitute a safe option for increasing the number of vitrified mature oocytes for FP. These two retrievals may be performed during the same cycle, providing additional argument for a physiologic continuous recruitment during follicular development.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#9

 

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Description Oxygen defects are essential building blocks for designing functional oxides with remarkable properties, ranging from electrical and ionic conductivity to magnetism and ferroelectricity. Oxygen defects, despite being spatially localized, can profoundly alter global properties such as the crystal symmetry and electronic structure, thereby enabling emergent phenomena. In this work, we achieved tunable metal–insulator transitions (MIT) in oxide heterostructures by inducing interfacial oxygen vacancy migration. We chose the non-stoichiometric VO2-δ as a model system due to its near room temperature MIT temperature. We found that depositing a TiO2 capping layer on an epitaxial VO2 thin film can effectively reduce the resistance of the insulating phase in VO2, yielding a significantly reduced ROFF/RON ratio. We systematically studied the TiO2/VO2 heterostructures by structural and transport measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations and found that oxygen vacancy migration from TiO2 to VO2 is responsible for the suppression of the MIT. Our findings underscore the importance of the interfacial oxygen vacancy migration and redistribution in controlling the electronic structure and emergent functionality of the heterostructure, thereby providing a new approach to designing oxide heterostructures for novel ionotronics and neuromorphic-computing devices.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#10

 

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Description Seedling grafting could provide additional crop improvement strategies for cotton. However, there existed limited studies on interspecific grafting and approaches. Four different grafting approaches were developed and compared between lines representing three of the four cultivated cotton species G. hirsutum, G. barbadense and G. herbaceum. Grafting approaches of this study focused on the cotyledon node and cotyledon leaves retained on scions, rootstocks, without cotyledon node and cotyledon leaves on scions and rootstocks or halved cotyledon node and single cotyledon leaf on scions and rootstocks. Evaluations of the grafting approaches were made by comparing survival and growth rate during the second and fifth weeks after transplantation, respectively. The formation of any lateral shoots at the grafted sites were studied in two of four grafting approaches in the first and the second year during flowering stage. DNA alterations due to grafting were investigated using microsatellite markers. There were no statistically significant differences between grafts and their control in survival rate and locus specific DNA alteration. Growth rate and lateral shoot formation, on the other hand, were different among grafting types and grafts. We concluded that grafting without cotyledon node and cotyledon leaves on rootstocks, and with cotyledon node but without cotyledon leaves on scions were easy to perform and suitable for interspecific cotton grafting. Results suggested that grafting seedlings and allowing time to heal graft wounds prior to spring transplanting or double cropping is suitable for wheat–cotton intercropping to prevent late or early chilling damage associated with seed sowing or conventional transplanting of susceptible seedlings. Furthermore, the rapid and consistent wound healing in seedling grafts along with lateral shoot formation occurring in two of four grafting approaches make them a suitable approach to investigate possible genetic and epigenetic movement between scions and rootstocks, especially across species.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#11

 

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Description Out-of-plane lesions pose challenges for CT-guided interventions. Augmented reality (AR) headsets are capable to provide holographic 3D guidance to assist CT-guided targeting. A prospective trial was performed assessing CT-guided lesion targeting on an abdominal phantom with and without AR guidance using HoloLens 2. Eight operators performed a cumulative total of 86 needle passes. Total needle redirections, radiation dose, procedure time, and puncture rates of nontargeted lesions were compared with and without AR. Mean number of needle passes to reach the target reduced from 7.4 passes without AR to 3.4 passes with AR (p = 0.011). Mean CT dose index decreased from 28.7 mGy without AR to 16.9 mGy with AR (p = 0.009). Mean procedure time reduced from 8.93 min without AR to 4.42 min with AR (p = 0.027). Puncture rate of a nontargeted lesion decreased from 11.9% without AR (7/59 passes) to 0% with AR (0/27 passes). First needle passes were closer to the ideal target trajectory with AR versus without AR (4.6° vs 8.0° offset, respectively, p = 0.018). AR reduced variability and elevated the performance of all operators to the same level irrespective of prior clinical experience. AR guidance can provide significant improvements in procedural efficiency and radiation dose savings for targeting out-of-plane lesions.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#12

 

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Description In gene expression analysis, sample differences and experimental operation differences are common, but sometimes, these differences will cause serious errors to the results or even make the results meaningless. Finding suitable internal reference genes efficiently to eliminate errors is a challenge. Aside from the need for high efficiency, there is no package for screening endogenous genes available in Python. Here, we introduce ERgene, a Python library for screening endogenous reference genes. It has extremely high computational efficiency and simple operation steps. The principle is based on the inverse process of the internal reference method, and the robust matrix block operation makes the selection of internal reference genes faster than any other method.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#13

 

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Description As the application of the direct printing method becomes diversified, printing on substrates with non-flat surfaces is increasingly required. However, printing on three-dimensional surfaces suffers from a number of difficulties, which include ink flow due to gravity, and the connection of print lines over sharp edges. This study presents an effective way to print a fine pattern (~ 30 μm) on three different faces with sharp edge boundaries. The method uses a deflectable and stretchable jet stream of conductive ink, which is produced by near-field electrospinning (NFES) technique. Due to added polymer in the ink, the jet stream from the nozzle is less likely to be disconnected, even when it is deposited over sharp edges of objects. As a practical industrial application, we demonstrate that the method can be effectively used for recent display applications, which require the connection of electrical signal and power on both sides of the glass. When the total length of printed lines along the ‘Π’ shaped glass surfaces was 1.2 mm, we could achieve the average resistance of 0.84 Ω.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#14

 

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Description Triterpenes are considered the major active components in Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. (C. asiatica), such as asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside, madecassoside and asiaticoside B. It is difficult to simultaneously determine five triterpenes because of madecassoside isomers (madecassoside and asiaticoside B), and the great polarity difference between triterpene acid and triterpene glycoside. In this study, a simple high performance liquid chromatography method with isocratic elution employing cyclodextrins (CDs) as the mobile phase additives was developed to determine five triterpenes in C. asiatica. Various factors affecting triterpenes retention in the C18 column, such as the nature of CDs, γ-CD concentration, acetonitrile percentage and temperature, were studied. Experimental results showed that γ-CD, as an effective mobile phase additive, could markedly reduce the retention of triterpenes (especially asiatic acid and madecassic acid), and improve the separation for madecassoside and asiaticoside B. The elution of five triterpenes could be achieved on an ODS C18 column within 30 min using the acetonitrile-0.2% phosphoric acid contained 4.0 mM γ-CD (20:80, v/v) mixture as the mobile phase. The retention modification of triterpenes may be attributed to the formation of the triterpenes-γ-CD inclusion complexes. The optimized method was successfully applied for simultaneous determination of five triterpenes in C. asiatica.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#15

 

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Description This study highlights the severity of the low snow water equivalent (SWE) and remarkably high temperatures in 2020 in Japan, where reductions in SWE have significant impacts on society due to its importance for water resources. A continuous 60-year land surface simulation forced by reanalysis data revealed that the low SWE in many river basins in the southern snowy region of mainland Japan are the most severe on record. The impact of the remarkably high temperatures in 2020 on the low SWE was investigated by considering the relationships among SWE, temperature, and precipitation. The main difference between the 2020 case and prior periods of low SWE is the record-breaking high temperatures. Despite the fact that SWE was the lowest in 2020, precipitation was much higher than that in 2019, which was one of the lowest SWE on record pre-2020. The results indicate the possibility that even more serious low-SWE periods will be caused if lower precipitation and higher temperatures occur simultaneously.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#16

 

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Description To determine the risk factors and unique characteristics of keratoconus (KC) progression after penetrating keratoplasty (PK), anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameters were statistically analyzed in comparison with eyes undergoing PK for other diseases as a control. Ninety-one eyes maintaining clear PK grafts for over 10 years were divided into 2 groups according to the primary indication for PK (KC vs Others groups). Corneal thinning indicators (inferior host thinnest corneal thickness/central corneal thickness [IHT/CCT], inferior graft thinnest corneal thickness/CCT [IGT/CCT]), were smaller whereas anterior chamber depth, and steepest corneal power (Ks), and maximum corneal power (Kmax) were larger in the KC group with statistical significance. Graft size, Kmax and Ks correlated with IHT/CCT and IGT/CCT in the KC group. These correlations were not detected in controls. Graft size and postoperative period were selected by multivariate regression analysis as factors for corneal ectatic changes in the KC group. In conclusion, KC eyes long after PK show inferior graft and host corneal thinning, and corneal protrusion. Corneal power parameters such as Kmax or Ks can be used to monitor KC progression after PK. A small graft might lead to KC progression after PK.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#17

 

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Description The aim of the study was to compare simultaneously recorded a NIR-T/BSS and NIRS signals from healthy volunteers. NIR-T/BSS is a device which give an ability to non-invasively detect and monitor changes in the subarachnoid space width (SAS). Experiments were performed on a group of 30 healthy volunteers (28 males and 2 females, age 30.8 ± 13.4 years, BMI = 24.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2). We analysed recorded signals using analysis methods based on wavelet transform (WT) for the wide frequency range from 0.0095 to 2 Hz. Despite the fact that both devices use a similar radiation source both signals are distinct from each other. We found statistically significant differences for WT amplitude spectra between both signals. Additionally, we showed different relationships of both signals to blood pressure. Collectively, based on the present findings and those of previous studies, we can conclude that the combination of NIR-T/BSS or NIRS signals and time–frequency analysis opens new frontiers in science, and give possibility to understand and diagnosis of various neurodegenerative and ageing related diseases to improve diagnostic procedures and patient prognosis.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#18

 

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Description Reliable and reproducible monitoring of the conformational state of therapeutic protein products remains an unmet technological need. This need is amplified by the increasing number of biosimilars entering the drug development pipeline as many branded biologics are reaching the end of their market exclusivity period. Availability of methods to better characterize protein conformation may improve detection of counterfit and unlicensed therapeutic proteins. In this study, we report the use of a set of modified DNA aptamers with enhanced chemical diversity to probe the conformational state of 12 recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) therapeutic protein products; one FDA-licensed rHuEPO originator biological product, three rHuEPO products that are approved for marketing in the US or EU as biosimilars, and eight rHuEPO products that are not approved for marketing in the US or EU. We show that several of these modified aptamers are able to distinguish rHuEPO reference products or approved biosimilars from non-licensed rHuEPO products on the basis of differences in binding kinetics and equilibrium affinity constants. These reagents exhibit sensitivity to the conformational integrity of various forms of rHuEPO and as such represent powerful, simple-to-use analytical tools to monitor the conformational integrity of therapeutic-proteins during manufacture and to screen for and identify both substandard and counterfeit products.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#19

 

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Description The ability to ablate a gene in a given tissue by generating a conditional knockout (cKO) is crucial for determining its function in the targeted tissue. Such tissue-specific ablation is even more critical when the gene’s conventional knockout (KO) is lethal, which precludes studying the consequences of its deletion in other tissues. Therefore, here we describe a successful strategy that generated a Matrix Gla floxed mouse (Mgp.floxed) by the CRISPR/Cas9 system, that subsequently allowed the generation of cKOs by local viral delivery of the Cre-recombinase enzyme. MGP is a well-established inhibitor of calcification gene, highly expressed in arteries’ smooth muscle cells and chondrocytes. MGP is also one of the most abundant genes in the trabecular meshwork, the eye tissue responsible for maintenance of intraocular pressure (IOP) and development of Glaucoma. Our strategy entailed one-step injection of two gRNAs, Cas9 protein and a long-single-stranded-circular DNA donor vector (lsscDNA, 6.7 kb) containing two loxP sites in cis and 900–700 bp 5′/3′ homology arms. Ocular intracameral injection of Mgp.floxed mice with a Cre-adenovirus, led to an Mgp.TMcKO mouse which developed elevated IOP. Our study discovered a new role for the Mgp gene as a keeper of physiological IOP in the eye.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#20

 

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Description This month, we celebrate the beauty and power of microscopy images.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#21

 

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Description X-ray holographic nano-tomography is a promising complement to electron microscopy for connectomics studies.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#22

 

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Description A single-cell approach to metabolomics links metabolic profiles to cellular identity.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#23

 

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Description Hydroethidine (HE) and hydropropidine ( $$hbox {HPr}^{+}$$ ) are fluorogenic probes used for the detection of the intra- and extracellular superoxide radical anion ( $$hbox {O}_{ {2}}^{ullet -}$$ ). In this study, we provide evidence that HE and $$hbox {HPr}^{+}$$ react rapidly with the biologically relevant radicals, including the hydroxyl radical, peroxyl radicals, the trioxidocarbonate radical anion, nitrogen dioxide, and the glutathionyl radical, via one-electron oxidation, forming the corresponding radical cations. At physiological pH, the radical cations of the probes react rapidly with $$hbox {O}_{ {2}}^{ullet -}$$ , leading to the specific 2-hydroxylated cationic products. We determined the rate constants of the reaction between $$hbox {O}_{ {2}}^{ullet -}$$ and the radical cations of the probes. We also synthesized N-methylated analogs of $$hbox {HPr}^{+}$$ and HE which were used in mechanistic studies. Methylation of the amine groups was not found to prevent the reaction between the radical cation of the probe and the superoxide, but it significantly increased the lifetime of the radical cation and had a substantial effect on the profiles of the oxidation products by inhibiting the formation of dimeric products. We conclude that the N-methylated analogs of HE and $$hbox {HPr}^{+}$$ may be used as a scaffold for the design of a new generation of probes for intra- and extracellular superoxide.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#24

 

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Description Dynamic axial focusing functionality has recently experienced widespread incorporation in microscopy, augmented/virtual reality (AR/VR), adaptive optics and material processing. However, the limitations of existing varifocal tools continue to beset the performance capabilities and operating overhead of the optical systems that mobilize such functionality. The varifocal tools that are the least burdensome to operate (e.g. liquid crystal, elastomeric or optofluidic lenses) suffer from low (≈100 Hz) refresh rates. Conversely, the fastest devices sacrifice either critical capabilities such as their dwelling capacity (e.g. acoustic gradient lenses or monolithic micromechanical mirrors) or low operating overhead (e.g. deformable mirrors). Here, we present a general-purpose random-access axial focusing device that bridges these previously conflicting features of high speed, dwelling capacity and lightweight drive by employing low-rigidity micromirrors that exploit the robustness of defocusing phase profiles. Geometrically, the device consists of an 8.2 mm diameter array of piston-motion and 48-μm-pitch micromirror pixels that provide 2π phase shifting for wavelengths shorter than 1100 nm with 10–90% settling in 64.8 μs (i.e., 15.44 kHz refresh rate). The pixels are electrically partitioned into 32 rings for a driving scheme that enables phase-wrapped operation with circular symmetry and requires <30 V per channel. Optical experiments demonstrated the array’s wide focusing range with a measured ability to target 29 distinct resolvable depth planes. Overall, the features of the proposed array offer the potential for compact, straightforward methods of tackling bottlenecked applications, including high-throughput single-cell targeting in neurobiology and the delivery of dense 3D visual information in AR/VR. A micromirror array capable of high-speed random-access axial processing could be used in various applications, including biological microscopy and augmented and virtual reality. Current approaches to dynamic axial focusing achieve focus tuning by deforming or reorienting optofluidic, elastomeric, or liquid crystal-based lens components. However, these technologies suffer from their lagging performance capabilities, which are increasingly apparent compared with accompanying optical components, especially lateral scanning tools used in conjunction with axial focusing for three-dimensional scanning. Led by Rikky Muller from the University of California, Berkeley, a team of American researchers has made a micromirror-based system with high-speed random-access axial focusing. The technology offers the potential for a compact device for applications such as single-cell targeting in neurobiology and the delivery of dense 3D visual information in augmented and virtual reality.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#25

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 October 2020

#26

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 28 October 2020

#27

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 28 October 2020

#28

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 28 October 2020

#29

 

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Description Riboflavin transporter 3 (RFVT3), encoded by the SLC52A3 gene, is important for riboflavin homeostasis in the small intestine, kidney, and placenta. Our previous study demonstrated that Slc52a3 knockout (Slc52a3−/−) mice exhibited neonatal lethality and metabolic disorder due to riboflavin deficiency. Here, we investigated the influence of Slc52a3 gene disruption on brain development using Slc52a3−/− embryos. Slc52a3−/− mice at postnatal day 0 showed hypoplasia of the brain and reduced thickness of cortical layers. At embryonic day 13.5, the formation of Tuj1+ neurons and Tbr2+ intermediate neural progenitors was significantly decreased; no significant difference was observed in the total number and proliferative rate of Pax6+ radial glia. Importantly, the hypoplastic phenotype was rescued upon riboflavin supplementation. Thus, it can be concluded that RFVT3 contributes to riboflavin homeostasis in embryos and that riboflavin itself is required during embryonic development of the cerebral cortex in mice.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 28 October 2020

#30

 

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Description We aimed to evaluate methods of extracting optical coherence tomography (OCT)-derived macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness measurements over retinal locations corresponding to standard visual field (VF) test grids. A custom algorithm was developed to automatically extract GCIPL thickness measurements from locations corresponding to Humphrey Field Analyser 10-2 and 30-2 test grids over Goldmann II, III and V stimulus sizes from a healthy cohort of 478 participants. Differences between GCIPL thickness measurements based on VF test grids (VF-based paradigms) and the 8 × 8 grid, as per instrument review software, were analyzed, as were impacts of fovea to optic disc tilt and areas over which GCIPL thickness measurements were extracted. Significant differences between the VF-based paradigms and the 8 × 8 grid were observed at up to 55% of locations across the macula, with the greatest deviations at the fovea (median 25.5 μm, 95% CI 25.24–25.72 μm, P < .0001). While significant correlations with fovea to optic disc tilt were noted at up to 33% of locations distributed 6°–8° from the foveal center, there were no marked differences in GCIPL thickness measurements between VF-based paradigms using different stimulus sizes. As such, standard high-density OCT measurement paradigms do not adequately reflect GCIPL measurements at retinal locations tested with standard VF patterns, with the central macular region contributing most to the observed differences and with further correction required for fovea to optic disc tilt. Spatial direction of GCIPL thickness measurements will improve future comparisons of structure and function, thereby improving methods designed to detect pathology affecting the inner retina.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 28 October 2020

#31

 

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Description In this cross-sectional study including 1150 eyes of 681 volunteers ≧ 65 years old without retinal pathology, factors affecting the progression of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) were investigated. PVD stages were diagnosed based on swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Linear mixed effect model was used to determine whether age, gender, diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), dyslipidemia (DL), and smoking status were associated with various stages of PVD. As a result, the multivariable analysis disclosed that the associations between older age and higher PVD stages (estimate [95% CI], 0.031 [0.020 to 0.042]; P < 0.0001), and current smokers and lower PVD stages (estimate [95% CI], − 0.24 [− 0.43 to − 0.056]; P = 0.011) were statistically significant. In contrast, female gender was not an independent factor affecting PVD stages in the elderly. Our analysis indicated that higher PVD stages observed in female eyes may be due to confounding effect, in which current smokers were predominantly males (i.e., 12.6% among males vs. 3.9% among females, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, our findings suggest that continuous smoking is associated with an adherent vitreoretinal interface in the elderly.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 28 October 2020

#32

 

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Description Declining atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, through reduction in the direct input of inorganic N, may result in less inorganic N being leached from soils to freshwaters (dissolved inorganic N = DIN). Declining sulphur deposition, through reducing the ionic strength in soil water, increases the solubility and mobility of organic soil compounds and may result in increased leaching of organically bound N to freshwaters (total organic N = TON). It is unknown to which extent these two independents and opposing trends, i.e. DIN decline versus TON increase, may affect the nutrient balance (load, stoichiometry) of river water draining into coastal zones. By combining long-term atmospheric and riverine monitoring data of the five major Norwegian rivers draining to the Skagerrak coast, we show that over the past 27 years (1990–2017) river water nutrient composition, and specifically N stoichiometry has been steadily shifting from inorganic to organic fractions, with correlations to changes in human pressures (air pollution), but especially climate (precipitation, temperature, discharge). This shift in nutrient quality may have large consequences on the nutrient cycling in both freshwater and coastal ecosystems and illustrates the complex interactions of multiple stressors (here: N deposition, S deposition, and climate change) on aquatic ecosystems.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 28 October 2020

#33

 

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Description Although the rapid urease test (RUT) is a simple method for detecting Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, it requires sufficient biopsy samples and its sensitivity varies depending on the site and condition of H. pylori infection. We compared the diagnostic performance of a “sweeping method” for H. pylori detection with the conventional biopsy sampling method in atrophic gastric conditions which can reduce RUT accuracy. This prospective study included 279 patients who underwent upper endoscopy to determine the presence of H. pylori infection. Gastric mucosa of both the antrum and the corpus were swabbed, and we named this method the “sweeping method”. Biopsy sampling for the conventional method, histologic evaluation, and polymerase chain reaction were performed at the same time. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the sweeping method were 0.941, 0.826, and 0.903, respectively, compared to 0.685, 0.859, and 0.742, respectively, for the conventional biopsy method. The area under the receiver operating curve for the sweeping method was 0.884 versus 0.772 for the conventional method (P < 0.001). The sweeping method had a faster detection time than the conventional method. Compared to conventional biopsy sampling, the sweeping method with the RUT provided higher sensitivity and accuracy for the detection of H. pylori, with a faster detection time.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 28 October 2020

#34

 

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Description Copper is a crucial trace element for all living systems and any deficiency in copper homeostasis leads to the development of severe diseases in humans. The observation of extensive evolutionary conservation in copper homeostatic systems between human and Saccharomyces cerevisiae made this organism a suitable model organism for elucidating molecular mechanisms of copper transport and homeostasis. In this study, the dynamic transcriptional response of both the reference strain and homozygous deletion mutant strain of CCC2, which encodes a Cu2+-transporting P-type ATPase, were investigated following the introduction of copper impulse to reach a copper concentration which was shown to improve the respiration capacity of CCC2 deletion mutants. The analysis of data by using different clustering algorithms revealed significantly affected processes and pathways in response to a switch from copper deficient environment to elevated copper levels. Sulfur compound, methionine and cysteine biosynthetic processes were identified as significantly affected processes for the first time in this study. Stress response, cellular response to DNA damage, iron ion homeostasis, ubiquitin dependent proteolysis, autophagy and regulation of macroautophagy, DNA repair and replication, as well as organization of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV, mitochondrial organization and translation were identified as significantly affected processes in only CCC2 deleted strain. The integration of the transcriptomic data with regulome revealed the differences in the extensive re-wiring of dynamic transcriptional organization and regulation in these strains.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 28 October 2020

#35

 

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Description Trapped molecular ions in pure rovibronic states are desirable in experiments ranging from cold chemistry to searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation (REMPI) can be used to prepare molecular ions in specific internal states with high fidelities. However, in the presence of electric fields, ionisation spectra exhibit frequency shifts and the ionisation thresholds are broadened. For this reason, REMPI studies are normally conducted in low and highly homogeneous electric fields, whereas the operating principle of rf ion traps requires electric fields that vary in space and time. In order to investigate the impact of this on the state-selectivity of REMPI in ion traps, we have simulated the expected broadening of the ionisation threshold under various operating conditions of a typical linear Paul trap. In many cases, the width of the ionisation threshold exceeds the separation between rotational energy levels, preventing state-selective ionisation. Careful choice of the trapping and laser parameters during loading can reduce this broadening, enabling state-selective ionisation in some instances. Where this strategy is not sufficient, the broadening can be reduced further by rapidly switching the trapping voltages off and on again during loading. This has been demonstrated experimentally for a Coulomb crystal of $$^{40}hbox {Ca}^+$$ ions without descrystallising it.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 28 October 2020

#36

 

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Name
Description Several studies highlighted the role of insula on several functions and in sexual behavior. This exploratory study examines the relationships among genital responses, brain responses, and eye movements, to disentangle the role played by the anterior and posterior insula during different stages of male sexual response and during visual attention to sexual stimuli. In 19 healthy men, fMRI, eye movement, and penile tumescence data were collected during a visual sexual stimulation task. After a whole-brain analysis comparing neutral and sexual clips and confirming a role for the bilateral insulae, we selected two bilateral seed regions in anterior and posterior insula for functional connectivity analysis. Single-ROI-GLMs were run for the FC target regions. Single-ROI-GLMs were performed based on areas to which participants fixate: “Faces”, “Genitals,” and “Background” with the contrast “Genitals > Faces”. Single-ROI-GLMs with baseline, onset, and sustained PT response for the sexual clips were performed. We found stronger effects for the posterior than the anterior insula. In the target regions of the posterior insula, we found three different pathways: the first involved in visual attention, onset of erection, and sustained erection; the second involved only in the onset of erection, and the third limited to sustained erection.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 28 October 2020

#37

 

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Name
Description Jade, which is one of the most characteristic materials constituting Chinese artifacts, signifies cultural differences between ancient Chinese and western civilizations. One of the most important typical characteristics of ancient jade artifacts recovered through archeological excavations is color alterations due to human activity and natural weathering, which has led to an area of intensive research in archeology. “Alteration” refers to chemical component and structural changes in jade artifacts caused by human activity and natural weathering, which is different from the term in geology. In this study, Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze six color alterations on ancient jade artifacts unearthed from the Jinsha Site in Sichuan Province, a region famous for artifacts with colorful alterations. The colorful alterations were observed to originate from corrosion products of bronzeware. The green, black, yellow, blue, purple, and white alterations were due to malachite, tenorite, pyromorphite, azurite, diaboleite, and cassiterite, respectively. Meanwhile, organic matter and hypertoxic arsenolite were first found on ancient jade artifacts.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 28 October 2020

#38

 

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Name
Description In contrast with the classical dogma that the pathways generating either memory or ‘exhausted’ T cells are strictly segregated, data now identify a clonally distinct hybrid memory T cell subpopulation with an exhausted phenotype.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 28 October 2020

#39

 

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Name
Description On 12 November 2014, the Philae lander descended towards comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, bounced twice off the surface, then arrived under an overhanging cliff in the Abydos region. The landing process provided insights into the properties of a cometary nucleus1–3. Here we report an investigation of the previously undiscovered site of the second touchdown, where Philae spent almost two minutes of its cross-comet journey, producing four distinct surface contacts on two adjoining cometary boulders. It exposed primitive water ice—that is, water ice from the time of the comet’s formation 4.5 billion years ago—in their interiors while travelling through a crevice between the boulders. Our multi-instrument observations made 19 months later found that this water ice, mixed with ubiquitous dark organic-rich material, has a local dust/ice mass ratio of $${2.3}_{-0.16}^{+0.2}:1$$, matching values previously observed in freshly exposed water ice from outbursts4 and water ice in shadow5,6. At the end of the crevice, Philae made a 0.25-metre-deep impression in the boulder ice, providing in situ measurements confirming that primitive ice has a very low compressive strength (less than 12 pascals, softer than freshly fallen light snow) and allowing a key estimation to be made of the porosity (75 ± 7 per cent) of the boulders’ icy interiors. Our results provide constraints for cometary landers seeking access to a volatile-rich ice sample. When the Philae lander bounced on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, it exposed primitive icy-dust material within cometary boulders; the intrinsic strength and porosity of this material is reported.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 28 October 2020

#40

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 28 October 2020

#41

 

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Name
Description

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 28 October 2020

#42

 

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Name
Description The Stone theorem requires that in a physical Hilbert space $${{{mathcal {H}}}}$$ the time-evolution of a stable quantum system is unitary if and only if the corresponding Hamiltonian H is self-adjoint. Sometimes, a simpler picture of the evolution may be constructed in a manifestly unphysical Hilbert space $${{{mathcal {K}}}}$$ in which H is nonhermitian but $${{mathcal {PT}}}$$ -symmetric. In applications, unfortunately, one only rarely succeeds in circumventing the key technical obstacle which lies in the necessary reconstruction of the physical Hilbert space $${{{mathcal {H}}}}$$ . For a $${{mathcal {PT}}}$$ -symmetric version of the spiked harmonic oscillator we show that in the dynamical regime of the unavoided level crossings such a reconstruction of $${{{mathcal {H}}}}$$ becomes feasible and, moreover, obtainable by non-numerical means. The general form of such a reconstruction of $${{{mathcal {H}}}}$$ enables one to render every exceptional unavoided-crossing point tractable as a genuine, phenomenologically most appealing quantum-phase-transition instant.

#Theoretical sciences;#Hardware & Devices
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 28 October 2020

#43

 

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Name
Description This research investigates the heat and mass transfer in 3-D MHD radiative flow of water based hybrid nanofluid over an extending sheet by employing the strength of numerical computing based Lobatto IIIA method. Nanoparticles of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and silver (Ag) are being used with water (H2O) as base fluid. By considering the heat transfer phenomenon due to thermal radiation effects. The physical flow problem is then modeled into set of PDEs, which are then transmuted into equivalent set of nonlinear ODEs by utilizing the appropriate similarity transformations. The system of ODEs is solved by the computational strength of Lobatto IIIA method to get the various graphical and numerical results for analyzing the impact of various physical constraints on velocity and thermal profiles. Additionally, the heat transfers and skin friction analysis for the fluid flow dynamics is also investigated. The relative errors up to the accuracy level of 1e-15, established the worth and reliability of the computational technique. It is observed that heat transfer rate increases with the increase in magnetic effect, Biot number and rotation parameter.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 28 October 2020

#44

 

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Name
Description Layered Delafossite-type Lix(M1M2M3M4M5…Mn)O2 materials, a new class of high-entropy oxides, were synthesized by nebulized spray pyrolysis and subsequent high-temperature annealing. Various metal species (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Al, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ti, Zr, Cu) could be incorporated into this structure type, and in most cases, single-phase oxides were obtained. Delafossite structures are well known and the related materials are used in different fields of application, especially in electrochemical energy storage (e.g., LiNixCoyMnzO2 [NCM]). The transfer of the high-entropy concept to this type of materials and the successful structural replication enabled the preparation of novel compounds with unprecedented properties. Here, we report on the characterization of a series of Delafossite-type high-entropy oxides by means of TEM, SEM, XPS, ICP-OES, Mössbauer spectroscopy, XRD including Rietveld refinement analysis, SAED and STEM mapping and discuss about the role of entropy stabilization. Our experimental data indicate the formation of uniform solid-solution structures with some Li/M mixing.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 28 October 2020

#45

 

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Name
Description Designing electrocatalysts with high-performance for both reduction and oxidation reactions faces severe challenges. Here, the uniform and ultrasmall (~3.4 nm) high-entropy alloys (HEAs) Pt18Ni26Fe15Co14Cu27 nanoparticles are synthesized by a simple low-temperature oil phase strategy at atmospheric pressure. The Pt18Ni26Fe15Co14Cu27/C catalyst exhibits excellent electrocatalytic performance for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). The catalyst shows ultrasmall overpotential of 11 mV at the current density of 10 mA cm−2, excellent activity (10.96 A mg−1Pt at −0.07 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode) and stability in the alkaline medium. Furthermore, it is also the efficient catalyst (15.04 A mg−1Pt) ever reported for MOR in alkaline solution. Periodic DFT calculations confirm the multi-active sites for both HER and MOR on the HEA surface as the key factor for both proton and intermediate transformation. Meanwhile, the construction of HEA surfaces supplies the fast site-to-site electron transfer for both reduction and oxidation processes. The design of nanostructured catalysts plays a key role in the electrocatalytic redox reaction performances. Here, authors prepared uniform and small-sized high-entropy alloy PtNiFeCoCu nanoparticles that showed improved activities for H2 evolution methanol oxidation reactions.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 28 October 2020

#46

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 27 October 2020

#47

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 27 October 2020

#48

 

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Name
Description Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), containing C8–C12 fatty acids, are used to treat several pediatric disorders and are widely consumed as a nutritional supplement. Here, we investigated the role of the sirtuin deacylase Sirt5 in MCT metabolism by feeding Sirt5 knockout mice (Sirt5KO) high-fat diets containing either C8/C10 fatty acids or coconut oil, which is rich in C12, for five weeks. Coconut oil, but not C8/C10 feeding, induced periportal macrovesicular steatosis in Sirt5KO mice. 14C–C12 degradation was significantly reduced in Sirt5KO liver. This decrease was localized to the mitochondrial β-oxidation pathway, as Sirt5KO mice exhibited no change in peroxisomal C12 β-oxidation. Endoplasmic reticulum ω-oxidation, a minor fatty acid degradation pathway known to be stimulated by C12 accumulation, was increased in Sirt5KO liver. Mice lacking another mitochondrial C12 oxidation enzyme, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD), also developed periportal macrovesicular steatosis when fed coconut oil, confirming that defective mitochondrial C12 oxidation is sufficient to induce the steatosis phenotype. Sirt5KO liver exhibited normal LCAD activity but reduced mitochondrial acyl-CoA synthetase activity with C12. These studies reveal a role for Sirt5 in regulating the hepatic response to MCT and may shed light into the pathogenesis of periportal steatosis, a hallmark of human pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 27 October 2020

#49

 

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Name
Description Image-guided cochlear implant surgery is expected to reduce volume of mastoidectomy, accelerate recovery, and improve safety. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and effectiveness of image-guided cochlear implant surgery by a non-invasive registration method, in a cadaveric study. We developed a visual positioning frame that can utilize the maxillary dentition as a registration tool and completed the tunnels experiment on 5 cadaver specimens (8 cases in total). The accuracy of the entry point and the target point were 0.471 ± 0.276 mm and 0.671 ± 0.268 mm, respectively. The shortest distance from the margin of the tunnel to the facial nerve and the ossicular chain were 0.790 ± 0.709 mm and 1.960 ± 0.630 mm, respectively. All facial nerves, tympanic membranes, and ossicular chains were completely preserved. Using this approach, high accuracy was achieved in this preliminary study, suggesting that the non-invasive registration method can meet the accuracy requirements for cochlear implant surgery. Based on the above accuracy, we speculate that our method can also be applied to neurosurgery, orbitofacial surgery, lateral skull base surgery, and anterior skull base surgery with satisfactory accuracy.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 27 October 2020

#50

 

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Name
Description Surface color results from a reflected light bounced off a material, such as a paper. By contrast, self-luminous color results directly from an emitting light, such as a Liquid Crystal (LC) display. These are completely different mechanisms, and thus, surface color and self-luminous color cannot be matched even though both have identical tristimulus values. In fact, previous research has reported that metameric color matching fails among diverse media. However, the reason for this failure remains unclear. In the present study, we created isomeric color-matching pairs between self-luminous and surface colors by modulating the spectral distribution of the light for surface colors. Then, we experimentally verified whether such color matching can be performed. The results show that isomeric color matching between self-luminous and surface colors can be performed for all participants. However, metameric color matching fails for most participants, indicating that differences in the spectral distributions rather than the different color-generating mechanisms themselves are the reason for the color matching failure between different devices. We experimentally demonstrated that there is no essential problem in cross-media color matching by generating isomeric pairs. Our results can be considered to be of great significance not only for color science, but also for the color industry.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 27 October 2020

#51

 

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Name
Description Dendrite formation, which could cause a battery short circuit, occurs in batteries that contain lithium metal anodes. In order to suppress dendrite growth, the use of electrolytes with a high shear modulus is suggested as an ionic conductive separator in batteries. One promising candidate for this application is Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) because it has excellent mechanical properties and chemical stability. In this work, in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique was employed to monitor the interface behavior between lithium metal and LLZO electrolyte during cycling with pressure. Using the obtained SEM images, videos were created that show the inhomogeneous dissolution and deposition of lithium, which induce dendrite growth. The energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses of dendrites indicate the presence of Li, C, and O elements. Moreover, the cross-section mapping comparison of the LLZO shows the inhomogeneous distribution of La, Zr, and C after cycling that was caused by lithium loss near the Li electrode and possible side reactions. This work demonstrates the morphological and chemical evolution that occurs during cycling in a symmetrical Li–Li cell that contains LLZO. Although the superior mechanical properties of LLZO make it an excellent electrolyte candidate for batteries, the further improvement of the electrochemical stabilization of the garnet–lithium metal interface is suggested.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 27 October 2020

#52

 

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Name
Description During the summer of 2017, recurrent extensive blooms of the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium invaded the beaches and coastal waters of the Canary Islands, causing great social alarm. Some local media and public sectors ascribed, without any strong scientific evidence, the origin and reactivation of these blooms to untreated sewage outfalls distributed along the coasts. In order to test whether sewage outfalls could have any influence on the metabolic activity of Trichodesmium, we performed 13C and 15N2 uptake experiments with colonies experiencing three different bloom development stages, incubated both with clear seawater and sewage water from an outfall south of Gran Canaria island. Our results showed that sewage outfalls did not promote any increase in dinitrogen (N2) fixation in Trichodesmium, supporting the hypothesis that decaying blooms were generated offshore and transported shoreward by local currents and winds, accumulating mostly leeward of the islands. The combination of unusually warm seawater temperatures, enhanced and sustained stratification of the upper water column and recurrent dust deposition events would have favored the development of the Trichodesmium blooms, which lasted for at least four months.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 27 October 2020

#53

 

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Name
Description Porous three-dimensional hydrogel scaffolds have an exquisite ability to promote tissue repair. However, because of their high water content and invasive nature during surgical implantation, hydrogels are at an increased risk of bacterial infection. Recently, we have developed elastic biomimetic cryogels, an advanced type of polymeric hydrogel, that are syringe-deliverable through hypodermic needles. These needle-injectable cryogels have unique properties, including large and interconnected pores, mechanical robustness, and shape-memory. Like hydrogels, cryogels are also susceptible to colonization by microbial pathogens. To that end, our minimally invasive cryogels have been engineered to address this challenge. Specifically, we hybridized the cryogels with calcium peroxide microparticles to controllably produce bactericidal hydrogen peroxide. Our novel microcomposite cryogels exhibit antimicrobial properties and inhibit antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), the most common cause of biomaterial implant failure in modern medicine. Moreover, the cryogels showed negligible cytotoxicity toward murine fibroblasts and prevented activation of primary bone marrow-derived dendritic cells ex vivo. Finally, in vivo data suggested tissue integration, biodegradation, and minimal host inflammatory responses when the antimicrobial cryogels, even when purposely contaminated with bacteria, were subcutaneously injected in mice. Collectively, these needle-injectable microcomposite cryogels show great promise for biomedical applications, especially in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 27 October 2020

#54

 

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Name
Description A nanocomposite material characterized by peroxidase-like properties was developed through the dispersion of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) inside a hydrogelic matrix. The integration of the PtNP catalysts within the matrix resulted in their stabilization, preventing aggregation and precipitation in media of environmental interest, characterized by high ionic strength and by the presence of organic solutes. A thorough optimization of the matrix design was aimed at granting optimal diffusion of the reagents, in order to maintain the efficiency of the catalytic action. Such combined features allowed the implementation and prototyping of a colorimetric method for the detection of mercury in environmental water samples. The assay was based on a chromogenic reaction catalyzed by the peroxidase-like activity of PtNPs and its specific inhibition caused by trace amounts of mercury.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 27 October 2020

#55

 

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Name
Description Sex steroids, such as estrogens and androgens, are important regulators of the humoral immune response. Studies in female mice have demonstrated that alteration of circulating estrogen concentration regulates antibody-mediated immunity. As males have normally little endogenous estrogen, we hypothesized that in males high estrogens and low androgens affect the immune system and enhance the allergic inflammatory response. Here, we studied transgenic male mice expressing human aromatase (AROM+). These animals have a high circulating estrogen to androgen ratio (E/A), causing female traits such as gynecomastia. We found that AROM+ male mice had significantly higher plasma immunoglobulin levels, particularly IgE. Flow cytometry analyses of splenocytes revealed changes in mature/immature B cell ratio together with a transcriptional upregulation of the Igh locus. Furthermore, higher proliferation rate and increased IgE synthesis after IgE class-switching was found. Subsequently, we utilized an ovalbumin airway challenge model to test the allergic response in AROM+ male mice. In line with above observations, an increase in IgE levels was measured, albeit no impact on immune cell infiltration into the lungs was detected. Together, our findings suggest that high circulating E/A in males significantly alters B cell function without any significant enhancement in allergic inflammation.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 27 October 2020

#56

 

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Name
Description

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 27 October 2020

#57

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 26 October 2020

#58

 

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Name
Description To objectively analyze the gas tamponade area in patients with different concentrations of perfluoropropane (C3F8) after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), retrospective analysis was performed in patients diagnosed with retinal detachment or macular hole and underwent PPV with C3F8 tamponade of two concentrations (14% and 20%). The ultra-widefield fundus (UWF) images at one and 10 days and four weeks postoperatively were corrected using stereographic projection to adjust peripheral distortion. The gas–fluid interface curvatures were delineated using UWF stereographic projection images, and the gas–fluid area ratio and estimated gas area were calculated at each concentration. Among 65 eyes, 30 were in the 14% group and 35 were in the 20% group. The gas–fluid area ratio was 0.71 in the 14% group and 0.83 in the 20% group at 10 days (p = 0.046) and 0.27 and 0.45, respectively, at four weeks postoperatively (p < 0.001). The estimated gas area was 52.56 and 60.82 mm2 at 10 days (p = 0.025) and 19.83 and 33.86 mm2 at four weeks (p < 0.001). The gas tamponade areas were objectively shown to be greater under the 20% concentration than the 14% concentration of C3F8 at 10 days and 4 weeks postoperatively using UWF stereographic projection images.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 26 October 2020

#59

 

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Name
Description Desflurane is one of the most frequently used inhalational anesthetics in clinical practice. A circadian rhythm phase-shift after general anesthesia with sevoflurane or isoflurane has been reported in mice, but few studies have reported this effect with desflurane. In the present study, we examined the rest/activity rhythm of mice by counting the number of running wheel rotations, and we found that desflurane anesthesia caused a phase shift in the circadian rhythm that was dependent on the time of day of anesthesia. We also found that desflurane anesthesia altered the relative mRNA expression of four major clock genes (Per2, Bmal, Clock, and Cry1) in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). These results are important for elucidating the effects of desflurane on the SCN, which is the master clock for the mammalian circadian rhythm. Further studies on the relationship between anesthesia and circadian rhythm may lead to the prevention and treatment of postoperative complications related to circadian rhythms.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 26 October 2020

#60

 

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Name
Description The demand for advanced interconnects to satisfy market requirements on bandwidth, cost, and power is ever increasing with the expansion of data centers. An interconnect called E-TUBE is presented as a cost-and-power-efficient all-electrical-domain wideband waveguide solution for high-speed high-volume short-reach communication links. The E-TUBE achieves an unprecedented level of throughput-distance product, bending radius, and channel density without requiring complex manufacturing process. The E-TUBE link demonstrates nearly 25 GHz bandwidth at a carrier frequency of 70 GHz and exhibits a frequency-independent insertion loss of 5 dB/m with a frequency-independent group delay of 4 ns/m. Such loss and delay characteristics independent of frequency enabled broadband data transmission over extended reach compared to conventional waveguide links. The E-TUBE link transmits 25 Gbps NRZ data over 3 m distance using a 70 GHz RF CMOS transceiver IC, which is the state-of-the-art throughput-reach product. This new interconnect is expected to overcome the limitations of existing electrical and optical interconnects and to replace them in high throughput links, including but not limited to, 100/400 Gbps board-to-board communications.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 26 October 2020

#61

 

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Name
Description Camphor is an aromatic terpene compound found in the essential oils of many plants, which has been used for centuries as a herbal medicine, especially in children. However, many studies have shown that camphor may have major side effects, including neurological manifestation, such as seizures. In the present study, we investigated the electrocorticographic patterns of seizures induced by camphor in male adult Wistar rats. Each rat received 400 mg/kg (i.p.) of camphor prior to monitoring by electrocorticography. The application of camphor resulted a rapid evolution to seizure and marked changes in the electrocorticographic readings, which presented characteristics of epileptiform activity, with an increase in the total power wave. The decomposition of the cerebral waves revealed an increase in the delta and theta waves. The analysis of the camphor traces revealed severe ictal activity marked by an increase in the polyspike wave. Our data thus indicate that camphor may cause seizures, leading to tonic–clonic seizures. Clearly, further studies are necessary to better elucidate the mechanisms through which camphor acts on the brain, and to propose potential treatments with anticonvulsant drugs that are effective for the control of the seizures.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 26 October 2020

#62

 

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Name
Description The bound states in the continuum (BICs) have been investigated by simulating the optical reflectivity of a tri-layer photonic crystal slab. We found that optical BICs can occur in a class of photonic crystal systems with $$c_{1}^{z}$$ , $$c_{2}^{z}$$ or $$c_{4}^{z}$$ rotational symmetries, which are constructed by three identical photonic crystal slabs. By applying the two mode coupled model, we obtain the reflectivity formula to fit the numerical data and evaluate the lifetime of radiation decay. In vicinity of BIC, the lifetime diverges as a power law form, when approaching the BIC point. The infinity life time of $$c_{1}^{z} { ext{ } - ext{ BIC}}$$ in the tri-layer structure indicate that it is a true BIC. The $$c_{1}^{z} { ext{ } - ext{ BIC}}$$ occurs robustly in tri-layer structures, but the resonance frequency of the BICs is dependent on the permittivity of slab, air-hole size and hole shape.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 26 October 2020

#63

 

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Name
Description The failed macular hole is a full-thickness defect involving the fovea that fails to close despite 1 or more surgeries. While many surgical options have been proposed to manage it, none of these guarantee complete anatomical success and satisfactory visual recovery. We report postoperative outcomes on 36 patients affected by failed macular hole, treated with a human amniotic membrane plug transplant. Follow-ups were performed with a standard ophthalmological examination and with advanced multimodal diagnostic imaging. Anatomical closure was achieved at 3 months in all patients. Mean best-corrected visual acuity improved statistically significantly at 6 months (p < 0.05). Through microperimetric tests, we assessed a partial recovery of the macular sensitivity on the edges of the plug. Analyzing SD-OCT images, we reported a tissutal ingrowth above the plug, and its segmentation into layers, mimicking normal retinal architecture. OCT-Angiography images non invasively analysed the retinal parafoveal capillary microvasculature; the elaboration of Adaptive Optics images showed the presence of photoreceptors at the edges of the plug. This work demonstrates not only the complete anatomical success of our technique, but also remarkable functional results, and opens the door to a greater understanding of modifications induced by the presence of a human amniotic membrane plug.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 26 October 2020

#64

 

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Name
Description In this paper, twelve 1,3-dinitrohexahydropyrimidine-based energetic compounds were designed by introducing various explosopheres into hexahydropyrimidine skeleton. Their geometric and electronic structures, heats of formation (HOFs), energetic performance, thermal stability and impact sensitivity were discussed. It is found that the incorporation of electron-withdrawing groups (–NO2, –NHNO2, –N3, –CH(NO2)2, –CF(NO2)2, –C(NO2)3) improves HOFs of the derivatives and all the substituents contribute to enhancing the densities and detonation properties (D, P) of the title compounds. Therein, the substitution of –C(NO2)3 features the best energetic performance with detonation velocity of 9.40 km s−1 and detonation pressure of 40.20 GPa. An analysis of the bond dissociation energies suggests that N–NO2 bond may be the initial site in the thermal decompositions for most of the derivatives. Besides, –ONO2 and –NF2 derivatives stand out with lower impact sensitivity. Characters with striking detonation properties (D = 8.62 km s−1, P = 35.08 GPa; D = 8.81 km s−1, P = 34.88 GPa), good thermal stability, and acceptable impact sensitivity (characteristic height H50 over 34 cm) lead novel compounds 5,5-difluoramine-1,3-dinitrohexahydropyrimidine (K) and 5-fluoro-1,3,5-trinitrohexahydropyrimidine (L) to be very promising energetic materials. This work provides the theoretical molecular design and a reasonable synthetic route of L for further experimental synthesis and testing.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 26 October 2020

#65

 

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Name
Description In this work, we show an obvious evidence of nondestructive Raman spectra for the structural transition, i.e., the existence of a charge density wave (CDW) in monolayer 2H-TaS2, which can exhibit a much higher transition temperature than bulk and results in additional vibrational modes, indicating strong interactions with light. Furthermore, we reveal that the degenerate breath and wiggle modes of 2H-TaS2 originated from the periodic lattice distortion can be probed using the optical methods. Since recently several light-tunable devices have been proposed based on the CDW phase transition of 1 T-TaS2, our study and in particular, the theoretical results will be very helpful for understanding and designing electronic devices based on the CDW of 2H-TaS2.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 26 October 2020

#66

 

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Name
Description This study investigated shear strength behaviour of compacted sand–clay mixtures used as liners, with 10%, 20%, and 30% clay contents. A natural high-plasticity and highly expansive clay found in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia was used. A series of consolidated undrained triaxial tests and pore water pressure measurements of saturated samples with various clay contents and confining pressures was conducted using a computer-controlled Bishop and Wesley triaxial cell. The unit was equipped with pressure volume controllers and a pressure transducer for measuring sample volume changes and excess pore water pressure. The experimental test results indicate that clay content and confining pressure significantly affect stress strain response curves, pore water pressure generation curves, and steady-state shear strength. Sand–clay mixtures with clay content less than 10% showed a tendency toward contractive behaviour. The failure line slope increased in accordance with clay content increase. The deviator stress versus axial strain of saturated sand–clay mixtures indicated a hyperbolic trend. The stress ratio versus axial strain representation was more informative for the shear strength behaviour assessment. Clay content did not significantly affect critical-state friction angle. Scanning electron microscope images of the sand-clay mixtures with different clay contents are presented.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 26 October 2020

#67

 

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Description Transport of mesoscale particles due to driving flow fields or external forces on a periodic surface appears in many areas. Geometrical and physical characteristics of particles affect the velocities of the particles in these periodic landscapes. In this paper, we present a numerical simulation based on solving the Langevin equation for the meso-size particles subjected to the thermal fluctuations in a periodic array of optical traps. We consider the real-size particles which cause the partial trapping of particles in the optical traps. The particles are sorted for the size-dependency of particles’ trajectories. Our results are in good agreement with experiments.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 26 October 2020

#68

 

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Name
Description The myristoylated zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP), which was originally developed as a protein kinase C/Mζ (PKCζ/PKMζ) inhibitor, is known to produce the loss of different forms of memories. However, ZIP induces memory loss even in the absence of PKMζ, and its mechanism of action, therefore, remains elusive. Here, through a kinome-wide screen, we found that glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) was robustly activated by ZIP in vitro. ZIP induced depotentiation (a cellular substrate of memory erasure) of conditioning-induced potentiation at LA synapses, and the ZIP-induced depotentiation was prevented by a GSK-3β inhibitor, 6-bromoindirubin-3-acetoxime (BIO-acetoxime). Consistently, GSK-3β inhibition by BIO-acetoxime infusion or GSK-3β knockdown by GSK-3β shRNA in the LA attenuated ZIP-induced disruption of learned fear. Furthermore, conditioned fear was decreased by expression of a non-inhibitable form of GSK-3β in the LA. Our findings suggest that GSK-3β activation is a critical step for ZIP-induced disruption of memory.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 26 October 2020

#69

 

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Description Four selected advance lines of drought-tolerant leafy vegetable amaranth were characterized for phenolic profiles, vitamins, and antioxidant activities. The selected advance lines exhibited differences in terms of genotypes with remarkable phenols, vitamins, flavonoids content, and potential radical quenching capacity. We identified twenty-five phenolic and flavonoid compounds including protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, gentisic acid, gallic acid, β-resorcylic acid, vanillic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, kaempferol, m-coumaric acid, trans-cinnamic acid, quercetin, p-coumaric acid, apigenin, caffeic acid, rutin, sinapic acid, isoquercetin, naringenin, myricetin, catechin, and hyperoside. The selected advance lines VA14 and VA16 had abundant phenols, vitamins, flavonoids, and antioxidants potentiality. The selected drought-tolerant leafy vegetable amaranth showed high antioxidant potentiality as phenols, vitamins, flavonoids of these lines had a significant positive correlation with antioxidant capacities equivalent to Trolox using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ABTS+. Therefore, drought-tolerant leafy vegetable amaranth VA14 and VA16 can be grown in semi-arid and drought-prone areas in the world to attaining vitamins and antioxidant sufficiency. The phenolic and flavonoids compounds identified in drought-tolerant leafy vegetable amaranth demand a comprehensive pharmacological study. The baseline data on phenolic and flavonoids compounds obtained in the present study will contribute to the scientist forum for the scientific evaluation of these compounds in vegetable amaranth.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 26 October 2020

#70

 

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Description Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is a common choroidal vascular disease particularly in Asians. However, the underlying pathogenesis of PCV is still yet to be fully elucidated, and the correlation between choroidal vasculature and treatment response of PCV are poorly understood. Accordingly, we sought to find clues to understand the pathogenesis and prognosis of PCV by quantitatively evaluating choroidal vasculature from the entire fundus using ultra-widefield (UWF) indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). In this study, 32 eyes from 29 patients with treatment naïve PCV and 30 eyes from 30 healthy control participants were enrolled. Choroidal vascular density (CVD) of PCV eyes was higher than normal eyes in majority regions including the periphery. CVD was positively correlated with choroidal thickness and choroidal hyperpermeability, supporting that the pathogenesis of PCV may include choroidal congestion and dilatation. Thicker choroid and higher CVD were also correlated with poor treatment response after anti-VEGF injections. The CVD, quantified from UWF ICGA can also be used as an effective image biomarker to predict the treatment response in PCV.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 26 October 2020

#71

 

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Description

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 26 October 2020

#72

 

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Description

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 26 October 2020

#73

 

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Description There are many challenges in finding an effective, long-lasting and universal cure for the whole cohort of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The discovery of H19 lncRNA as a stabiliser of dystrophin may prove to be the missing link to the success of various rescue therapies proposed for treating DMD.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 26 October 2020

#74

 

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Description Mothers and fathers contribute equally to the early embryonic transcriptome in plants, but the full extent of parental control of embryogenesis is unknown. Now it has been reported that expression of parental alleles can vary across cell types.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 26 October 2020

#75

 

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Description 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) has emerged as a signalling molecule in its own right, regulating distinct plant processes independently from its conversion to ethylene. Now it seems that ACC signalling has been steering plant development for hundreds of millions of years, predating the diversification of seed plants.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 26 October 2020

#76

 

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Description Complex organic molecules are of great importance to research and industrial chemistry and typically synthesized from smaller building blocks by multistep reactions. The ability to perform multiple (distinct) transformations in a single reactor would greatly reduce the number of manipulations required for chemical manufacturing, and hence the development of multifunctional catalysts for such one-pot reactions is highly desirable. Here we report the synthesis of a hierarchically porous framework, in which the macropores are selectively functionalized with a sulfated zirconia solid acid coating, while the mesopores are selectively functionalized with MgO solid base nanoparticles. Active site compartmentalization and substrate channelling protects base-catalysed triacylglyceride transesterification from poisoning by free fatty acid impurities (even at 50 mol%), and promotes the efficient two-step cascade deacetalization-Knoevenagel condensation of dimethyl acetals to cyanoates. The spatial segregation of distinct catalytic functionalities within the same material holds great promise for cascade or antagonistic reactions, but it remains challenging. Here, the authors report the successful realization of this approach for an efficient hierarchical porous silica catalyst featuring spatially separated sulfated zirconia and magnesium oxide.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 26 October 2020

#77

 

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Description Surface heating membrane distillation overcomes several limitations inherent in conventional membrane distillation technology. Here we report a successful effort to grow in situ a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) nanocoating on a stainless-steel wire cloth (hBN-SSWC), and its application as a scalable electrothermal heating material in surface heating membrane distillation. The novel hBN-SSWC provides superior vapour permeability, thermal conductivity, electrical insulation and anticorrosion properties, all of which are critical for the long-term surface heating membrane distillation performance, particularly with hypersaline solutions. By simply attaching hBN-SSWC to a commercial membrane and providing power with an a.c. supply at household frequency, we demonstrate that hBN-SSWC is able to support an ultrahigh power intensity (50 kW m−2) to desalinate hypersaline solutions with exceptionally high water flux (and throughput), single-pass water recovery and heat utilization efficiency while maintaining excellent material stability. We also demonstrate the exceptional performance of hBN-SSWC in a scalable and compact spiral-wound electrothermal membrane distillation module. A hexagonal boron nitride nanocoating grown directly on a stainless-steel mesh enables ultrahigh power input intensity in an electrothermal membrane distillation system to desalinate hypersaline solutions with exceptionally high water flux, single-pass water recovery and heat utilization efficiency.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 26 October 2020

#78

 

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Description

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 26 October 2020

#79

 

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Description Transcription factor EB (TFEB) is a master regulator of autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis. The post-translational phosphorylation modulations of TFEB by mTOR and ERK signaling can determine its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and activity in response to nutrient availability. However, regulations of TFEB at translational level are rarely known. Here, we found that programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), a tumor suppressor, decreased levels of nuclear TFEB to inhibit lysosome biogenesis and function. Mechanistically, PDCD4 reduces global pool of TFEB by suppressing TFEB translation in an eIF4A-dependent manner, rather than influencing mTOR- and ERK2-dependnet TFEB nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. Both of MA3 domains within PDCD4 are required for TFEB translation inhibition. Furthermore, TFEB is required for PDCD4-mediated lysosomal function suppression. In the tumor microenvironment, PDCD4 deficiency promotes the anti-tumor effect of macrophage via enhancing TFEB expression. Our research reveals a novel PDCD4-dependent TFEB translational regulation and supports PDCD4 as a potential therapeutic target for lysosome dysfunction related diseases.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 25 October 2020

#80

 

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Description Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has been developed to visualize the retinal microvasculature and choriocapillaris based on the motion contrast of circulating blood cells. Depth-resolved ability and non-invasive nature of OCTA allow for repeated examinations and visualization of microvasculature at the retinal capillary plexuses and choriocapillaris. OCTA enables quantification of microvascular alterations in the retinal capillary network, in addition to the detection of classical features associated with DR, including microaneurysms, intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, and neovascularization. OCTA has a promising role as an objective tool for quantifying extent of microvascular damage and identify eyes with diabetic macular ischaemia contributed to visual loss. Furthermore, OCTA can identify preclinical microvascular abnormalities preceding the onset of clinically detectable DR. In this review, we focused on the applications of OCTA derived quantitative metrics that are relevant to early detection, staging and progression of DR. Advancement of OCTA technology in clinical research will ultimately lead to enhancement of individualised management of DR and prevention of visual impairment in patients with diabetes.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 24 October 2020

#81

 

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Description Some pillars of scientific practice appear immutable. We propose that one of these needs more thorough consideration and modification: this being the long-standing emphasis in nomenclature for first published names over pre-existing indigenous names, in accepting species epithets. We suggest that biologists re-evaluate this practice, in the context of a current more general re-evaluation of indigenous knowledge. We propose that it is now time to critically examine taxonomic protocols in favour of both assigning and reinstating indigenous names whenever possible. Gillman and Wright propose a re-evaluation of taxonomical nomenclature to reinstate indigenous species names. These authors discuss the consideration of indigenous names for new and existing species in order to reflect the importance and precedence of indigenous knowledge in biology.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 23 October 2020

#82

 

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Description Mechanism of Fenton reaction, which is a most widely-used degradation test for organic materials using hydrogen peroxide (H $$_2$$ O $$_2$$ ) and iron (Fe) cations, is revealed for the decomposition of hydrated Nafion membrane. This reaction mechanism has been assumed to generate OH radicals. For a doubly-hydrated Nafion membrane model, Fenton reaction with divalent and monovalent Fe (Fe $$^{2+}$$ and Fe $$^+$$ ) cation hydration complexes is explored for experimentally-supported hydration numbers using long-range correction for density functional theory. As a result, it is found that H $$_2$$ O $$_2$$ coordinating to the Fe $$^{2+}$$ hydration complexes first approaches Nafion side chains in high humidity, then leads to the C–S bond dissociation of the side chain to produce carbonic acid group and sulfonic acid ion. On the other hand, once electron transfer proceeds between iron ions, the O–O bond of the coordinating H $$_2$$ O $$_2$$ is extended, then the C–S bond is dissociated to produce trihydroxymethyl group and sulfur trioxide, which are rapidly transformed to carboxyl group and sulfonic acid ion in aquo. This mechanism is confirmed by the vibrational spectrum analysis of the decomposed product. Collective Nafion decomposition mechanisms also suggest that the decomposition reaction uses the recycle of generated Fe cation hydration complexes under acidic condition near membrane surface.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 23 October 2020

#83

 

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Description Weighing in at 14,000 tonnes, the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider can now detect more of the subatomic particles created when protons are collided

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 23 October 2020

#84

 

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Description Six years ago, the Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to three scientists for finding ways to visualize the pathways of individual molecules inside living cells. Now, researchers at the University of Rochester and the Fresnel Institute in France have found a way to visualize those molecules in

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 23 October 2020

#85

 

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Description High order oligomers are crucial for normal cell physiology, and protein function perturbed by missense mutations underlies several autosomal dominant diseases. Dynamin-2 is one of such protein forming helical oligomers that catalyze membrane fission. Mutations in this protein, where R465W is the most frequent, cause dominant centronuclear myopathy, but the molecular mechanisms underpinning the functional modifications remain to be investigated. To unveil the structural impact of this mutation in dynamin-2, we used full-atom molecular dynamics simulations and coarse-grained models and built dimers and helices of wild-type (WT) monomers, mutant monomers, or both WT and mutant monomers combined. Our results show that the mutation R465W causes changes in the interactions with neighbor amino acids that propagate through the oligomer. These new interactions perturb the contact between monomers and favor an extended conformation of the bundle signaling element (BSE), a dynamin region that transmits the conformational changes from the GTPase domain to the rest of the protein. This extended configuration of the BSE that is only relevant in the helices illustrates how a small change in the microenvironment surrounding a single residue can propagate through the oligomer structures of dynamin explaining how dominance emerges in large protein complexes.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 23 October 2020

#86

 

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Description Although time perception is based on the internal representation of time, whether the subjective timeline is scaled linearly or logarithmically remains an open issue. Evidence from previous research is mixed: while the classical internal-clock model assumes a linear scale with scalar variability, there is evidence that logarithmic timing provides a better fit to behavioral data. A major challenge for investigating the nature of the internal scale is that the retrieval process required for time judgments may involve a remapping of the subjective time back to the objective scale, complicating any direct interpretation of behavioral findings. Here, we used a novel approach, requiring rapid intuitive ‘ensemble’ averaging of a whole set of time intervals, to probe the subjective timeline. Specifically, observers’ task was to average a series of successively presented, auditory or visual, intervals in the time range 300–1300 ms. Importantly, the intervals were taken from three sets of durations, which were distributed such that the arithmetic mean (from the linear scale) and the geometric mean (from the logarithmic scale) were clearly distinguishable. Consistently across the three sets and the two presentation modalities, our results revealed subjective averaging to be close to the geometric mean, indicative of a logarithmic timeline underlying time perception.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 23 October 2020

#87

 

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Description This study was aimed at evaluating the acute and subchronic toxicity of ultrasonic extract of Dichroae radix (UEDR) in mice and rats. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin layer chromatogrephy (TLC) were used to detect β-dichroine and α-dichroine in UEDR for quality control. The levels of β-dichroine and α-dichroine in UEDR were 1.46 and 1.53 mg/g, respectively. An oral LD50 of 2.43 g/kg BW was observed in acute toxicity test. After 28-day repeated oral administration, compared with the control group, treatment-related changes in body weight (BW) and body weight gain (BWG), lymphocyte counts and ratios, as well as in the relative organ weights (ROWs) of liver, kidney, lung, and heart, were detected in the middle- and high-dose groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), no differences were noted in the serum biochemical parameters and necropsy examinations in both sexes at all doses. Histopathological examinations exhibited UEDR-associated signs of toxicity or abnormalities. After 14 days withdrawal, no statistically significant or toxicologically relevant differences were observed in any of the UEDR-treated groups, and the hispathological lesions in the high-dose group were alleviated. Findings showed that long-course and high-dose of UEDR administration was toxic, and showed dose-dependence, the toxic damage was reversible.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 23 October 2020

#88

 

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Description Ultrasound imaging is affected by coherent noise or speckle, which reduces contrast and overall image quality and degrades the diagnostic precision of the collected images. Elevational angular compounding (EAC) is an attractive means of addressing this limitation, since it reduces speckle noise while operating in real-time. However, current EAC implementations rely on mechanically rotating a one-dimensional (1D) transducer array or electronically beam steering of two-dimensional (2D) arrays to provide different elevational imaging angles, which increases the size and cost of the systems. Here we present a novel EAC implementation based on a 1D array, which does not necessitate mechanically rotating the transducer. The proposed refraction-based elevational angular compounding technique (REACT) instead utilizes a translating cylindrical acoustic lens that steers the ultrasound beam along the elevational direction. Applying REACT to investigate phantoms and excised tissue samples demonstrated superior suppression of ultrasound speckle noise compared to previous EAC methods, with up to a two-fold improvement in signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios. The effects of elevational angular width on speckle reduction was further investigated to determine the appropriate conditions for applying EAC. This study introduces acoustic refractive elements as potential low cost solutions to noise reduction, which could be integrated into current medical ultrasound devices.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 23 October 2020

#89

 

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Description Antigens displayed on self-assembling nanoparticles can stimulate strong immune responses and have been playing an increasingly prominent role in structure-based vaccines. However, the development of such immunogens is often complicated by inefficiencies in their production. To alleviate this issue, we developed a plug-and-play platform using the spontaneous isopeptide-bond formation of the SpyTag:SpyCatcher system to display trimeric antigens on self-assembling nanoparticles, including the 60-subunit Aquifex aeolicus lumazine synthase (LuS) and the 24-subunit Helicobacter pylori ferritin. LuS and ferritin coupled to SpyTag expressed well in a mammalian expression system when an N-linked glycan was added to the nanoparticle surface. The respiratory syncytial virus fusion (F) glycoprotein trimer—stabilized in the prefusion conformation and fused with SpyCatcher—could be efficiently conjugated to LuS-SpyTag or ferritin-SpyTag, enabling multivalent display of F trimers with prefusion antigenicity. Similarly, F-glycoprotein trimers from human parainfluenza virus-type 3 and spike-glycoprotein trimers from SARS-CoV-2 could be displayed on LuS nanoparticles with decent yield and antigenicity. Notably, murine vaccination with 0.08 µg of SARS-CoV-2 spike-LuS nanoparticle elicited similar neutralizing responses as 2.0 µg of spike, which was ~ 25-fold higher on a weight-per-weight basis. The versatile platform described here thus allows for multivalent plug-and-play presentation on self-assembling nanoparticles of trimeric viral antigens, with SARS-CoV-2 spike-LuS nanoparticles inducing particularly potent neutralizing responses.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 23 October 2020

#90

 

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Description Mental stress, such as anxiety and conflict, causes physiological changes such as dysregulation of autonomic nervous activity, depression, and gastric ulcers. It also induces glucocorticoid production and changes in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. We previously reported that Acanthopanax senticosus HARMS (ASH) exhibited anxiolytic activity. Thus, we attempted to identify the anxiolytic constituents of ASH and investigated its influence on hippocampal BDNF protein expression in male Sprague Dawley rats administered chlorogenic acid (CHA), ( +)-syringaresinol–di–O–β-d-glucoside (SYG), or a mixture of both (Mix) for 1 week using the open field test (OFT) and improved elevated beam walking (IEBW) test. As with ASH and the benzodiazepine anxiolytic cloxazolam (CLO), Mix treatment significantly increased locomotor activity in the OFT. CHA and Mix increased the time spent in the open arm in the IEBW test. SYG and Mix treatment inhibited the significant increase in normalized low-frequency power, indicative of sympathetic nervous activity, and significant decrease in normalized high-frequency power, indicative of parasympathetic nervous activity, as observed in the IEBW test. SYG and Mix treatment significantly increased hippocampal BDNF protein expression. The combination of CHA and SYG possibly induces anxiolytic behavior and modulates autonomic regulation, activates hippocampal BDNF signaling as with ASH.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 23 October 2020

#91

 

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Description Current literature shows that interaction with urban greenery can have a wide range of positive health outcomes. Targeted nature-based programs, such as therapeutic horticulture, have been shown to result in multiple health benefits for older adults residing in temperate environments, but much less research has been carried out on populations with different phenotypes, such as older Asian adults in the tropics. The current study investigated the effects of a 24-session therapeutic horticulture program on 47 older participants in Singapore, with an experimental pretest posttest design. We found that participants maintained healthy sleep patterns and psychological health, as well as showed reduced anxiety and improved cognitive functioning (p < 0.05). In addition, they reported an increase in mean happiness score after each session. This study provides new evidence using a comprehensive set of indicators across the affective, cognitive, functional, psychosocial and physical domains, supporting current literature on the benefits of nature programs, with a novel focus on tropical environments. It provides evidence that the nature-based intervention has the potential to be translated to programs to benefit older adults in the tropics.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 23 October 2020

#92

 

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Description For understanding magnonic materials the fundamental characterization of their frequency response is essential. However, determining full dispersion relations and real space wavelength measurements are challenging and time-consuming tasks. We present an approach for spin wave excitation by a modified Sinc pulse, which combines a cosine signal with a conventional Sinc function. The resulting adjustable frequency bands lead to a broadband spin wave excitation at uniform power levels. Subsequently, time resolved scanning transmission X-ray microscopy is used for direct imaging of all excited spin waves in real space. To demonstrate the capabilities of this approach, a modified Sinc excitation of an ultra-thin yttrium-iron-garnet film is shown that simultaneously reveals phase, amplitude, and k-space information from a single measurement. Consequently, this approach allows a fast and thorough access to the full dispersion relation including spatial maps of the individual spin wave modes, enabling complete characterization of magnonic materials down to the nanoscale in real and reciprocal space.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 23 October 2020

#93

 

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Description Of the 7–8 silk fibers making up an orb-web only the hierarchical structural organization of semicrystalline radial fibers -composed of major ampullate silk- has been studied in detail, given its fascinating mechanical features. While major ampullate silk’s nanofibrillar morphology is well established, knowhow on mesoscale (> 50–100 nm) assembly and its contribution to mechanical performance is limited. Much less is known on the hierarchical structural organization of other, generally less crystalline fibers contributing to an orb-webs’ function. Here we show by scanning X-ray micro&nanodiffraction that two fully amorphous, fine silk fibers from the center of an orb-web have different mesoscale features. One of the fibers has a fibrillar composite structure resembling stiff egg case silk. The other fiber has a skin–core structure based on a nanofibrillar ribbon wound around a disordered core. A fraction of nanofibrils appears to have assembled into mesoscale fibrils. This fiber becomes readily attached to the coat of major ampullate silk fibers. We observe that a detached fiber has ripped out the glycoprotein skin-layer containing polyglycine II nanocrystallites. The anchoring of the fiber in the coat suggests that it could serve for strengthening the tension and cohesion of major ampullate silk fibers.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 23 October 2020

#94

 

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Description Tetrad synapses are formed between the retina photoreceptor terminals and postsynaptic cells in the first optic neuropil (lamina) of Drosophila. They are remodelled in the course of the day and show distinct functional changes during activity and sleep. These changes result from fast degradation of the presynaptic scaffolding protein Bruchpilot (BRP) by Cryptochrome (CRY) in the morning and depend on BRP-170, one of two BRP isoforms. This process also affects the number of synaptic vesicles, both clear and dense-core, delivered to the presynaptic elements. In cry01 mutants lacking CRY and in brpΔ170, the number of synaptic vesicles is lower in the morning peak of activity than during night-sleep while in wild-type flies the number of synaptic vesicles is similar at these two time points. CRY may also set phase of the circadian rhythm in plasticity of synapses. The process of synapse remodelling stimulates the formation of clear synaptic vesicles in the morning. They carry histamine, a neurotransmitter in tetrad synapses and seem to be formed from glial capitate projections inside the photoreceptor terminals. In turn dense-core vesicles probably carry synaptic proteins building the tetrad presynaptic element.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 23 October 2020

#95

 

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Description Prokaryotic and archaeal chromosomes encode a diversity of toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems that contribute to a variety of stress-induced cellular processes in addition to stability and maintenance of mobile elements. Here, we find DinJ-YafQ family TA systems to be broadly distributed amongst diverse phyla, consistent with other ParE/RelE superfamily TAs, but more unusually occurring as a multiplicity of species-specific subtypes. In the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori we identify six distinct subtypes, of which three are predominantly associated with the mobilome, including the disease-associated integrative and conjugative element (ICE), tfs4. Whereas, the ICE-encoded proteins have characteristic features of DinJ-YafQ family Type II TA systems in general, the toxin component is distinguished by a broad metal-ion-dependent endonuclease activity with specificity for both RNA and DNA. We show that the remarkably rapid growth inhibitory activity of the ICE toxin is a correlate of a C-terminal lysine doublet which likely augments catalytic activity by increasing the positive electrostatic potential in the vicinity of the conserved active site. Our collective results reveal a structural feature of an ICE TA toxin that influences substrate catalysis and toxin function which may be relevant to specific TA-mediated responses in diverse genera of bacteria.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 23 October 2020

#96

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 23 October 2020