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#1

 

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A meter-class telescope with a coronagraph to block solar light, placed in the strong interference region of the solar gravitational lens (SGL), is capable of imaging an exoplanet at a distance of up to 30 parsecs with a few 10 km-scale resolution on its surface. The picture shows results of a simulation of the effects of the SGL on an Earth-like exoplanet image. Earth diameter is 12724 kilometers. Ten-kilometer resolution would be better than a one-megapixel image....

#Theoretical sciences

Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 05 July 2020

#2

 

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Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 04 July 2020

#3

 

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Description Saprobic soil fungi drive many important ecosystem processes, including decomposition, and many of their effects are related to growth rate and enzymatic ability. In mycology, there has long been the implicit assumption of a trade-off between growth and enzymatic investment, which we test here using a set of filamentous fungi from the same soil. For these fungi we measured growth rate (as colony radial extension) and enzymatic repertoire (activities of four enzymes: laccase, cellobiohydrolase, leucine aminopeptidase and acid phosphatase), and explored the interaction between the traits based on phylogenetically corrected methods. Our results support the existence of a trade-off, however only for the enzymes presumably representing a larger metabolic cost (laccase and cellobiohydrolase). Our study offers new insights into potential functional complementarity within the soil fungal community in ecosystem processes, and experimentally supports an enzymatic investment/growth rate trade-off underpinning phenomena including substrate succession.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 03 July 2020

#4

 

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Description There are no practical and valid methods for the assessment of individualised physical activity (PA) intensity in observational studies. Therefore, we investigated the validity of commonly used metabolic equivalent of tasks (METs) and pre-determined PA intensity classification methods against individualised PA intensity classification in 35 children 7–11-years-of-age. Then, we studied validity of mean amplitude deviation (MAD) measured by accelerometry during self-paced walking and running in assessment of individualised PA intensity. Individualised moderate PA (MPA) was defined as V̇O2 ≥ 40% of V̇O2reserve and V̇O2 < ventilatory threshold (VT) and vigorous PA (VPA) as V̇O2 ≥ VT. We classified > 3–6 (or alternatively > 4–7) METs as MPA and > 6 (> 7) METs as VPA. Task intensities were classified according to previous calibration studies. MET-categories correctly identified 25.9–83.3% of light PA, 85.9–90.3% of MPA, and 56.7–82.2% of VPA. Task-specific categories correctly classified 53.7% of light PA, 90.6% of MPA, and 57.8% of VPA. MAD during self-paced walking discriminated MVPA from light PA (sensitivity = 67.4, specificity = 88.0) and MAD during self-paced running discriminated VPA from MPA (sensitivity = 78.8, specificity = 79.3). In conclusion, commonly used methods may misclassify PA intensity in children. MAD during self-paced running may provide a novel and practical method for determining individualised VPA intensity in children.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 03 July 2020

#5

 

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Description The properties of cytosine- and guanine-rich oligonucleotides contributed to employing them as sensing elements in various biosensors. In this paper, we report our current development of fluorescence oligonucleotide probes based on i-motif or G-quadruplex forming oligonucleotides for cellular measurements or bioimaging applications. Additionally, we also focus on the spectral properties of the new fluorescent silver nanoclusters based system (ChONC12-AgNCs) that is able to anchor at the Langmuir monolayer interface, which is mimicking the surface of living cells membrane.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 03 July 2020

#6

 

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Description Around the world volunteers and non-professionals collect data as part of environmental citizen science projects, collecting wildlife observations, measures of water quality and much more. However, where projects allow flexibility in how, where, and when data are collected there will be variation in the behaviour of participants which results in biases in the datasets collected. We develop a method to quantify this behavioural variation, describing the key drivers and providing a tool to account for biases in models that use these data. We used a suite of metrics to describe the temporal and spatial behaviour of participants, as well as variation in the data they collected. These were applied to 5,268 users of the iRecord Butterflies mobile phone app, a multi-species environmental citizen science project. In contrast to previous studies, after removing transient participants (those active on few days and who contribute few records), we do not find evidence of clustering of participants; instead, participants fall along four continuous axes that describe variation in participants’ behaviour: recording intensity, spatial extent, recording potential and rarity recording. Our results support a move away from labelling participants as belonging to one behavioural group or another in favour of placing them along axes of participant behaviour that better represent the continuous variation between individuals. Understanding participant behaviour could support better use of the data, by accounting for biases in the data collection process.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 03 July 2020

#7

 

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Description Under-five children (U5-children) diarrhea is a significant public health threat, where the World Health Organisation (WHO) reported it as the second leading cause of children’s death worldwide. Nearly 1.7 billion cases occur annually with varied temporal and spatial factors. Identification of the spatiotemporal pattern and hotspot areas of U5-children diarrhea can assist targeted intervention and provide an early warning for more effective response measures. This study aimed at examining spatiotemporal variability along with the detection of hotspot areas for U5-children diarrhea in the Bench Maji Zone of southwestern Ethiopia, where resources are limited and cultural heterogeneity is highest. Retrospective longitudinal data of ten years of diarrhea records from January 2008 to December 2017 were used to identify hotspot areas. The incidence rate per 1,000 per year among children was calculated along with seasonal patterns of cases. The spatiotemporal analysis was made using SaTScan version 9.4, while spatial autocorrelations and hotspot identification were generated using ArcGIS 10.5 software. A total of 90,716 U5-children diarrhea cases were reported with an annual incidence rate of 36.1 per 1,000 U5-children, indicating a relative risk (RR) of 1.6 and a log-likelihood ratio (LLR) of 1,347.32 (p < 0.001). The highest incidence of diarrhea illness was recorded during the dry season and showed incidence rate increment from October to February. The risky clusters (RR > 1) were in the districts of Bero, Maji, Surma, Minit Shasha, Guraferda, Mizan Aman Town, and Sheko with annual cases of 127.93, 68.5, 65.12, 55.03, 55.67, 54.14 and 44.97 per 1,000, respectively. The lowest annual cases reported were in the four districts of Shay Bench, South Bench, North Bench, and Minit Goldiya, where RR was less than a unit. Six most likely clusters (Bero, Minit Shasha, Surma, Guraferda, South Bench, and Maji) and one lower RR area (North Bench) were hotspot districts. The U5-children's diarrhea in the study area showed an overall increasing trend during the dry seasons with non-random distribution over space and time. The data recorded during ten years and analyzed with the proper statistical tools helped to identify the hotspot areas with risky seasons where diarrhea could increase.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 03 July 2020

#8

 

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Description Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is a prevalent disease affecting a high proportion of patients seeking laryngology consultation. Diagnosis is made subjectively based on history, symptoms, and endoscopic assessment. The results depend on the examiner's interpretation of endoscopic images. There are still no consistent objective diagnostic methods. The aim of this study is to use image processing techniques to quantize the laryngeal variation caused by LPR, to judge and analyze its severity. This study proposed methods of screening sharp images automatically from laryngeal endoscopic images and using throat eigen structure for automatic region segmentation. The proposed image compensation improved the illumination problems from the use of laryngoscope lens. Fisher linear discriminant was used to find out features and classification performance while support vector machine was used as the classifier for judging LPR. Evaluation results were 97.16% accuracy, 98.11% sensitivity, and 3.77% false positive rate. To evaluate the severity, quantized data of the laryngeal variation was used. LPR images were combined with reflux symptom index score chart, and severity was graded using a neural network. The results indicated 96.08% accuracy. The experiment indicated that laryngeal variation induced by LPR could be quantized by using image processing techniques to assist in diagnosing and treating LPR.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 03 July 2020

#9

 

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Description In this work, we used quantum chemical methods and chemical kinetic models to answer the question of whether or not formaldehyde (CH2O) and ammonia (NH3) can be produced from gas phase hydration of methylenimine (CH2NH). The potential energy surfaces (PESs) of CH2NH + H2O → CH2O + NH3 and CH2NH + 2H2O → CH2O + NH3 + H2O reactions were computed using CCSD(T)/6–311++G(3d,3pd)//M06-2X/6–311++G(3d,3pd) level. The temperature-and pressure-dependent rate constants were calculated using variational transition state theory (VTST), microcanonical variational transition state theory $$(mu VTST)$$ and Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus/master equation (RRKM/ME) simulations. The PES along the reaction path forming a weakly bound complex (CH2NH⋯H2O) was located using VTST and $$mu$$VTST, however, the PES along the tight transition state was characterized by VTST with small curvature tunneling (SCT) approach. The results show that the formation of CH2NH + H2O → CH2NH⋯H2O is pressure -and temperature-dependent. The calculated atmospheric lifetimes of CH2NH⋯H2O (~ 8 min) are too short to undergo secondary bimolecular reactions with other atmospheric species. Our results suggest that the formation of CH2O and NH3 likely to occur in the combustion of biomass burning but the rate of formation CH2O and NH3 is predicted to be negligible under atmospheric conditions. When a second water molecule is added to the reaction, the results suggest that the rates of formation of CH2O and NH3 remain negligible.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 03 July 2020

#10

 

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Description Bioactive metal releases in ocean surface water, such as those by ash falls during volcanic super-eruptions, might have a potentially toxic impact on biocalcifier planktic microorganisms. Nano-XRF imaging with the cutting-edge synchrotron hard X-ray nano-analysis ID16B beamline (ESRF) revealed for the first time a specific Zn- and Mn-rich banding pattern in the test walls of Globorotalia menardii planktic foraminifers extracted from the Young Toba Tuff layer, and thus contemporaneous with Toba’s super-eruption, 74,000 years ago. The intra-test correlation of Zn and Mn patterns at the nanoscale with the layered calcareous microarchitecture, indicates that the incorporation of these metals is syngenetic to the wall growth. The preferential Mn and Zn sequestration within the incipient stages of chamber formation suggests a selective incorporation mechanism providing a resilience strategy to metal pollution in the test building of planktic foraminifers.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 03 July 2020

#11

 

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Description Tissue elongation is a necessary process in metazoans to implement their body plans that is not fully understood. Here we propose a mechanism based on the interplay between cellular mechanics and primordia patterning that results in self-sustained planar intercalations. Thus, we show that a location-dependent modulation of the mechanical properties of cells leads to robust axis extension. To illustrate the plausibility of this mechanism, we test it against different patterning models by means of computer simulations of tissues where we implemented mechano-signaling feedbacks. Our results suggest that robust elongation relies on a trade-off between cellular and tissue strains that is orchestrated through the cleavage orientation. In the particular context of axis extension in Turing-patterned tissues, we report that different directional cell activities cooperate synergetically to achieve elongation. Altogether, our findings help to understand how the axis extension phenomenon emerges from the dynamics of individual cells.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 03 July 2020

#12

 

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Description The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of pneumothorax and need for chest tube insertion in CT-guided lung biopsies and identify predictors focusing on pulmonary emphysema determined with quantitative computed tomography. To that end, we retrospectively analysed the incidence of pneumothorax and chest tube insertion in 371 CT-guided lung biopsies with respect to the quantitative emphysema score determined with the density mask technique. Other possible impact factors considered were lesion diameter, length of biopsy pathway within the lung parenchyma, lung lobe, needle size, puncture technique, patient positioning and interventionalist’s level of experience. Quantitative emphysema scores of the lung were significantly higher in patients who developed instant pneumothorax (27%, p < 0.0001), overall pneumothorax (38%, p = 0.001) and had chest tube insertion (9%, p = 0.006) compared to those who did not when analysed with the Mann–Whitney U-test. In logistic regression analysis with inclusion of the other possible impact factors, the quantitative emphysema score remained a statistically significant predictor for all three output parameters. This was confirmed with least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) regression analysis. In conclusion, quantitatively determined pulmonary emphysema is a positive predictor of the pneumothorax rate in CT-guided lung biopsy and likelihood of chest tube insertion.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 03 July 2020

#13

 

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Description Mezcal is a traditional Mexican spirit, obtained from the distillation of fermented agave juices. Its preparation has been conducted for centuries in an artisanal manner. The method used to determine the correct alcohol content is of particular interest: a stream of the liquor is poured into a small vessel to induce surface bubbles. These bubbles, known as pearls by the Mezcal artisans, remain stable for tenths of seconds only if the alcohol content is close to 50%. For higher or lower alcohol content, the bubbles burst rapidly. The long bubble lifetime is the result of surfactant-induced surface tension changes. However, the precise mechanism and its relation to alcohol content remain unexplained. In this investigation, the extended lifetime of pearls was studied both experimentally and numerically. It was found that changes in surface tension, density, viscosity (resulting from mixing ethanol and water), and the presence of surfactants are all relevant to extend the bubble lifetime. The dimensionless bubble lifetime was found to reach its maximum value when the Bond number was close to unity, corresponding to 2 mm Mezcal bubbles. These findings show that the traditional empirical method does work. Beyond this, the understanding of the process provides physical insight to many other natural and industrial problems for which the stability of surface bubbles is of importance, such as bio-foams, froth floatation, and volcanic flows.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 03 July 2020

#14

 

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Description Cactoblastis cactorum, a species of moth native to Argentina, feeds on several prickly pear cactus species (Opuntia) and has been successfully used as a biological control of invading Opuntia species in Australia, South Africa and native ruderal Opuntia species in some Caribbean islands. Since its introduction to the Caribbean its spread was uncontrolled, invading successfully Florida, Texas and Louisiana. Despite this long history of invasion, we are still far from understanding the factors determining the patterns of invasion of Cactoblastis in North America. Here, we explored three non-mutually exclusive explanations: a) a stepping stone model of colonization, b) long distance colonization due to hurricanes, and/or c) hitchhiking through previously reported commercial routes. Genetic diversity, genetic structure and the patterns of migration among populations were obtained by analyzing 10 nuclear microsatellite loci. Results revealed the presence of genetic structure among populations of C. cactorum in the invaded region and suggest that both marine commercial trade between the Caribbean islands and continental USA, as well as recurrent transport by hurricanes, explain the observed patterns of colonization. Provided that sanitary regulations avoiding human-mediated dispersal are enforced, hurricanes probably represent the most important agent of dispersal and future invasion to continental areas.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 03 July 2020

#15

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 03 July 2020

#16

 

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Description Oriented cell division is a fundamental mechanism to control asymmetric stem cell division, neural tube elongation and body axis extension, among other processes. During zebrafish gastrulation, when the body axis extends, dorsal epiblast cells display divisions that are robustly oriented along the animal-vegetal embryonic axis. Here, we use a combination of lipidomics, metabolic tracer analysis and quantitative image analysis to show that sphingolipids mediate spindle positioning during oriented division of epiblast cells. We identify the Wnt signaling as a regulator of sphingolipid synthesis that mediates the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), the first and rate-limiting enzyme in sphingolipid production. Sphingolipids determine the palmitoylation state of the Anthrax receptor, which then positions the mitotic spindle of dividing epiblast cells. Our data show how Wnt signaling mediates sphingolipid-dependent oriented division and how sphingolipids determine Anthrax receptor palmitoylation, which ultimately controls the activation of Diaphanous to mediate spindle rotation and oriented mitosis. During development, oriented cell division is important to proper body axis extension. Here, the authors show that sphingolipids are required to direct spindle rotation and oriented mitosis via Anthrax receptor palmitoylation in zebrafish gastrulation.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 03 July 2020

#17

 

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Description We describe theory, experiments, and analyses of three-color Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) spectroscopy for probing sub-millisecond conformational dynamics of protein folding and binding of disordered proteins. We devise a scheme that uses single continuous-wave laser excitation of the donor instead of alternating excitation of the donor and one of the acceptors. This scheme alleviates photophysical problems of acceptors such as rapid photobleaching, which is crucial for high time resolution experiments with elevated illumination intensity. Our method exploits the molecular species with one of the acceptors absent or photobleached, from which two-color FRET data is collected in the same experiment. We show that three FRET efficiencies and kinetic parameters can be determined without alternating excitation from a global maximum likelihood analysis of two-color and three-color photon trajectories. We implement co-parallelization of CPU-GPU processing, which leads to a significant reduction of the likelihood calculation time for efficient parameter determination. Three-colour FRET is a powerful tool to study macromolecular conformational dynamics, but is temporally limited due to the experimental complexity. Here the authors develop experimental and analytical methods for probing submillisecond-time scale dynamics using single continuous-wave excitation.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 03 July 2020

#18

 

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Description The discovery of atomically precise nanoclusters is generally unpredictable, and the rational synthesis of nanoclusters guided by the theoretical design is still in its infancy. Here we present a de novo design of Au36(SR)24 nanoclusters, from theoretical prediction to experimental synthesis and characterization of their physicochemical properties. The crystal structure of an Au36(SR)24 nanocluster perfectly matches the simulated structural pattern with Au4 tetrahedral units along a two-dimensional growth. The Au36(SR)24 nanocluster indeed differs from its structural isomer whose kernel is dissected in an Au4 tetrahedral manner along a one-dimensional growth. The structural isomerism in the Au36(SR)24 nanoclusters further induces distinct differences in ultrafast electron dynamics and chirality. This work will not only promote the atomically precise synthesis of nanoclusters enlightened by theoretical science, but also open up exciting opportunities for underpinning the widespread applications of structural isomers with atomic precision. The discovery of atomically precise metal nanoclusters is generally unpredictable, and there are few examples of their rational synthesis. Here, the authors report the de novo design of Au36(SR)24 nanoclusters, from theoretical prediction to experimental synthesis and characterization of physicochemical properties.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 03 July 2020

#19

 

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Description Twenty-five years ago a paper in Science reported the first observation of the exotic state of matter predicted in the 1920s by Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein: a Bose–Einstein condensate.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 03 July 2020

#20

 

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Description In this issue, we look back at the first decade of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) and forward to the challenges and opportunities lying ahead. This month in a dedicated Focus issue, we look back at the first decade of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) and forward to the challenges and opportunities lying ahead.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 03 July 2020

#21

 

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Description Over the past decade, several X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facilities have been constructed and started operation worldwide. New, high-repetition XFELs are expected to open to users in the next 5 years.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 03 July 2020

#22

 

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Description The Large Hadron Collider Beauty (LHCb) collaboration has observed a type of four-quark particle never seen before. The discovery, presented at a recent seminar at CERN and described in a paper published is likely to be the first of a previously undiscovered class of particles never before seen by p

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 03 July 2020

#23

 

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Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 03 July 2020

#24

 

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Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 03 July 2020

#25

 

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Description Lattice distortions (LD) in 4H-silicon carbide (SiC) wafers were quantified using synchrotron X-ray rocking curve mapping (RCM), and were resolved into their two components of lattice strain (Δd/d) and lattice plane curvature (LPC) for 150 mm diameter wafers. The evolution of these LDs were investigated for three sequential substrates from the same boule, one of which was the substrate reference, and the other two had a 10 µm thick, 1 × 1017 and 4 × 1014 cm-3 n-type doped epitaxial layer. The lattice strain, Δd/d, was highest for the lowest doped wafer due to higher mismatch with the substrate wafer. After epitaxial layer growth, the LPC variation across the wafer increases by a factor of 2, irrespective of doping. The LPC maps indicate presence of a twist in the lattice planes that increases after epitaxial growth. The LPC component has higher influence on wafer shape change, which can reduce device yields. The lattice strain component predominantly affects the glide of basal plane dislocations (BPDs), thereby reducing device reliability. From analysis of peak widths, it was determined that threading dislocations in the top 6 microns of the wafer increase after epitaxial layer growth.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 02 July 2020

#26

 

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Description The hysteretic phenomena were investigated in the three-layer model consisting of a chain of harmonically interacting atoms confined between two rigid periodical substrate potentials, where the top substrate was driven by a external force. The pinning to running and the running-to pinning transitions were examined as the driving force was varied and the influence of the equilibrium spacing and strength of the interaction of the particles in the middle layer on the static and kinetic friction force analyzed in detail. The parameter space in which the friction forces could reach their maxima or minima was determined. These results could be interesting for the selection of lubricant materials and minimization of energy loss in tribology.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 02 July 2020

#27

 

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Description Multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry became a mainstream method for quantitative proteomics, which made the validation of a method and the analyzed data important. In this portal for validation of the MRM-MS assay, we developed a website that automatically evaluates uploaded MRM-MS data, based on biomarker assay guidelines from the European Medicines Agency, the US Food & Drug Administration, and the Korea Food & Drug Administration. The portal reads a Skyline output file and produces the following results—calibration curve, specificity, sensitivity, carryover, precision, recovery, matrix effect, recovery, dilution integrity, stability, and QC—according to the standards of each independent agency. The final tables and figures that pertain to the 11 evaluation categories are displayed in an individual page. Spring boot was used as a framework for development of the webpage, which follows MVC Pattern. JSP, HTML, XML, and Java Script were used to develop the webpage. A server was composed of Apache Tomcat, MySQL. Input files were skyline-derived output files (csv file), and each files were organized by specific columns in order. SQL, JAVA were interworked to evaluate all the categories and show the results. Method Validation Portal can be accessed via any kind of explorer from https://pnbvalid.snu.ac.kr.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 02 July 2020

#28

 

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Description A self-seeding particle method is proposed for particle image velocimetry measurements in closed cycles such as Organic Rankine Cycles. Condensed droplets of vapor are used as tracers in a closed cycle for both subsonic and supersonic regimes. A free jet of R245fa in the vapor phase is examined in a case study with two different nozzle pressure ratios of 5.1 and 2.1 to evaluate the tracer particles in both supersonic and subsonic conditions. A simple turbulent jet in subsonic conditions and an under-expanded jet are observed in high supersonic conditions. The flow structures of the under-expanded jet are captured using the proposed method, and vivid images of the Mach disk and shock cells are obtained. A series of Schlieren photography experiments are performed to validate the proposed method. The results show that the method can be a good candidate for tracer particles in the closed cycles where condensation of the working fluid is possible.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 02 July 2020

#29

 

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Description Models using 3D cell culture techniques are increasingly accepted as the most biofidelic in vitro representations of tissues for research. These models are generated using biomatrices and bulk populations of cells derived from tissues or cell lines. We present an alternate method to culture individually selected cells in relative isolation from the rest of the population under physiologically relevant matrix conditions. Matrix gel islands are spotted on a cell culture dish to act as support for receiving and culturing individual single cells; a glass capillary-based microfluidic setup is used to extract each desired single cell from a population and seed it on top of an island. Using examples of breast and colorectal cancers, we show that individual cells evolve into tumors or aspects of tumors displaying different characteristics of the initial cancer type and aggressiveness. By implementing a morphometry assay with luminal A breast cancer, we demonstrate the potential of the proposed approach to study phenotypic heterogeneity. Results reveal that intertumor heterogeneity increases with time in culture and that varying degrees of intratumor heterogeneity may originate from individually seeded cells. Moreover, we observe that a positive relationship exists between fast growing tumors and the size and heterogeneity of their nuclei.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 02 July 2020

#30

 

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Description Children born extremely preterm (< 28 weeks gestation, EPT) are at increased risk for language and other neurocognitive deficits compared to term controls (TC). Prior studies have reported both increases and decreases in cortical thickness in EPT across the cerebrum. These studies have not formally normalized for intracranial volume (ICV), which is especially important as EPT children often have smaller stature, head size, and ICV. We previously reported increased interhemispheric functional and structural connectivity in a well-controlled group of school-aged EPT children with no known brain injury or neurological deficits. Functional and structural hyperconnectivity between left and right temporoparietal regions was positively related with language scores in EPT, which may be reflected in measures of cortical thickness. To characterize possible language network cortical thickness effects, 15 EPT children and 15 TC underwent standardized assessments of language and structural magnetic resonance imaging at 4 to 6 years of age. Images were subjected to volumetric and cortical thickness analyses using FreeSurfer. Whole-brain analyses of cortical thickness were conducted both with and without normalization by ICV. Non-normalized results showed thinner temporal cortex for EPT, while ICV-normalized results showed thicker cortical regions in the right temporal lobe (FDRq = 0.05). Only ICV-normalized results were significantly related to language scores, with right temporal cortical thickness being positively correlated with performance.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 02 July 2020

#31

 

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Description Nitrogen is a crucial volatile element in the early Earth’s evolution and the origin of life. Despite its importance, nitrogen’s behavior in the Earth's interior remains poorly understood. Compared to other volatile elements, nitrogen is depleted in the Earth’s atmosphere (the so-called “missing nitrogen”), calling for a hidden deep reservoir. To investigate nitrogen’s behavior in the deep Earth including how the reservoir formed, high-pressure and high-temperature experiments were conducted at 28 GPa and 1,400–1,700 °C. To reproduce the conditions in the lower mantle, the redox was controlled using a Fe–FeO buffer. We observed that depending on the temperature conditions, stishovite can incorporate up to 90–404 ppm nitrogen, experimentally demonstrating that stishovite has the highest nitrogen solubility among the deep mantle minerals. Stishovite is the main mineral component of subducted nitrogen-rich sedimentary rocks and eroded continental crust that are eventually transported down to the lower mantle. Our results suggest that nitrogen could have been continuously transported into the lower mantle via subduction, ever since plate tectonics began.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 02 July 2020

#32

 

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Description In situ labeling with azido sugars enables in vivo immunomodulation of dendritic cells.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 02 July 2020

#33

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 02 July 2020

#34

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 02 July 2020

#35

 

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Description Producing reliable atomic- or close-to-atomic-resolution structures of RNA-only molecules has been a formidable task. Ribosolve can solve sub-nanometer-resolution cryo-EM structures of unbound RNA molecules with unprecedented accuracy and speed.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 02 July 2020

#36

 

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#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 02 July 2020

#37

 

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Description A two-step chemoenzymatic method for N-glycan subtype-selective editing.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 02 July 2020

#38

 

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Description Novel non-equilibrium phases of matter have recently become the focus of intense interest. The realization of topological phases which cannot exist under the constraints of thermodynamic equilibrium is a key aim.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 02 July 2020

#39

 

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Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 02 July 2020

#40

 

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Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 02 July 2020

#41

 

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Description White Rabbit (WR) is a technology developed at CERN to provide the LHC accelerator chain with deterministic data transfer, sub-nanosecond accuracy and a synchronization precision of a few picoseconds. First used in 2012, ...

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 02 July 2020

#42

 

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Description Variation and population structure play key roles in the speciation process, but adaptive intraspecific genetic variation is commonly ignored when forecasting species niches. Amphibians serve as excellent models for testing how climate and local adaptations shape species distributions due to physiological and dispersal constraints and long generational times. In this study, we analysed the climatic factors driving the evolution of the genus Alytes at inter- and intraspecific levels that may limit realized niches. We tested for both differences among the five recognized species and among intraspecific clades for three of the species (Alytes obstetricans, A. cisternasii, and A. dickhilleni). We employed ecological niche models with an ordination approach to perform niche overlap analyses and test hypotheses of niche conservatism or divergence. Our results showed strong differences in the environmental variables affecting species climatic requirements. At the interspecific level, tests of equivalence and similarity revealed that sister species were non-identical in their environmental niches, although they neither were entirely dissimilar. This pattern was also consistent at the intraspecific level, with the exception of A. cisternasii, whose clades appeared to have experienced a lower degree of niche divergence than clades of the other species. In conclusion, our results support that Alytes toads, examined at both the intra- and interspecific levels, tend to occupy similar, if not identical, climatic environments.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 02 July 2020

#43

 

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Description Myopic axial eye growth has mechanical implications on ocular structures, such as the retinal and foveal shape integrity or choroidal thickness. The current study investigated myopia-related changes of retinal radius of curvature, foveal width, depth, slope and choroidal thickness. Wide-field swept-source OCT line and volume scans were performed on 40 young adult participants in horizontal and vertical directions. OCT scans were corrected for their scan display distortions before automated extraction of retinal and foveal shape parameters. All findings were correlated to refractive error and axial length. The horizontal retinal radius of curvature and the directional ratio between horizontal and vertical retinal shape correlated significantly with axial length ( $$ ho =+0.53, p<0.001$$ and $$ ho =+0.35, p<0.05$$ ). Vertical retinal shape and foveal pit parameters neither showed any significant correlations with axial length nor refractive error (all $$p>$$ 0.05). Choroidal thickness correlated significantly with refractive error in all analyzed regions ( $$ ho +0.39,mathrm{to},+0.52$$ ), but less with axial length ( $$ ho -0.18$$ to − 0.37). Horizontal retinal shape and choroidal thickness, but not foveal pit morphology, were altered by myopic eye growth. Asymmetries in horizontal versus vertical retinal shape with increasing myopia were detected. These parameters could act as promising biomarkers for myopia and its associated complications.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 02 July 2020

#44

 

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Description In a new study of axion motion, researchers propose a scenario known as “kinetic misalignment” that greatly strengthens the case for axion/dark matter equivalence. The novel concept answers key questions related to the origins of dark matter and provides new avenues for ongoing detection efforts. Th

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 01 July 2020

#45

 

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Name
Description The sample size effect on deformation mode of glasses is one of the most misunderstood properties of this class of material. This effect is intriguing, since materials deemed macroscopically brittle become plastic at small size. We propose an explanation of this phenomenon for metallic glasses. A thermodynamic description of the local rearrangement zones activated under an applied stress is proposed. Using the Poisson distribution to describe the statistics of these zones and the statistical physics to associate entropy, we define a critical sample size for the change in the deformation mode. Predictions are in agreement with experimental observations and reveal hidden structural parameters describing the glassy state.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 01 July 2020

#46

 

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Description To reveal the mechanism of heavy metal Zn migration in the irrigated paddy field reclaimed water, this study investigated irrigation quota of 75, 150, 225 and 300 m3/hm2 for three consecutive years. The results showed that with the same irrigation quota, firstly the content of Zn, its variation and the rate of change in soil increased, and hereafter decreased with the increase of soil depth, and finally become stable of reclaimed water. Study results identified that when the irrigation quota was 75, 150, 225 and 300 m3/hm2, the average content of Zn in the soil reached the maximum with the value of 9.60, 12.10, 16.75 and 18.50 mg/kg respectively at the depth of 30 cm. The average content of Zn in soil found maximum values of 13.51, 16.01, 19.02 and 20.98 mg/kg, respectively on the 120th day of cultivation. This study also identified that the content of Zn, its variation and the rate of change increased with the increase of irrigation quota at the same soil depth. Additionally, when the soil depth or plant growth time was the same, the content of Zn, its variation and the rate of change increased with the increase of irrigation quota. However, at the soil depth of 30 cm, the content of Zn in the irrigation quota of 75, 150 and 225 m3/hm2 decreased by 48.11%, 34.59% and 9.46%. The fertility time of 120 days also decreased by 35.71%, 23.81% and 9.52% respectively compared to an irrigation quota of 300 m3/hm2. All the findings are explored by a nonlinear regression under different situations and timing. The mean value of the standard error between the statistical and measured value is found insignificant. However, the correlation coefficient is found greater than 0.9400 and statistically significant. Thus, the findings by nonlinear regression reflected the migration law of soil Zn duly with soil depth and plant growth time in the rice field. This study provided theoretical support for the comprehensive treatment and ecological restoration of heavy metals to the farmland soil in China.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 01 July 2020

#47

 

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Description The objective of our study was to evaluate the performance of renal contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) against the 99m-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan and computed tomography (CT) in children for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. We included children who underwent both renal CEUS and the DMSA scan or CT. A total of 33 children (21 males and 12 females, mean age 26 ± 36 months) were included. Using the DMSA scan as the reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of CEUS was 86.8%, 71.4%, 80.5%, and 80.0%, respectively. When CT was used as the reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of CEUS was 87.5%, 80.0%, 87.5%, and 80.0%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of CEUS for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis was 80.3% and 84.6% compared to the DMSA scan and CT, respectively. Inter-observer (kappa = 0.54) and intra-observer agreement (kappa = 0.59) for renal CEUS was moderate. In conclusion, CEUS had good diagnostic accuracy for diagnosing acute pyelonephritis with moderate inter- and intra-observer agreement. As CEUS does not require radiation or sedation, it could play an important role in the future when diagnosing acute pyelonephritis in children.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 01 July 2020

#48

 

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Description Broadly-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies are of high therapeutic utility against infectious diseases caused by bacteria and viruses, as well as different types of intoxications. Snakebite envenoming is one such debilitating pathology, which is currently treated with polyclonal antibodies derived from immunized animals. For the development of novel envenoming therapies based on monoclonal antibodies with improved therapeutic benefits, new discovery approaches for broadly-neutralizing antibodies are needed. Here, we present a methodology based on phage display technology and a cross-panning strategy that enables the selection of cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies that can broadly neutralize toxins from different snake species. This simple in vitro methodology is immediately useful for the development of broadly-neutralizing (polyvalent) recombinant antivenoms with broad species coverage, but may also find application in the development of broadly-neutralizing antibodies against bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents that are known for evading therapy via resistance mechanisms and antigen variation.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 01 July 2020

#49

 

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Description Skewed band structures have been empirically described in ferroelectric materials to explain the functioning of recently developed ferroelectric tunneling junction (FTJs). Nonvolatile ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) and the artificial neural network device based on the FTJ system are rapidly developing. However, because the actual ferroelectric band structure has not been elucidated, precise designing of devices has to be advanced through appropriate heuristics. Here, we perform angle-resolved hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films for the direct observation of ferroelectric band skewing structure as the depth profiles of atomic orbitals. The depth-resolved electronic band structure consists of three depth regions: a potential slope along the electric polarization in the core, the surface and interface exhibiting slight changes. We also demonstrate that the direction of the energy shift is controlled by the polarization reversal. In the ferroelectric skewed band structure, we found that the difference in energy shifts of the atomic orbitals is correlated with the atomic configuration of the soft phonon mode reflecting the Born effective charges. These findings lead to a better understanding of the origin of electric polarization.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 01 July 2020

#50

 

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Description Chronological age represents the main factor in donor selection criteria for organ transplantation, however aging is very heterogeneous. Defining the biological aging of individual organs may contribute to supporting this process. In this study we examined the biological age of the heart [right (RA)/left atrium (LA)] and peripheral blood leucocytes in the same subject, and compared these to assess whether blood mirrors cardiac biological aging. Biological aging was studied in 35 donors (0.4–72 years) by exploring mitotic and non-mitotic pathways, using telomere length (TL) and age-dependent methylation changes in certain CpG loci (DNAmAge). Heart non-mitotic DNAmAge was strongly younger than that of both blood (− 10 years, p < 0.0001) and chronological age (− 12 years, p < 0.0001). Instead, heart and blood mitotic age (TL) were similar, and there was no difference in DNAmAge and TL between RA and LA. DNAmAge negatively correlated with TL in heart and blood (p ≤ 0.01). Finally, blood and heart TL (p < 0.01) and DNAmAge (p < 0.0001) were correlated. Therefore, blood can be a proxy indicator of heart biological age. While future investigation on post-transplant graft performance in relation to biological aging is still needed, our study could contribute to opening up novel basic and clinical research platforms in the field of organ transplantation.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 01 July 2020

#51

 

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Description Wastes generated in pig production are widely used as agricultural fertilizers. Nevertheless, such form of disposal supplies large amounts of waste in soils annually and can cause environmental pollution. The ecological risk of this practice to soil organisms has received little attention. Ecotoxicological tests are used to evaluate the toxicity of contaminants added to the soil biota. The aimed to evaluate the effect of liquid pig manure (LPM) on the reproduction of Eisenia andrei and Enchytraeus crypticus when applied in natural soils. LPM doses caused effects on earthworm reproduction in both soils, with EC50 of 112 and 150 m3 ha−1 in the Entisol and Nitosol, respectively. On enchytraeids, LPM had bigger effects, leading to EC50 of 17.7 and 45.0 m3 ha−1 in the Entisol and Nitosol, respectively. The results emphasize the importance to consider the ecological risks of LPM of conducting studies with natural soils and edaphic fauna as indicators.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 01 July 2020

#52

 

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Name
Description Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) binds to and regulates the translation of amyloid-β protein precursor (App) mRNA, but the detailed mechanism remains to be determined. Differential methylation of App mRNA could underlie FMRP binding, message localization and translation efficiency. We sought to determine the role of FMRP and N6-methyladeonsine (m6A) on nuclear export of App mRNA. We utilized the m6A dataset by Hsu and colleagues to identify m6A sites in App mRNA and to determine if the abundance of message in the cytoplasm relative to the nucleus is altered in Fmr1 knockout mouse brain cortex. Given that processing of APP to Aβ and soluble APP alpha (sAPPα) contributes to disease phenotypes, we also investigated whether Fmr1KO associates with nuclear export of the mRNAs for APP protein processing enzymes, including β-site amyloid cleaving enzyme (Bace1), A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (Adams), and presenilins (Psen). Fmr1KO did not alter the nuclear/cytoplasmic abundance of App mRNA. Of 36 validated FMRP targets, 35 messages contained m6A peaks but only Agap2 mRNA was selectively enriched in Fmr1KO nucleus. The abundance of the APP processing enzymes Adam9 and Psen1 mRNA, which code for a minor alpha-secretase and gamma-secretase, respectively, were selectively enriched in wild type cytoplasm.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 01 July 2020

#53

 

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Description

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 01 July 2020

#54

 

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Name
Description

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 01 July 2020

#55

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences;#Hardware & Devices
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 01 July 2020

#56

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 01 July 2020

#57

 

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Description Physicists at the Large Hadron Collider just discovered a new type of subatomic particle that's made entirely of charm quarks.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 01 July 2020

#58

 

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Description Protein bound uremic toxins, such as p-cresol, cannot be effectively removed by conventional dialysis techniques and are accumulated in plasma, thus contributing to progression of both chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pathological effects of uremic toxins include activation of inflammatory response, endothelial dysfunction and release of endothelial microvesicles. To date, the role of p-cresol in endothelial microvesicles formation has not been analyzed. The aim of the present study was evaluate the effects of endothelial microvesicles released by p-cresol (PcEMV) on endothelial dysfunction. An in vitro model of endothelial damage mediated by p-cresol was proposed to evaluate the functional effect of PcEMV on the endothelial repair process carried out by endothelial cells and microRNA (miRNA) that could be involved in this process. We observed that p-cresol induced a greater release of microvesicles in endothelial cells. These microvesicles altered regenerative capacity of endothelial cells, decreasing their capacity for cell migration and their potential to form vascular structures in vitro. Moreover, we observed increased cellular senescence and a deregulation of miRNA-146b-5p and miRNA-223-3p expression in endothelial cells treated with endothelial microvesicles released by p-cresol. In summary our data show that microvesicles generated in endothelial cells treated with p-cresol (PcEMV) interfere with the endothelial repair process by decreasing the migratory capacity, the ability to form new vessels and increasing the senescence of mature endothelial cells. These alterations could be mediated by the upregulation of miRNA-146b-5p and miRNA-223-3p.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 30 June 2020

#59

 

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Description The relative benefits of group foraging change as animals grow. Metabolic requirements, competitive abilities and predation risk are often allometric and influenced by group size. How individuals optimise costs and benefits as they grow can strongly influence consumption patterns. The shoaling fish Sarpa salpa is the principal herbivore of temperate Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows. We used in-situ observations to describe how ontogeny influenced S. salpa individual feeding behaviour, shoaling behaviour and group foraging strategies, and its potential consequences to seagrass meadows. Shoaling was strongly influenced by body length: shoals were highly length-assorted and there was a clear positive relationship between body length and shoal size. Foraging strategies changed dramatically with shoal size. Small shoals foraged simultaneously and scattered over large areas. In contrast, larger shoals (made of larger individuals) employed a potentially cooperative strategy where individuals fed rotationally and focused in smaller areas for longer times (spot feeding). Thus, as individuals grew, they increased their potential impact as well, not merely because they consumed more, but because they formed larger shoals capable of considerably concentrating their grazing within the landscape. Our results indicate that ontogenetic shifts in group foraging strategies can have large ecosystem-wide consequences when the species is an important ecosystem modifier.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 30 June 2020

#60

 

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Name
Description In continuation of our work on enzyme inhibition, the benzofuran-based-thiazoldinone analogues (1–14) were synthesized, characterized by HREI-MS, 1H and 13CNMR and evaluated for urease inhibition. Compounds 1–14 exhibited a varying degree of urease inhibitory activity with IC50 values between 1.2 ± 0.01 to 23.50 ± 0.70 µM when compared with standard drug thiourea having IC50 value 21.40 ± 0.21 µM. Compound 1, 3, 5 and 8 showed significant inhibitory effects with IC50 values 1.2 ± 0.01, 2.20 ± 0.01, 1.40 ± 0.01 and 2.90 ± 0.01 µM respectively, better than the rest of the series. A structure activity relationship (SAR) of this series has been established based on electronic effects and position of different substituents present on phenyl ring. Molecular docking studies were performed to understand the binding interaction of the compounds.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 30 June 2020

#61

 

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Description Regional changes of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep delta and sigma activity, and their temporal coupling have been related to experience-dependent plastic changes during previous wakefulness. These sleep-specific rhythms seem to be important for brain recovery and memory consolidation. Recently, it was demonstrated that by targeting slow waves in a particular region at a specific phase with closed-loop auditory stimulation, it is possible to locally manipulate slow-wave activity and interact with training-induced neuroplastic changes. In our study, we tested whether closed-loop auditory stimulation targeting the up-phase of slow waves might not only interact with the main sleep rhythms but also with their coupling within the circumscribed region. We demonstrate that while closed-loop auditory stimulation globally enhances delta, theta and sigma power, changes in cross-frequency coupling of these oscillations were more spatially restricted. Importantly, a significant increase in delta-sigma coupling was observed over the right parietal area, located directly posterior to the target electrode. These findings suggest that closed-loop auditory stimulation locally modulates coupling between delta phase and sigma power in a targeted region, which could be used to manipulate sleep-dependent neuroplasticity within the brain network of interest.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 30 June 2020

#62

 

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Description A strontium (Sr)-doped hydroxyapatite-like coating was deposited on α-Ti alloy via the growing integration layer (GIL) method at various applied voltages. We added 0.03 M strontium hydroxide (Sr(OH)2·8H2O) to a solution containing calcium acetate and sodium dihydrogen phosphate to produce Sr-doped hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) coatings. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of these coatings showed that all various features, such as average pore size, coating thickness, micro-hardness, and roughness, were similar to those of HA. As the voltage increased from 250 to 300 V, the amount of micro cracks decreased, and there were eliminated at 350 V. The SEM images also showed that the Sr-HA coatings were closely integrated with the alloy: without any gaps between the oxide layers and the alloy. In addition, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy verified the Sr integration from the bottom up. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed Sr-HA formation instead of calcium phosphate, even at the lowest voltage of 250 V. The value of Ecorr increased by 6.6% after raising the voltage from 250 to 350 V. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the adequate corrosion resistance of Sr-HA coatings, especially at the highest voltage of 350 V. In addition, the GIL treatment increased the layer resistance measured by Rp/Rc. Optimally, the GIL method used the highest voltage of 350 V to produce higher quality of Sr-HA-rich coatings.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 30 June 2020

#63

 

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Name
Description Singlet oxygen (1O2) is a type of reactive oxygen species involved in numerous physiological activities. We previously reported that 1O2-specific oxidation products are increased in patients with prediabetes, suggesting that measurement of 1O2 may be an important indicator of physiological and pathological conditions. The turnover in the generation and quenching of 1O2 is extremely rapid during biological activities owing to it high reactivity and short lifetime in solution. However, the dynamic changes in 1O2 generation in living cells have not been fully explored. In this study, we investigated whether the kinetics of 1O2 generation can be quantified using a far-red fluorescent probe for mitochondrial 1O2, Si-DMA, following addition of the 1O2 generator, endoperoxide, to mammalian cells. The kinetics of Si-DMA fluorescence intensity dose-dependently increased following treatment of mammalian living cells with endoperoxide. Alternatively, treatment with 1O2 quenchers decreased the fluorescence intensities following endoperoxide treatment. Our results indicate that the kinetics of intracellular 1O2 can be readily obtained using Si-DMA and time-lapse imaging, which provides new insights into the mechanism of 1O2 generation in mammalian cells and the exploration of 1O2 generators and quenchers.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 30 June 2020

#64

 

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Description Recently, highly anisotropic conductors, such as multilayer graphene, have been attracting much attention. The local resistivity can be determined by measuring the contact resistance; however, the theoretical expressions of contact resistance have been developed for isotropic slabs but have not been well developed for highly anisotropic film conductors. We obtain theoretical expressions of the spreading resistance below the circular contact for a highly anisotropic film on a bulk slab. The film spreading resistance of isotropic conductors deviates from the bulk spreading resistance when the film thickness is smaller than the contact radius. Nevertheless, the spreading resistance of anisotropic conducting films can be approximated by that of the bulk slabs even when the film thickness is smaller than the contact radius if the in-plane electrical conductivity is larger than the out-of-plane electrical conductivity. Owing to the high in-plane conductivity, the spreading resistance of anisotropic bulk conductors can be lowered from that predicted by the Holm’s equation obtained using the out-of-plane conductivity and the contact radius. We show that these characteristics are beneficial to use the highly anisotropic film as a cover layer when the in-plane conductivity of the film is high and the conductivity of the base slab is low.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 30 June 2020

#65

 

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Name
Description

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 30 June 2020

#66

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 30 June 2020

#67

 

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Name
Description Oyster reefs are vital to estuarine health, but they experience multiple stressors and globally declining populations. This study examined effects of hypoxia and tributyltin (TBT) on adult Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) exposed either in the laboratory or the field following a natural hypoxic event. In the laboratory, oysters were exposed to either hypoxia followed by a recovery period, or to hypoxia combined with TBT. mRNA expression of HIF1-α and Tβ-4 along with hemocyte counts, biomarkers of hypoxic stress and immune health, respectively, were measured. In field-deployed oysters, HIF1-α and Tβ-4 expression increased, while no effect on hemocytes was observed. In contrast, after 6 and 8 days of laboratory-based hypoxia exposure, both Tβ-4 expression and hemocyte counts declined. After 8 days of exposure to hypoxia + TBT, oysters substantially up-regulated HIF1-α and down-regulated Tβ-4, although hemocyte counts were unaffected. Results suggest that hypoxic exposure induces immunosuppression which could increase vulnerability to pathogens.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 30 June 2020

#68

 

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Name
Description To identify the decoherence origin, frequency spectra using multiple π-pulses have been extensively studied. However, little has been discussed on how to define the spectral intensities from multiple-echo decays and how to incorporate the Hahn-echo T2 in the noise spectra. Here, we show that experiments based on two theories solve these issues. As proved in the previous theory, the spectral intensity is given as the decay in the long-time limit. Unlike the initial process of decays, this definition is not only theoretically proven but also validated experimentally, since long-time behaviors are generally free from experimental artifacts. The other is the fluctuation–dissipation theory, with which the Hahn-echo T2 is utilized as the zero-frequency limit of the noise spectrum and as an answer to the divergent issue on the 1/fn noises. As a result, arsenic nuclear spins are found to exhibit 1/f2 dependences over two orders of magnitude in all the substrates of un-doped, Cr-doped semi-insulating and Si-doped metallic GaAs at 297 K. The 1/f2 dependence indicates that the noise is dominated by a single source with characteristic frequency fcun = 170 ± 10 Hz, fcCr = 210 ± 10 Hz and fcSi = 460 ± 30 Hz. These fc values are explained by a model that the decoherence is caused by the fluctuations of next-nearest-neighboring nuclear spins.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 30 June 2020

#69

 

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Name
Description India has banned 59 Chinese apps including TikTok claiming they pose a threat to Indians’ data privacy and secretly transfer data to servers outside India.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 30 June 2020

#70

 

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Name
Description In human blood, oxygen is mainly transported by red blood cells. Accordingly, the dissolved oxygen level in plasma is expected to be limited, although it has not been quantified yet. Here, by developing dedicated methods and tools, we determined that human plasma pO2 = 8.4 mmHg (1.1% O2). Oxygen solubility in plasma was believed to be similar to water. Here we reveal that plasma has an additional ascorbate-dependent oxygen-reduction activity. Plasma experimental oxygenation oxidizes ascorbate (49.5 μM in fresh plasma vs < 2 μM in oxidized plasma) and abolishes this capacity, which is restored by ascorbate supplementation. We confirmed these results in vivo, showing that the plasma pO2 is significantly higher in ascorbate-deficient guinea pigs (Ascorbateplasma < 2 μM), compared to control (Ascorbateplasma > 15 μM). Plasma low oxygen level preserves the integrity of oxidation-sensitive components such as ubiquinol. Circulating leucocytes are well adapted to these conditions, since the abundance of their mitochondrial network is limited. These results shed a new light on the importance of oxygen exposure on leucocyte biological study, in regards with the reducing conditions they encounter in vivo; but also, on the manipulation of blood products to improve their integrity and potentially improve transfusions’ efficacy.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 30 June 2020

#71

 

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Name
Description Plant organs including flowers and leaves typically have a variety of different micro-structures present on the epidermal surface. These structures can produce measurable optical effects with viewing angle including shifts in peak reflectance and intensity; however, these different structures can also modulate hydrophobic properties of the surfaces. For some species optical effects have been proposed to act as signals to enhance pollination interactions, whilst the ability to efficiently shed water provides physiological advantages to plants in terms of gas exchange and reducing infections. Currently, little is known about epidermal surface structure of flowering plants in the Southern Hemisphere, and how micro-surface may be related with either hydrophobicity or visual signalling. We measured four Australian native species and two naturalised species using a combination of techniques including SEM imaging, spectral sampling with a goniometer and contact angle measurements. Spectral data were evaluated in relation to published psychophysics results for important pollinators and reveal that potential visual changes, where present, were unlikely to be perceived by relevant pollinators. Nevertheless, hydrophobicity also did not simply explain petal surfaces as similar structures could in some cases result in very different levels of water repellency.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 30 June 2020

#72

 

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Description MIT Associate Professor Juejun Hu specializes in optical and photonic devices, whose applications include improving high-speed communications, observing the behavior of molecules, and developing innovations in consumer electronics.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 30 June 2020

#73

 

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Description The most studied perovskite-based solar cells reported up to date contain the toxic lead in its composition. Photovoltaic research and development towards non-toxic, lead-free perovskite solar cells are critical to finding alternatives to reduce human health concerns associated with them. Bismuth-based perovskite variants, especially in the form of methylammonium bismuth iodide (MBI), is a good candidate for the non-toxic light absorber. However, the reported perovskite variant MBI thin films prepared by the solution process so far suffers from poor morphology and surface coverage. In this work, we investigate for the first time the optoelectronic, crystallographic and morphological properties of MBI thin films prepared via thermal co-evaporation of MAI and BiI3. We find by modifying the precursor ratio that the layer with pure MBI composition lead to uniform, compact and homogeneous layers, broadening the options of deposition techniques for lead-free based perovskite solar cells.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 30 June 2020

#74

 

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Name
Description An optical security element forming different 2D images when it is turned by 180 degrees is developed and manufactured for the first time. A synthesis technology is developed that incorporates the computation of the beam pattern in elementary hogels with sizes smaller than 100 microns, computation of the phase function of the diffractive optical element (DOE), and formation of the microrelief of the DOE using electron-beam technology. The DOE employed is a multilevel kinoform with an asymmetrical microrelief shaped with a precision of 10 nm. The resulting security feature is easy to control visually, and the DOE is securely protected against counterfeiting. These DOEs are easy to replicate using standard technologies in the manufacturing of embossed holograms and can be used to protect bank notes, securities, and documents against counterfeiting.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 30 June 2020

#75

 

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Name
Description We hypothesized that knowledge of cerebral autoregulation (CA) status during recanalization therapies could guide further studies aimed at neuroprotection targeting penumbral tissue, especially in patients that do not respond to therapy. Thus, we assessed CA status of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) during intravenous r-tPA therapy and associated CA with response to therapy. AIS patients eligible for intravenous r-tPA therapy were recruited. Cerebral blood flow velocities (transcranial Doppler) from middle cerebral artery and blood pressure (Finometer) were recorded to calculate the autoregulation index (ARI, as surrogate for CA). National Institute of Health Stroke Score was assessed and used to define responders to therapy (improvement of ≥ 4 points on NIHSS measured 24–48 h after therapy). CA was considered impaired if ARI < 4. In 38 patients studied, compared to responders, non-responders had significantly lower ARI values (affected hemisphere: 5.0 vs. 3.6; unaffected hemisphere: 5.4 vs. 4.4, p = 0.03) and more likely to have impaired CA (32% vs. 62%, p = 0.02) during thrombolysis. In conclusion, CA during thrombolysis was impaired in patients who did not respond to therapy. This variable should be investigated as a predictor of the response to therapy and to subsequent neurological outcome.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 June 2020

#76

 

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Name
Description This paper reports the crystallization kinetics of (Cu60Zr25Ti15)99.3Nb0.7 bulk metallic glass under isothermal conditions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been employed for isothermal annealing at ten different temperatures prior to the onset of crystallization (To) temperature. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy have been used to confirm the amorphous structure of the as cast sample. Crystallized volume fractions (x) are calculated from the exothermic peaks of DSC scans. Crystallized volume fractions (x) against time show sigmoidal type of curves as well as the curves become steeper at higher annealing temperatures. Continuous heating transformation diagram has been simulated to understand the stability of the bulk metallic glass. Crystallization kinetics parameters are calculated using Arrhenius and Johnson–Mehl–Avrami equations. Activation energy (Ea) and Avrami exponential factor (n) have exhibited strong correlation with crystallized volume fraction (x). The average activation energy for isothermal crystallization is found to be 330 ± 30 kJ/mol by Arrhenius equation. Nucleation activation energy (Enucleation) is found to be higher than that of growth activation energy (Egrowth). The Avrami exponential factor (n) indicates about the diffusion controlled mechanism of the nucleation and three-dimensional growth.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 June 2020

#77

 

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Name
Description In this paper, we present a fully automated procedure for the direct design of a novel class of single-feed flat antennas with patterning of a conductive surface. We introduce a convenient surface discretization, based on hexagonal cells, and define an appropriate objective function, including both gain and input matching requirements. The reference geometry is constituted by a very thin, single feed-point square panel. It features a backing metal plate (“ground”) and a top conductive layer, which is automatically patterned to achieve the desired radiation and input matching properties. The process employs an evolutionary algorithm combined with a boundary element electromagnetic solver. By applying this method, we designed an antenna tailored to the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band, with a size of $$24,hbox {cm} imes 24,hbox {cm}$$, i.e., $$2 imes 2$$ wavelengths and an height of 4 mm, or 0.03 wavelengths. Measured data confirmed the expected high gain (13 dBi), with a remarkable aperture efficiency (higher than 50%, including losses), thus validating the proposed approach.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 June 2020

#78

 

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Name
Description The ability to accurately characterize DNA variant proportions using PCR amplification is key to many genetic studies, including studying tumor heterogeneity, 16S microbiome, viral and immune receptor sequencing. We develop a novel generalizable ultrasensitive amplicon barcoding approach that significantly reduces the inflation/deflation of DNA variant proportions due to PCR amplification biases and sequencing errors. This method was applied to immune receptor sequencing, where it significantly improves the quality and estimation of diversity of the resulting library.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 June 2020

#79

 

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Name
Description Performance of solar PV diminishes with the increase in temperature of the solar modules. Therefore, to further facilitate the reduction in cost of photovoltaic energy, new approaches to limit module temperature increase in natural ambient conditions should be explored. Thus far only approaches based at the individual panel level have been investigated, while the more complex, systems approach remains unexplored. Here, we perform the first wind tunnel scaled solar farm experiments to investigate the potential for temperature reduction through system-level flow enhancement. The percentage of solar irradiance converted into electric power depends upon module efficiency, typically less than 20%. The remaining 80% of solar irradiance is converted into heat, and thus improved heat removal becomes an important factor in increasing performance. Here, We investigate the impact of module inclination on system-level flow and the convective heat transfer coefficient. Results indicate that significant changes in the convective heat transfer coefficient are possible, based on wind direction, wind speed, and module inclination. We show that 30–45% increases in convection are possible through an array-flow informed approach to layout design, leading to a potential overall power increase of ~5% and decrease of solar panel degradation by +0.3%/year. The proposed method promises to augment performance without abandoning current PV panel designs, allowing for practical adoption into the existing industry. Previous models demonstrating the sensitivity to convection are validated through the wind tunnel results, and a new conceptual framework is provided that can lead to new means of solar PV array optimization.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 June 2020

#80

 

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Description For decades, it was not entirely clear why mitochondria develop cristae? The work employing the transmembrane-electrostatic proton localization theory reported here has now provided a clear answer to this fundamental question. Surprisingly, the transmembrane-electrostatically localized proton concentration at a curved mitochondrial crista tip can be significantly higher than that at the relatively flat membrane plane regions where the proton-pumping respiratory supercomplexes are situated. The biological significance for mitochondrial cristae has now, for the first time, been elucidated at a protonic bioenergetics level: 1) The formation of cristae creates more mitochondrial inner membrane surface area and thus more protonic capacitance for transmembrane-electrostatically localized proton energy storage; and 2) The geometric effect of a mitochondrial crista enhances the transmembrane-electrostatically localized proton density to the crista tip where the ATP synthase can readily utilize the localized proton density to drive ATP synthesis.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 June 2020

#81

 

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Description Leaf nutrient resorption is an important mechanism in adapting to adverse environments. However, few studies examine how nutrient resorption responds to phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilization or to a shift in nutrient limitation due to water supply and fertilization. On the Loess Plateau of China, we treated lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) with P, K, or combined P and K fertilizer and three levels of water supply. The resorption efficiency of leaf P (PRE) and K (KRE) decreased with increasing water supply, whereas that of N (NRE) was unaffected. The water supply regulated the effects of P and K fertilization on resorption efficiency. With low water, P fertilization reduced NRE and significantly increased KRE. Potassium fertilization did not affect KRE and NRE, whereas PRE was significantly affected. NRE increased with increasing green leaf N:K ratio, whereas KRE and PRE decreased with increasing K:P and N:P ratios, respectively. Water supply significantly increased soil nutrient availability interactively with P or K fertilization, leading to a shift in relative nutrient limitation, which was essential in regulating nutrient resorption. Thus, lucerne growth was not limited by K but by P or by P and N, which P fertilization and water supply ameliorated.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 June 2020

#82

 

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Description The mechanism underlying glomerular filtration barrier selectivity has not been resolved. A new study that reports an inverse correlation between slit diaphragm density and proteinuria in a genetic mouse model of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis suggests that podocytes function to compress the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and that failure of this process results in GBM stretching and increased permeability.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 June 2020

#83

 

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Description

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 June 2020

#84

 

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Description Pushpam Kumar, Chief Environmental Economist at the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), talks to Nature Sustainability about the need to focus on wealth to achieve sustainability.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 June 2020

#85

 

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Description The decellularization of long segments of tubular tissues such as blood vessels may be improved by perfusing decellularization solution into their lumen. Particularly, transmural flow that may be introduced by the perfusion, if any, is beneficial to removing immunogenic cellular components in the vessel wall. When human umbilical arteries (HUAs) were perfused at a transmural pressure, however, very little transmural flow was observed. We hypothesized that a watertight lining at the abluminal surface of HUAs hampered the transmural flow and tested the hypothesis by subjecting the abluminal surface to enzyme digestion. Specifically, a highly viscous collagenase solution was applied onto the surface, thereby restricting the digestion to the surface. The localized digestion resulted in a water-permeable vessel without damaging the vessel wall. The presence of the abluminal lining and its successful removal were also supported by evidence from SEM, TEM, and mechanical testing. The collagenase-treated HUAs were decellularized with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution under either rotary agitation, simple perfusion, or pressurized perfusion. Regardless of decellularization conditions, the decellularization of HUAs was significantly enhanced after the abluminal lining removal. Particularly, complete removal of DNA was accomplished in 24 h by pressurized perfusion of the SDS solution. We conclude that the removal of the abluminal lining can improve the perfusion-assisted decellularization.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 June 2020

#86

 

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Description Everybody who has ever made a paper airplane and been disappointed as it spins out of control, crashing to the ground, knows how tricky achieving suitable trim and stability for gliding can be. But, somehow, wiggling flying snakes glide without tumbling.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 June 2020

#87

 

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Description Feedback is a general idea of modifying system behavior depending on the measurement outcomes. It spreads from natural sciences, engineering, and artificial intelligence to contemporary classical and rock music. Recently, feedback has been suggested as a tool to induce phase transitions beyond the dissipative ones and tune their universality class. Here, we propose and theoretically investigate a system possessing such a feedback-induced phase transition. The system contains a Bose-Einstein condensate placed in an optical potential with the depth that is feedback-controlled according to the intensity of the Bragg-reflected probe light. We show that there is a critical value of the feedback gain where the uniform gas distribution loses its stability and the ordered periodic density distribution emerges. Due to the external feedback, the presence of a cavity is not necessary for this type of atomic self-organization. We analyze the dynamics after a sudden change of the feedback control parameter. The feedback time constant is shown to determine the relaxation above the critical point. We show as well that the control algorithm with the derivative of the measured signal dramatically decreases the transient time.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 June 2020

#88

 

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Name
Description TBD

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 June 2020

#89

 

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Description When a droplet impacts a (super-)hydrophobic surface, there is a range of Weber numbers within which bubble entrapment will occur during droplet recoil due to closure of the air cavity developed when the droplet spreads out during the impact. In this study, we studied bubble entrapment using a microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based acoustic sensor fabricated on a substrate. We found that bubble entrapment is followed by an acoustic vibration that can be detected by the sensor. Moreover, the frequency of the vibration is inversely proportional to the radius of the droplet, which indicates that this vibration is the resonant oscillation of the bubble. Therefore, the MEMS-based acoustic sensor can be used not only to detect but also to measure the size of the entrapped bubble. Finally, we demonstrated that it is possible to prevent bubble formation by allowing the air to escape to the underside of the droplet contact area. This can be done by creating through-holes on the substrate or decorating the substrate with sufficiently large textures. Researchers in Japan have characterized bubbles of air that form within water droplets when they hit a hydrophobic surface. During impact, an air cavity can form through the center of a droplet, and this can become trapped as bubble when the droplet merges together again. Thanh-Vinh Nguyen and Masaaki Ichiki of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology used a MEMS-based sensor to measure acoustic vibrations during the impact. They found that the frequency of the oscillations is inversely proportional to the size of the entrapped bubble. Furthermore, the team showed that bubble formation can be prevented by changing the topology of the surface to allow the air to escape. These findings will help control the behavior of entrapped bubbles when used for mixing or prevent their formation in applications such as inkjet printing.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 June 2020

#90

 

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Description Rapid high-intensity light-curing of dental resin composites is attractive from a clinical standpoint due to the prospect of time-savings. This study compared the effect of high-intensity (3 s with 3,440 mW/cm2) and conventional (10 s with 1,340 mW/cm2) light-curing on micromechanical properties of conventional and bulk-fill resin composites, including two composites specifically designed for high-intensity curing. Composite specimens were prepared in clinically realistic layer thicknesses. Microhardness (MH) was measured on the top and bottom surfaces of composite specimens 24 h after light-curing (initial MH), and after subsequent immersion for 24 h in absolute ethanol (ethanol MH). Bottom/top ratio for initial MH was calculated as a measure of depth-dependent curing effectiveness, whereas ethanol/initial MH ratio was calculated as a measure of crosslinking density. High-intensity light-curing showed a complex material-dependent effect on micromechanical properties. Most of the sculptable composites showed no effect of the curing protocol on initial MH, whereas flowable composites showed 11–48% lower initial MH for high-intensity curing. Ethanol/initial MH ratios were improved by high-intensity curing in flowable composites (up to 30%) but diminished in sculptable composites (up to 15%). Due to its mixed effect on MH and crosslinking density in flowable composites, high-intensity curing should be used with caution in clinical work.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 June 2020

#91

 

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Description Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) secretes the chaperone and serine protease high temperature requirement A (HtrA) that cleaves gastric epithelial cell surface proteins to disrupt the epithelial integrity and barrier function. First inhibitory lead structures have demonstrated the essential role of HtrA in H. pylori physiology and pathogenesis. Comprehensive drug discovery techniques allowing high-throughput screening are now required to develop effective compounds. Here, we designed a novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptide derived from a gel-based label-free proteomic approach (direct in-gel profiling of protease specificity) as a valuable substrate for H. pylori HtrA. Since serine proteases are often sensitive to metal ions, we investigated the influence of different divalent ions on the activity of HtrA. We identified Zn++ and Cu++ ions as inhibitors of H. pylori HtrA activity, as monitored by in vitro cleavage experiments using casein or E-cadherin as substrates and in the FRET peptide assay. Putative binding sites for Zn++ and Cu++ were then analyzed in thermal shift and microscale thermophoresis assays. The findings of this study will contribute to the development of novel metal ion-dependent protease inhibitors, which might help to fight bacterial infections.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 June 2020

#92

 

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Description Although differentiation between central chondroid tumors is important, their parallelism makes it a diagnostic conundrum for clinicians and radiologists. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of quantitative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) in differentiating grade I chondrosarcomas from enchondromas. We reviewed SPECT/CT images of patients with enchondromas and grade I chondrosarcomas arising in the long bones. Volume, mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean), and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of tumors were calculated from SPECT/CT images. In addition, clinical characteristics and radiological information were assessed. Of a total of 34 patients, 14 had chondrosarcomas. Chondrosarcoma group had significantly larger volume, and higher SUVmean and SUVmax of tumors than enchondroma group. There was no significant difference in age and tumor size between two groups. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUCs) for tumor volume, SUVmean, and SUVmax were 0.727, 0.757, and 0.875. In pairwise analyses, SUVmax had larger AUC than SUVmean (p = 0.0216). With a cut-off value of 15.6 for SUVmax, its sensitivity and specificity were 86% and 75% for differentiating between enchondroma and grade I chondrosarcoma. Quantitative SPECT/CT is a potential method to differentiate grade I chondroarcomas from enchondromas in patients with central chondroid tumors.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 June 2020

#93

 

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Description How many items can we store in visual working memory while simultaneously conducting a visual search? Previous research has proposed that during concurrent visual search, only one visual working memory representation can be activated to directly influence attention. This previous research suggests that other visual working memory representations are “accessory items”, which have little direct influence on attention. However, recent findings provided evidence that not one, but two visual working memory representations can capture attention and interfere with concurrent visual search. We successfully replicate these findings, and further test whether the capacity of visual working memory during visual search extends to not two, but three representations that influence attention directly. We find evidence that three visual working memory representations can simultaneously control attention.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 June 2020

#94

 

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Description This work demonstrates a successful in situ method capable of producing an ultra-strong novel Ti composite without aluminium and vanadium. In this method, selective laser melting is used to conduct in situ alloying and reinforcing of a Ti/10.5 wt% Mo2C powder mixture. It is shown that this leads to a metastable β-Ti matrix homogeneously reinforced by high aspect ratio, 50–200 nm wide and up to several micrometre long TiC whiskers. The transformations of the phases are controlled by decomposition, dissolution, diffusion, and reformation of constituents. The whisker morphology of in situ formed TiC particles is associated with directional crystal growth along the TiC<110> direction. The developed TiC reinforced β-Ti alloy combines a hardness over 500 HV, a Young’s modulus of 126 GPa, and an ultimate compressive strength of 1642 MPa. Improving the ductility of this composite is the subject of another work.

#Theoretical sciences
Field # Theoretical sciences
Updated 29 June 2020